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Headway
Academic Skills
Reading, Writing, and Study Skills
IN TRO D U CTO RY LEVEL Student’s Book
OXFORD
Sarah Philpot and Lesley Curnick
Series Editors: Liz and John Soars
Headway
Academic Skills
Reading, Writing, and Study Skills
IN T R O D U C T O R Y L E V E L
Student’s Book
Sarah Philpot and Lesley Curnick
Series Editors: Liz and John Soars
O XFO RD
CONTENTS
1 M eeting people
REA D IN G
New people
p4-5
W R IT IN G
S u r v e y i n g s u r v e y i n g a t e x t to f i n d o u t w h a t i t is a b o u t
RULES P r e s e n t S i m p l e ( 1 ) t h e P r e s e n t S i m p l e w i t h fee a n d o t h e r v e r b s
KEY LAN G UAG E The alphabet
p6
T h e a l p h a b e t c o n s o n a n t s a n d v o w e ls
Introductions
p7
RULES A r t i c l e s : a a n d a n
P u n c t u a t i o n (1 ) c a p it a l le tte r s
C h e c k in g y o u r w r itin g (1 ) c h e c k in g fo r m is ta k e s w ith
s u b j e c t a n d v e rb , a n d a r tic le s
2 Countries
REA D IN G
Mountains, seas, and rivers
p i0-11
W R IT IN G Mycountry
P r e d i c t i n g u s i n g p i c t u r e s a n d th e ti tl e t o p r e d i c t t h e s u b j e c t o f a t e x t
RULES th e r e i s / th e r e a r e
p l2 - 1 3
L i n k i n g i d e a s (1) a n d a n d b u t
P u n c t u a t i o n (2 ) u s i n g c o m m a s i n lis ts
3 Your studies
REA D IN G
Everyday
pl6-17
W R IT IN G Your day
S k im m in g r e a d in g a te x t q u ic k ly f o r g e n e r a l m e a n in g
KEY LA N G U A G E Time
p lS
RULES P r e p o s i t i o n s o f t i m e i n i a t I o n
p l9
W r i t i n g s e n t e n c e s w r i t i n g s e n te n c e s w i t h a s u b je c t, a v e rb ,
a n d a n o b je c t
C h e c k i n g y o u r w r i t i n g ( 2 ) c h e c k i n g f o r s p e llin g m is t a k e s
A W h ere w e work
REA D IN G
Where do they work?
p22-23
W R IT IN G A good place to work
F i n d i n g i m p o r t a n t w o r d s u s i n g i m p o r t a n t w o r d s in q u e s t i o n s to h e lp f i n d
in fo r m a tio n in a te x t
S c a n n i n g r e a d i n g a t e x t q u i c k l y to f i n d s p e c ific i n f o r m a t i o n
p 2 4 -2 5
L i n k i n g i d e a s (2 ) b e c a u s e
5 Signs and instructions
REA D IN G
Signs-an international language
p28-29
U n d e r s t a n d i n g a t e x t REVIEW of Study Skills
W R IT IN G Form s
p 3 0 -3 1
C o m p l e t i n g a f o r m r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s c a r e fu lly ,
c o m p le ti n g a f o r m c o r r e c tly
6 Health and m edicine
REA D IN G
Good health
p34-35
W R IT IN G Medical discoveries
U n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o n o u n s u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o n o u n r e fe r e n c in g i n a t e x t
RULES P a s t S im p le r e g u l a r a n d ir r e g u la r p a s t s i m p l e f o r m s
p 3 6 -3 7
A v o i d i n g r e p e t i t i o n u s i n g p r o n o u n s to a v o i d r e p e t it io n in
a te x t
7 The history o f transport
REA D IN G
Important first flights
p40-41
W R IT IN G Trains
M a k i n g n o t e s ( 1 ) l o o k i n g f o r i m p o r t a n t w o r d s , n a m e s , n u m b e r s , a n d d a te s
K EY LA N G U A G E Ordinal numbers
p42
p43
W r i t i n g f r o m n o t e s o r d e r in g n o te s to in c l u d e p o i n t s in a
lo g ic a l o r d e r
O r d i n a l n u m b e r s r e c o g n i z in g o r d i n a l n u m b e r s
D a t e s w r i t i n g d a te s i n d if fe r e n t w a y s
8 Doing business
REA D IN G The business of sport
p46-47
W R IT IN G Polite emails
M a k i n g n o t e s ( 2 ) m a k i n g n o te s u n d e r d i f f e r e n t h e a d in g s
p48-49
W r i t i n g p o l i t e e m a i l s u s i n g p o l i t e p h r a s e s i n e m a ils
9 W ater
REA D IN G
Using water
p52-53
W R IT IN G More or less
U n d e r s t a n d i n g t a b l e s a n d c h a r t s (1 ) u s i n g ta b le s a n d b a r c h a r t s to h e lp y o u
u n d e r s ta n d a te x t
U n d e r s t a n d i n g t a b l e s a n d c h a r t s (2 ) c h e c k i n g n u m b e r s i n a ta b l e o r b a r c h a r t
a g a in s t i n f o r m a t i o n i n a t e x t
p 5 5 -5 6
D e s c r i b i n g s t a t i s t i c s d e s c r ib in g s ta tis tic s u s i n g p h r a s e s to
c o m p a re a m o u n ts
10 Am bition and success
REA D IN G
Great ideas
p58-59
W R IT IN G Success
U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a t e x t u s i n g to p i c s e n te n c e s t o h e lp u n d e r s t a n d
w h a t a t e x t is a b o u t
W O R D LIST
p64
PH O N ETIC SY M B O LS
p71
p60-61
W r i t i n g a p a r a g r a p h u s i n g a to p i c s e n te n c e , o r g a n i z i n g
i n f o r m a t i o n lo g ic a lly i n a p a r a g r a p h
C h e c k i n g y o u r w r i t i n g ( 3 ) c h e c k i n g g r a m m a r , sp e llin g , a n d
p u n c tu a tio n in a te x t
V O C A BU LA R Y D EVELO PM EN T Instructions
R E V IE W
p8
p9
F o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : c irc le , c o m p le te , c o r r e c t, m a t c h , e tc .
