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Earth and Life Science
Course Description:
This course is designed to provide a general background for
the understanding of Earth Science and Biology (Life
Science). It presents the history of the Earth through
geologic time. It also discusses the Earth’s structure,
composition, processes and issues and problems. It also
deals with the basic principles and processes of Biology. It
covers the life processes and interactions at the cellular,
organism, population, and ecosystem levels.
The Universe and its
It is the entire body of space and time, including
its contents, such as the stars, galaxies and
planets, and its physical laws that influences
matter and energy such as relativity.
It is the study that deals with the celestial objects
and the phenomena happening on it. It is the
oldest natural science being studied that is
recorded on human history.
Optical Astronomy – oldest branch of
astronomy; uses telescopes and other observing
devices to describe and observe the universe
According to National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA), cosmology is the
study of the evolution and the large-scale
properties of the universe as a whole.
Theories on the Origins of the Universe
1. Creationist Theory
2. Big Bang Theory
3. Steady State Theory
4. Oscillating Universe
5. Stellar Collision
6. Inflationary Theory
7. Theory of Vertices
8. Capture Theory
9. Planetary Collision
10.Gas Cloud Theory
Creationist Theory
It is a theory that states that one time, God
created the universe and all of its components,
the stars, galaxies and planets. It came from the
Book of Genesis.
Big Bang Theory
It is a theory that states that there was a time that
was a singularity, a size of an atom, expanded
faster than the speed of light due to high density,
ending up with an incredible high temperature
and as it cools down, it forms the universe we
know today.
Evidences that prove Big Bang Theory
•Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
•Important evidence for the Big Bang Theory
•It is the radiation that are remnants of the Big
Bang cosmology. It was estimated that I
happened around 10
seconds, the same
time the universe happened to be expanding.
Evidences that prove Big Bang Theory
•Shortened form of Quasi-stellar radio source
•Inhabits the center of the galaxies
•Light from them was emitted light years ago when
they reach Earth
•Shows elements heavier than helium indicating that
the universe underwent a massive star phase
Edwin P. Hubble
• He is an American astronomer
• Graduated as a Bachelor of
Science in 1910
• Changed the size of the Milky Way
• Hubble’s Law – the farther a galaxy
than ours, the faster it recedes
• Creator of the Hubble Telescope
• Proponent of the Big Bang Theory
Hubble’s Telescope
Steady State Theory
It is a theory formulated in the 1940s that states
that there was no change in the density of matter
in the expanding universe due to the continuous
creation of matter. The universe just keeps on
creating new matter and retaining the old matter.
Steady State Theory
The creation of the matter of the universe must
be balanced with the rate of the expansion of the
universe. The creation of new matter (such as
stars) are done to replace the previous matter
who have died.
Hermann Bondi
• Anglo-Austrian mathematician
• Lecturer at University of
Cambridge from 1945 – 1954
• One of the three proponents of
the Steady State Theory
• Also contributed to the Accretion
Theory with Ray Lyttleton
Thomas Gold
• Austrian Astrophysicist
• One of the proponents of the
Steady State Theory
• He calculated that during the
expansion of the universe,
hydrogen atoms are being created
out of the vacuum.
Fred Hoyle
• British astronomer
• Known for his stellar
• One of the proponents of the
steady state theory
• He believed that the universe is
eternal and unchanging
Oscillating Universe Theory
It is the aftermath of the Big Bang Theory wherein
the universe we live in is between the “Big Bang” and
the “Big Crunch”. The Big Crunch is the re-collapsing
of the universe on its end. This would happen if the
universe’s expansion speed does not meet its
escape velocity, and it would result on the contraction
of the universe due to the mutual attraction of the
gravitation of all the matter
Albert Einstein
• German-born theoretical physicist
• Known for his contribution on
quantum physics
• Became famous for his massenergy equivalence formula:
𝐸 = 𝑚𝑐 2
• Developed the Theory of Relativity
• Known for his thoughts on creating
the Oscillating Universe Theory
Stellar Collision Theory
It is a theory stating that two or more astrological
bodies (mostly stars) which merges and forms
out a one large unit. This is caused by
gravitational pull.
Charles Messier
• French astronomer
• A member of the French
Academy of Sciences
• A passionate observer and
hunter of comets
• Proponent of the Stellar Collision
Inflationary Theory
It is a theory formulated in 1979 by Alan Guth, a
cosmologist, stating that the universe expanded
exponentially for a very short period of time
before the Big Bang happened. According to
Guth, the average density of the universe must
be equal to the critical density (6 protons/𝑚 )
Theory of Vertices
It is a theory formulated by Rene Descartes,
a mathematician and philosopher, in the
1600s, stating that the space was filled with
matter in various states.
Theory of Vertices
Descartes argued that an object shall move
in a straight line unless another object
collided with the object that could change
the direction of the one collided.
Capture Theory
It is a theory stating that there was a time
before, the planets and the moons were
wandering in the space, and the sun’s gravity
pulled the planets in such, it reached the
position in the recent times. The moons were
pulled by the planet’s gravity.
Michael Woolfson
• British physicist and planetary
• Became a fellow of the Royal
Astronomical Society (RAS)
• Proposed the Capture Theory in
• Contributed to the dynamic
evolution of the Solar System
Planetary Collision Theory
It is a theory stating that a rogue planet
collided with our world that vaporized both of
them and when it cooled down, it became the
present-day Earth and Moon.
Flaws in Planetary Collision Theory
1. That kind of impact would literally destroy
the Earth
2. Why are there no more occurrences of this
event in this recent times?
Gas Cloud Theory
It is a theory stating that the solar system started
with a giant interstellar (gas) cloud. And there came
a time, that gas cloud collapsed and spun rapidly,
and created the sun. Now, the sun have captured
the remnants of the gas clouds, which then formed
together into fist-sized chunks of dust grains
mysteriously, and then it continued growing up to
the size of the current planets and their moons.
Gerard P. Kuiper
• Dutch-American astronomer,
planetary scientist and professor
• Considered to be the Father of
Modern Planetary Science
• Helped identifying landing sites for
Apollo 11’s landing on the Moon
• Proponent of the Gas Cloud
Flaws in Gas Cloud Theory
1. Gas spread outward together, they don’t
form or go together
2. Even if the planets and their moons were
created because of this, they should not be
able to orbit one another or orbit the sun
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