R e a d in g a w e b p a g e , w ritin g a p a ra g r a p h a b o u t a
m c m n c r o f y o u r fa m ily
V O C A BU LA R Y D EVELO PM EN T A lphabetical o rd e r
R E V IE W
p l4
p l5
U s i n g a d i c t i o n a r y (1 ) f i n d i n g th e p a r t o f sp e e c h , m e a n i n g a n d e x a m p l e s in
a d ic tio n a r y
R e a d in g a te x t a b o u t a c o u n tr y , w r itin g a p a ra g r a p h
a b o u t a c o u n tr y
V O C A BU LA RY D EVELO PM EN T W ords th a t go to g e th e r
R E V IE W
p20
p21
R e c o r d i n g v o c a b u l a r y ( 1 ) r e c o r d in g v e r b + n o u n c o llo c a tio n s
R e a d i n g a b o u t d a i l y r o u t i n e s , w r i t i n g a b o u t s o m e o n e ’s
d a ily r o u tin e
RESEARCH
R E V IE W
Search engines
p26
U s i n g a s e a r c h e n g i n e (1 ) c h o o s in g w o r d s to s e a r c h f o r i n f o r m a t i o n
V O C A BU LA RY D EVELO PM EN T V ocabulary records
p26
p27
R e a d i n g a b o u t s o m e o n e ’s jo b , c o m p l e t i n g a t e x t w i t h
th e c o rr e c t lin k in g w o rd s
R e c o r d i n g v o c a b u l a r y ( 2 ) c r e a t in g v o c a b u la r y r e c o r d s
V O C A BU LA R Y D EVELO PM EN T Topic areas
R E V IE W
p32
p33
R e c o r d i n g v o c a b u l a r y ( 3 ) r e c o r d in g v o c a b u la r y i n to p i c s e ts
R e a d i n g u s i n g a ll s t u d y s k i ll s , c o m p l e t i n g a f o r m
V O C A BU LA RY D EVELO PM EN T N o u n sa n d verbs
R E V IE W
p38
p39
R e c o g n i z i n g p a r t s o f s p e e c h r e c o g n i z in g d if fe r e n t p a r t s o f s p e e c h a n d r e la te d n o u n s
a n d verbs
R e a d in g a te x t a b o u t c h e m ic a ls a n d h e a lth , u s in g
p ro n o u n s in a p a ra g ra p h
V O C A BU LA RY D EVELO PM EN T Verbs in th e Past Simple
R E V IE W
p44
p45
U s i n g a d i c t i o n a r y (2 ) u s i n g a d i c t i o n a r y t o f i n d ir r e g u la r v e r b f o r m s
R e c o r d i n g v o c a b u l a r y ( 4 ) r e c o r d in g v e r b s w i t h p r e p o s i t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w t h e m
R e a d in g a te x t a b o u t s o m e s a ilin g firs ts , w r itin g
a p a r a g r a p h a b o u t s o m e i m p o r t a n t r a c i n g f irs ts
V O C A BU LA RY D EVELO PM EN T W ords w ith m ore th a n o n e m eaning
R E V IE W
p5()
p51
U s i n g a d i c t i o n a r y (3 ) l o o k i n g u p w o r d s w i t h m o r e t h a n o n e m e a n in g , f i n d i n g th e
c o rr e c t m e a n in g
R e a d in g a te x t a b o u t s p o r ts a n d te le v is io n , w r itin g
a p o lite e m a il
V O C A BU LA RY D EVELO PM EN T O p p o site adjectives
R E V IE W
p56
p57
R e c o r d i n g v o c a b u l a r y ( 5 ) r e c o r d in g o p p o s i te a d je c t iv e s to g e t h e r
R e a d i n g a t e x t a b o u t w a te r , u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n a b a r
c h a r t to w rite a d e s c r ip tio n o f w a te r u s e
RESEARCH
R E V IE W
Finding th e right inform ation
p 6 1 -6 2
U s i n g a s e a r c h e n g i n e (2 ) u s i n g th e I n t e r n e t to f i n d f a c t s , im a g e s , m a p s , a n d
tr a n s la t io n s o f w o r d s
C h e c k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n u s i n g m o r e t h a n o n e w e b s ite to c h e c k in f o r m a t i o n
p63
R e a d in g a te x t a b o u t th e w e ll-k n o w n c lo th in g b ra n d ,
w ritin g a p a ra g r a p h a b o u t a s u c c e s s fu l p e rs o n
1 Meeting people
READING SKILLS Surveying
KEY LANGUAGE The alphabet
WRITING SKILLS Punctuation (1) • Checking your writing (1)
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Following instructions
READING New people
STUDY SKILL
Work with a partner. Look at the webpage and
the photos. Answer the questions. Read STUDY SKILL
1 What is the club?
2 How many photos of people are there?
3 How many men are there in the photos?
4 How many paragraphs are there?
S u rv e y in g
Before you read a text, look at the page quickly. Ask:
■ W hat is the title?
■ W hat do the pictures show?
■ How many paragraphs are there?
The answers help you understand what a text is about.
University
Internet Chess Club
AB O U T THE CLUB
New Members
Hi
N EW M E M B E R S
klX
M y name is Miguel Sousa.
I come from Rio de Janeiro,
in Brazil, and I am a lecturer.
I play chess with my son.
M y name is M ona Patel.
I come from Delhi, in India.
I’m a medical student. I like
chess very much.
I am Jane Day. I come from
Sydney, in Australia. I am an
I am Deniz Osman. I live in
m
English Language teacher.
I am a beginner.
Ankara, in Turkey. I am a
student. I play chess with
my friends.
2 Read the webpage. Write the names under the photos.
Check your answers with a partner.
3 Read the webpage again. Answer the questions.
1 Which country does Miguel come from?
2 What does he do?
3 Which city does Jane come from?
4 What does she do?
5 Which city does Deniz come from?
6 What does he do?
7 Which country does Mona come from?
8 What does she do?
4
U n it 1 • M eeting people
i
4 Survey the webpage below. Answer the questions.
1 What is the club?
2 How many people are there in the photos?
3 How many paragraphs are there?
www.onlinebookclub.com
O N LIN E Book Club
A B O U T US
BO O KS
N E W M EM BERS
New Members
Peter Blake com es fro m N ew York.
H e @ an engineer. H e is m arried and
has one daughter. H e likes reading
very much.
Ada and Ninoy Manlapaz co m e from
M anila, in th e Philippines. T hey are
teachers. T h ey are m arried and th e y have
tw o children. T hey read a lo t o f books.
5 Read about the new members. Answer the questions.
1 Which paragraph is about people from the Philippines?
2 Which paragraph is about a person from the USA?
6 Write the names of the people under the photos.
Check your answers with a partner.
7 Read the rules. Work with a partner. Read the webpage again.
1 (^ i^ lg ) forms of the verb be.
2 Underline the other verbs.
RU LES
P re s e n t S im p le (1)
Use the Present Simple to give facts (true information).
The verb be
1
am
He/She lit
is
We / You / They
are
a teacher.
students.
Other verbs
1/ You / We / They
come
He / She / It
comes
from Delhi.
U n itl • M eeting people
5
K EY LA N G U A G E The alphabet
1 Write the correct small letter next to the capital letter. Check your answers
with a partner.
c s y e Ic V u p X i d
g b q w t cr t' m f
c
D
E
F
G
H
1
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
u
V
W
X
Y
z
«
_
(^ I r d ^ the five vowels in exercise 1.
Check your answers with a partner.
STUDY SKILL The alphabet
The alphabet has 26 letters. There are 21 consonants, for example, b, c, n, t.
There are five vowels, for example, a. o.
Knowing the alphabet helps you:
■ find words in a dictionary
■ record vocabulary in a notebook or computer file
3 Work with a partner. Write the words in alphabetical order.
1
lecturer
2
student
3
teacher
4
doctor
5
dentist
engineer
6
4 Look at the registration desk
for a conference. Where do
these people go to register?
6
h z j 1
B
A
2
n 0
1
Heinz Ehrhardt
2
3
4
5
6
Corelli
Stella Roberts
Gabriella Vancak
Abdul Osman
Hussein Ibrahim
E-H
Franco
Unit 1 • Meeting people
WRITING Introductions
1 Read the rules. Complete the sentences about you.
RU LES
M y name is . . .
I
A rtic le s
a an d an
Use a before a word beginning with a consonant;
come fr o m . . .
a doctor
(a m a (n }...
a student
Use an before a word beginning with a
2 Work with a partner. Ask and answer the questions. Make notes.
1 What is your name?
2 Where do you come from?
3 What do you do?
vowel sound:
an engineer
an accountant
3 Write a paragraph about your partner.
M y p a rtn e r’s name Is . . . S h e /H e . . .
letters.
Read STUDY SKILL
S T U D Y S K IL L
P u n c tu a tio n (1}
Use CAPITAL LEHERS for:
1
■ the start o f sentences: He is a doctor.
r
m names o f people and places:jone, Brazil.
m the pronoun /:Jane and 1come from Australia.
■
End sentences with a full stop {.).
Adul Suttikul and Boonwat Mookjai come from Bangkok,
in Thailand. They are computer engineering students. Adul is
20 and Boonwat is 21.
5 Read the student’s paragraph about Max. Add six capital letters, three full
stops, and a question mark.
kvcflx cokwes -frokw
Is m-flrried
uia-
he
ls
doctor he
has three chlidret^
Check your answers with a partner.
Read about the Hussein family.
Correct the mistakes.
Read STUDY SKILL
S T U D Y S K IL L
C h e ck in g y o u r w ritin g (!)
it is important to check your writing for mistakes. Check:
■ the subject and the verb:
He go to university. /
He goes to university, y
■ articles;
She is a engineer X
M y hw.sboiiA.d
She is an engineer. /
I ookvie frokw v>u.bal. I ctkvc a koustwl-fe, flkvd kwy
hixsbcikvol awe a c-om-ptcterprogrAkvckvcer. He worle Iw a office. W t has
two ohc-ldrew. Akvwed is fo u r awd L ay la ar^zix.. LM ^ia go to
a Iwterveatlowai school.
U n itl • M eeting people
7
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Instructions
1
Label the pictures and examples
1-10 with instruction words from the box.
STUDY SKILL
circle
complete
underline
F o llo w in g in s tru c tio n s
write
correct
label
match
number
1 L rU U
add
It is necessary to read and follow instructions carefully.
Make sure you know the important words, e.g. underline.
2
engineer
doctor
2 Work with a partner. Follow the instructions.
1 Underline the verb.
teacher
3
2
read
She works at a school.
I
2 (^irc^ the country.
Spain
He comes from New Zealand.
3 Label the picture with the correct words.
keyboard
screen
She is ^
3
engineer.
4
My wflkKC ts
come from
4 Match the capital letters with the small letters,
1 [G
h
2 E
i
teacher, engineer,
g
doctor,_________
3 IT
5 Number the countries in alphabetical order.
□
Japan
n
Thailand
n
India
Letters, words, and sentences
consonants
verbs
4
8
letters-
vowels
nouns
a sentence
a word
1
tetters
2
______
a. e,i
3
________
I, m. n
4
___
a, b, c, d
international
5 _____
students, doctors
6 _______
write, read, understand
7
I come from London.
________
Look at exercise 3 again. Add one more example for 1-7.
U n it 1 • M eeting people
8
7
1 l Al a l
2 I BI 1
3 |C| 1
3 Write the words from the box next to examples 1-7.
S h e Ls ^
t&achtr.
She is a teaclier.
9
b
c
She is an engineer
a
10
in
REVIEW
1 Survey the webpage and answer the questions.
1 What is the club?
2 How many paragraphs are there?
3 How many new members are there?
University
Backgammon Club
M y nam e is Karim Mansour. I com e from Rabat, in
M o ro cco . I study engineering at university. I play
backgam m on w ith m y friends.
I
am Anna Costa. I live in Rio de Jan eiro, in Brazil. I am
a nurse. I w ork in a hospital. I am m arried, and I play
backgam m on w ith m y husband.
2 Read the webpage and answer the questions.
1 What country does Karim come from?
2 What city does he come from?
3 What does he study?
4 Where does he study?
5 Where does Anna live?
6 What does she do?
7 Where does she work?
3 Read the webpage again. Circle forms of the verb be and
underline the other verbs. Check your answers with a partner.
4 Read the student’s paragraph below and find;
• three mistakes with verbs
• two mistakes with punctuation
• two mistakes with articles
M y
kvcy
I tokwes -f-roku. L-okvdokv M y
-fathtr t-s a architect ar^d
toother am- a bu.slkvesswokRflkv. I has okve brother, he is, ± s «kvd he
iz av\, stu-dekvt.
5 Write a paragraph about a member of your family. Write about where they
live and their occupation.
My uncle's/father’s/sister’s name is ... He/She...
6 Check your writing for:
• Present Simple verbs
capital letters and full stops
articles
(a/an)
U n itl • M eeting people
9
2 Countries
READING SKILLS Predicting
WRITING SKILLS Linking ideas (1j • Punctuation (2)
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Using a dictionary (1)
READING Mountains, seas, and rivers
1 Label the map (1-4) with words from the box.
Check your answers with a partner.
coastline
2
mountains
river
East
Survey the pictures and the
title of the text. What is the text about?
a)
the weather in Spain
b)
the land in Spain
c)
the people in Spain
STUDY SKILL Predicting
Before you read a text, look at the pictures and title, and predict what
it is about. This:
■ prepares you for reading
■ helps you understand the text
Spain
The geography o f Spain
Spain is a large country in the south o f Europe. It has borders w ith France,
Andorra, and Portugal. It has a long coastline on th e M editerranean Sea. and a
short coastline on th e A tlantic O cean. There are m ountains in Spain, but there is
a lo t o f fla t land, to o . There are tw o im portant rivers, th e Tajo and th e Ebro. The
capital city is M adrid, in th e centre o f th e country. Barcelona is th e second city
o f Spain, and it is on the M editerranean coast.
3 Read the text quickly. Check your answer to exercise 2.
10
Unit 2 • Countries
Location
4 Read the text about Spain again. Answer the questions.
1 Where is Spain?
2 How many countries does Spain border?
3 Are there mountains in Spain?
4 What are the names of the rivers?
5 What is the capital city of Spain?
Check your answers with a partner.
5 Work with a partner. Survey the pictures and the title of the text below.
What is the text about?
6 Read the text to check your ideas.
Algeria: a large country
r
\
Algiers
Algerian desert
Algeria is a very large country in North Africa. It has borders
with Morocco, Mauritania, Western Sahara, Mali, Niger,
Libya, and Tunisia. In the north, it has a long coastline on the
Mediterranean Sea. Most o f Algeria is mountains and desert,
but ’
an area of flat land along the coast.
two important rivers in Algeria, the Chelif and the
Seybouse. The capital o f Algeria is Algiers, and it is in the north,
on the Mediterranean Sea.
7 Read the rules. Complete the text about Algeria with there is or
there are. Check your answers with a partner.
Location
RU LES
there is / there are
there is with one thing. For example:
There is a lot of flat land
Use
8 Read the text about Algeria again. Are the sentences true (T ) or false (F )?
1 Algeria is in East Africa.
F
Use
there are with tw o or more things.
2
It has borders with eight other countries.
For example:
3
It is on the Mediterranean Sea.
There are mountains in Spain.
4
Algeria has tw o important rivers.
5 The capital city is in the south o f the country.
9 Work with a partner. Correct the false sentences.
I
Algeria is in North Africa.
U n it 2 • Countries
11
W R IT IN G
My country
1 Look at the pairs of sentences. Is a) or b) better?
1 a) Turkey is in Europe. It is also in Asia.
b)
2
a)
Turkey is in Europe, and it is also in Asia.
Switzerland has borders with five countries, but it does not have a coastline,
b) Switzerland has borders with five countries. It does not have a coastline.
Compare your answers with a partner.
Read STUDY SKILL
STUDY SKILL Linking ideas (1}
Linking ideas makes your writing clearer.
■ Use and to link similar ideas. For example:
Barcelona is the second city of Spain.
b) It is on the Mediterranean coast
Barcelona is the second city of Spain, and it is on the Mediterranean coast
a)
m
Use butto link different ideas. For example:
There are mountains in Spain.
b) There is a lot of flat land, too.
There are mountains in Spain, but there is a lot of flat land, too.
a)
2 Complete the sentences with and or but.
1 South Africa is a large country, hut Mali, Chad, and Angola are larger.
2 There are mountains in the east,___in the north it is flat.
3 Brasilia is the capital of Brazil,___Sao Paolo is bigger.
4 Adelaide is a state capital,___Canberra is the national capital.
5 Riyadh is the capital of Saudi Arabia,___it has a population of about
five million people.
Riyadh
Read STUDY SKILL
Put commas in the student’s sentences.
1 M y c o u tiv try Is h o t d r y
sw.iA.kvy.
C.fliA.berrn S y d k v e y cu^d M cib ow rkve a re c it ie s I ia. A w s t r a ila .
2
3 SpaliA. exports cars kweoilcliA.es akvoi oil.
4 A r 0 ekvtln.a h a s b o rd ers w ith P a r O 0 w a y B r a z i l B o liv ia lA rw 0 w a y
akvol C-hlle.
STUDY SKILL Punctuation (2)
Use commas (,) after words in a list. For example:
■
m
It has borders with France, Andorra, and Portugal.
The capital city has many universities, technical institutes, colleges, and schools.
Using commas makes your writing easier to understand.
12
Unit 2 • Countries
Canberra
4 Read the text. Complete it with and, but, and two commas.
Compare your answers with a partner.
My country
My country is Malaysia. It is in South-East Asia. It
has borders with Thailand Brunei and Indonesia.
It has coastlines on the South China Sea ^
the Strait of Malacca. There is flat land around the
coastline, ^____
there are mountains in the
centre of the country. Over half the country has
rainforests. The capital of Malaysia is Kuala Lumpur,
. it is a very modem city.
South China Sea
5 Answer the questions about your country.
1 What is the name of your country?
2 Where is your country?
3 What countries does it border?
4 Where are the coastlines?
5 Are there any mountains and rivers?
6 Is there a desert?
7 What is the capital city?
6 Write a paragraph about your country. Use your answers from exercise 5.
My coMWtry is
... (name), and It is in ... (part of the world)
7 Work with a partner. Check your partner s paragraph for:
• punctuation (capital letters, full stops, and commas)
• grammar (subject and verb agreement, articles)
• linking
{and, but)
Unit 2 • Countries
13
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Alphabetical order
1 Work with a partner. Write the words in alphabetical order.
Write the groups of words in alphabetical order.
a)
c)
b)
coastline
river
mountains
country
Riyadh
Morocco
capital
Rome
Mediterranean
climate
rainforest
Malaysia
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
3
4
3
4
4
Parts of speech
Read STUDY SKILL
Look at the dictionary entry and label:
the meaning
the part o f speech
STUDY SKILL Using a dictionary (1)
• the example
A dictionary gives you information about words.
For example:
■ the part o f speech (noun, verb, or adjective)
■ the meaning
■ an example
[a very high hill[T
Kilim anjaro is the
highest m ou n tain in
Africa.
4 Look at the sentences. Underline the nouns and circle the adjectives.
1 Spain is a large country.
2 It is dry in Mexico.
3 In my country, the land is flat.
Work with a partner. What part of speech are the underlined words?
Use a dictionary to check your answers.
1 There are a lot of tourists in Paris, noun
2 It is a long river.
3 The city is in the north.
4 Do you like travelling?
5 What countries does Italy border?
14
Unit 2 • Countries
Good dictionary skills help your reading and writing.
R E V IE W
1 Work with a partner. Survey the pictures and the title.
What is the text about?
a)
the USA
b) Canada
c) Alaska
Location
A big country
Canada is a big country in North America. It has coastlines on the
Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, ’
the Arctic Ocean,
a border with the USA. M ost o f the land is flat,
^_______
there are mountains in the w e s t . . a
lot of rivers in Canada. The capital o f Canada is Ottawa. Toronto,
Montreal, ^____________ Vancouver are very important cities, too.
2 Read the text quickly. Check your answer to exercise 1.
3 Read the text again. Complete it with words from the box.
and
and
but
There are
There is
4 Write the student’s sentences with capital letters, commas, and full stops.
1 O tta w a U th e oa-pltai o f cakvad a
2 brazt-i is, okv th e atiakvtuo ooeatA3
Ukvdla h a s b o rd ers wt-th ■patelstan- ohlkca kvepai b u .rm a ban/0 (ad esh
a w d bhkctakv
4
kw y oow.kvtry h a s kvtou.kvtai.kvs rtv e rs avvd fo re s ts
5 Match questions 1-5 about New Zealand with answers a)-e).
1 Q
W here is New Zealand?
a) the South Pacific Ocean
2
W hat countries does it border?
b) in Oceania
3 n
W hat seas or oceans is it on?
c) Wellington
4
Are there any mountains and rivers?
d) it has no borders
W hat is the capital city?
e) a lot o f mountains / some flat land /
n
n
5 n
a lot o f rivers
6 Write a paragraph about New Zealand. Use the information in exercise 5.
New Zealand is in Oceania. It doesn’t have a n y ...
U n it 2 • Countries
15
3 Your studies
READING SKILLS Skimming
KEY LANGUAGE Time expressions • Days o f the week
WRITING SKILLS W riting sentences • Checking your writing (2)
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Recording vocabulary (1)
READING Everyday
1 Work in small groups. Answer the questions.
1 Do you have lectures every day?
2 Do you study every day?
3 Which days do you see your friends?
2 Work with a partner. Answer the questions.
1 How many photos are there?
2 How many people are there in the photos?
Read STUDY SKILL
Skim the text. Which paragraph is about... ?
a) a chemistry student
b) a maths student
c) medical students
STUDY SKILL Skimming
Skimming is reading a text quickly to find general information, for example
who the text is about.
University of South London
COURSES
DEPARTMENT
CONTACT
M e e t o u r s tu d e n ts
n
Conrad Delzer is 19. He is a chemistry student. He goes to the
university every day. In the mornings, he works in the lab. At
12.30, he has lunch in the cafeteria. In the afternoons, he has
lectures. He goes home at 5.00. In the evenings, he works on his
computer and checks his emails.
Q Malika Fahri and Yasmin Hamdi study medicine. They have
lectures in the mornings. They work in the lab in the afternoons.
They go home at 6.00. In the evenings, they study at home. At
the weekend, they see their friends.
n Martino Basti gets up at 7.45. He leaves home and goes to the
university at 8.15. Martino studies maths. He has lectures in the
mornings, and he works on his computer in the afternoons. He
does his homework and goes on the Internet in the evenings.
4 Write the names of the people under the photos.
16
Units • Your studies
5 Read the text on page 16. Work with a partner and answer the questions.
Conrad
1 How old is he?
2 Where does he have lunch?
3 What does he do in the afternoons?
Malika and Yasmin
4 When do they have lectures?
5 What do they do in the afternoons?
6 When do they see their friends?
Martino
7 When does he get up?
8 What does he do in the mornings?
9 When does he do his homework?
6 Work with a partner. Look at the two photos below. Answer the questions.
1 Where are the people?
2 What do they do?
7 Skim the text and look at the photos above. Which photo matches the text?
Dr Sudhir Mahoob is a lecturer in business studies. He gives lectures at 9.00
on Mondays and 11.30 on Thursdays. He works in his office in the afternoons.
He does research. He uses his computer, and he reads books. He has seminars
on Friday mornings. At the weekend, he plays with his children, and he goes
to football matches.
8 Read the text. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?
Check your answers with a partner.
1
Dr Mahoob gives lectures on Mondays.
2
He works in the library in the afternoons.
3
On Friday mornings, he does research.
4
At the weekend, he goes to football matches.
Unit 3 • Your studies
17
K EY LA N G U A G E Time
1 Write the times in the box under the clocks.
Compare your answers with a partner.
4.00
3.15
10.30
2.45
Time expressions
2 Read the rules. Circle five more time expressions with at, in, on in the text.
Compare your answers with a partner.
RULES Prepositions of time
W e use different prepositions o f tim e
with different time expressions.
(^ n S aturda^^ Martino gets up at 8.00.
He goes to the gym in the mornings
and in the afternoons, he watches
TV. He likes sports programmes.
He visits his friends in the evenings.
He doesn’t work at the weekend.
In a part o f the day:
He watches television in the evenings.
At a time / the weekend:
At the weekend, he gets up at 8.30.
On a day, and a part o f the day:
On Mondays, he teaches.
On Monday mornings, he gives a lecture.
Complete the sentences with in, on, and at.
1 Conrad gets u p ___8.30 on Sundays.
He doesn’t have lectures___Monday mornings.
the weekend, Malika and Yasmin go on the Internet,
the afternoons, the students have lectures.
Yasmin works in the library___Wednesdays.
Days of the week
4 Write the days of the week in the correct order. Use a capital letter at the
beginning of each day. Which days are the weekend in your country?
Friday
Monday-
Saturday
Sunday
Thursday
Tuesday
Monday,
5 Find and underline four days of the week in exercises 2 and 3.
18
Units • Your studies
in, at on
Wednesday
W R IT IN G
Your day
Complete the table with sentences 1-3.
Compare your answers with a partner.
STUDY SKILL W riting sentences
1 Malika and Yasmin study medicine.
A simple sentence has a subject, a verb, and an object.
2
They use a computer.
A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with
3
Dr Mahoob reads books.
a full stop.
Read STUDY SKILL
Martino studies maths.
subject
1 verb
/
t
subject
verb
object
\
object
1
2
3
2 Write the words in the correct order to make sentences.
Remember to start with a capital letter and end with a full stop.
1 studies / she / physics
2 football / plays / he
She studies physics.
3
do / their homework / they
4
his computer / he / uses
5
sh e/co ffee/d rin ks
3 Complete the text with the verbs in the box.
1 study nursing. 1 ^________ at 7.00 in the morning and
I
breakfast. I
the university at 8.00.1 have
lectures in the mornings. I have lunch in the cafeteria at 12.00. In the
afternoons, 1 __________ in the lab. In the evenings, I work in the
library. I ^
the computers. I go home at 8.00 and have
dinner. I ®__________ television, and I ^__________ the Internet.
4 Answer the questions about you. Compare your answers with a partner.
1 What do you study?
2 When do you get up?
3 When is your first lecture?
4 Do you work in the library?
5 When do you have lunch?
6 What do you do in the evenings?
7 When do you go to bed?
5 Write a paragraph about your normal day.
I study_i get up a t...
6
Work with a partner.
Correct the student’s spelling mistake underlined in each sentence.
1 I 00 to worte otA. vygdekv^olfl^s.
2 He watches television. In. the evn/ln.0 s .
3 Mailtea worfes In. the ilbry,.
4 She has iw,n.ch In. the cafetlrla.
5 Martln .0 0 os to the 9 yn.c at the weeteen.d.
STUDY SKILL Checking your writing (2)
Check your writing for spelling mistakes.
howwork /
homework /
if you use a computer, use the spell check tool:
■ Choose English as the language.
■ Look for words that are underlined in colour.
7 Work with a partner. Check your partner’s paragraph from exercise 5
for spelling and punctuation mistakes.
Unit 3 • Your studies
19
V O C A B U L A R Y D E V E LO P M E N T Words that go together
1
Look at the pictures. Match the verbs with the nouns.
Write the correct words under the pictures.
STUDY SKILL Recording vocabulary (1}
Some verbs and nouns go together, for example;
verbs
nouns
give
lunch
watch + 7Y
■ study * medicine
have
a lecture
When you record vocabulary, make a note of
read
a computer
words that go together.
use
a book
■
a
b
c
2 Circle the correct verb.
1 Tania does / makes her homework in the afternoons.
2 The students have / do some research in the library in the mornings.
3 Dr Miners makes / gives a seminar at 2.00.
4 Yann reads / gives articles on his computer.
5 Mario does / has dinner at 7.00.
6 Lara visits / goes friends at weekends.
3 Work in small groups. Add the verbs from the box to the nouns.
check
give
go to
have
read
send
write
Complete the sentences with words from exercises 2 and 3 and a time
expression. Compare your answers with a partner.
1 I check my emails mthe mornmgs.
2 I send ...
3 I read ...
4 I do ...
5 I have...
6 I write ...
20
Units • Your studies
d
R E V IE W
1 Work with a partner. Look at the photos and answer the questions.
1 Where are the people?
2 Are they students or lecturers?
2 Skim the texts and match them to the photos. What do Paul and Tania study?
Q
Paul studies engineering. Every day he gets up at 7.30 and goes to
the university. He has lectures in the mornings. He has lunch at 1.00
and in the afternoons, he works in the computer centre. He goes
home at 5.30. In the evenings, he works on his computer.
il
Tania is 20 years old. She studies Spanish and French. She works
in the multimedia centre on Monday and Wednesday mornings. In
the afternoons, she works in the library. She has lectures on Tuesday
and Thursday afternoons. On Fridays, she visits her friends.
3 Work with a partner. Complete the questions with the correct preposition.
1 What does Paul d o _____1.00?
2 What does he do
the afternoons?
3 What does Tania do
Wednesday mornings?
4 What does she do
Fridays?
4 Read the texts and answer the questions in exercise 3.
5 Look at the pictures. Match the verbs with the nouns. Write the correct words
under the pictures.
verbs
nouns
drives
television
gives
to work
has
lunch
uses
a lecture
watches
his computer
W hat does Robert do on Wednesdays?
6 Write a paragraph about what Robert does on Wednesdays.
On Wednesdays, Robert works a t the university. He drives to work a t ?.0 0 an d ...
7 Work with a partner. Check your partner s writing in exercise 6 for spelling
and grammar mistakes.
Unit 3 • Your studies
21
4
Where we work
READING SKILLS Finding important words • Scanning
WRITING SKILLS Linking ideas (2j
RESEARCH Using a search engine (1)
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Recording vocabulary (2}
R EA D IN G
Where do they work?
1 Work in small groups. Answer the questions.
1 Do you work
a) in the library
b) at home
c) in the cafeteria
2
Do you w o rk-..?
a) alone
b) with a friend
c) with a group o f friends
3
Do you w o rk...?
a) in silence
b) with music
c) with the TV on
Read STUDY SKILL
_____________
Read the sentences.
Underline the important words.
1 When does he arrive at the library?
2 What is her job?
3 He studies engineering.
4 They work in a big office.
5 Where does she work?
Check your answers with a partner.
STUDY SKILL Finding important words
in texts, underline the important words.
These are usually:
■ nouns, for example/ob
■ verbs, for example studies
m adjectives, for example big
In questions, also underline the question word and
think about what it means. For example;
3 Read the title of the text on page 23. What is the text about?
a) work
b) study
c) free time
4 Read paragraph 1 of the text on page 23, and look at the photos below.
Which photo matches the text?
22
Unit 4 • Where we work
Where tells you to look for a place.
■ Why tells you to look for a reason (because).
■
This helps you to find the information you need.
5 Read the questions and underline the important words. Compare your
answers with a partner.
1 Where is the new research from?
2 Why are open-plan offices good?
3 What are the disadvantages of open-plan offices?
4 Why do people get ill more easily?
5 Do many companies think open-plan offices are good or bad?
6
Scan the text. Find and underline the important
words from the questions in exercise 5. Check your answers
with a partner.
7 Read the text and answer the questions in exercise 5.
| STUDY SKILL Scanning
Scanning is reading quickly to find information.
Before you read, ask:
■ W hat information do you need?
■ W hat words in the text give you the information?
Scan the text to find these words and underline them.
Open-plan offices: new research
The research
People all around th e w orld w ork in offices. Som e people w ork in
small o ffices fo r one o r tw o people, but a lo t o f p eople now w ork
in open-plan offices. In these offices, people w ork to g eth er in one
big room . N e w research fro m A ustralia shows th a t th ere are
advantages and disadvantages to these offices.
W hat’s good?
The research shows th ree reasons to have open-plan offices. Firstly, in open-plan o ffices a lo t
o f people can w ork in a small area. Secondly, it is easy fo r people to talk to w ork colleagues
because th e y are in th e sam e room . Finally, open-plan o ffices are cheaper fo r com panies
because th e y use less electricity.
W hat’s bad?
The research also shows som e disadvantages. Som e people do not w ork w ell in open-plan
o ffices because th e y are noisy. It is also d ifficu lt to talk p rivately in open-plan offices. Finally,
researchers think th a t people get ill m ore easily because th e y w ork near each other.
Open-plan offices - good or bad?
The research concludes th a t th ere are advantages and disadvantages to open-plan offices,
but m any com panies think th a t th e advantages o f having open-plan o ffices are greater than
th e disadvantages.
U nit 4 • W h ere w e w ork
23
W R IT IN G
A good place to work
Look at the pairs of sentences. Is a) or b) better?
1 a)
I like going to class. I meet my friends there.
b)
I like going to class because I meet my friends there.
2 a) it is difficult to work in open-plan offices because they are noisy,
b) It is difficult to work in open-plan offices. They are noisy.
Compare your answers with a partner.
Read STUDY SKILL
STUDY SKILL Linking ideas (2)
because to link ideas, it answers the question Whyl
m Why are Open-plan offices cheaper?
m Open-plan offices are cheaper because they use less electricity.
Use
Linking ideas makes your writing clearer.
2 Match the start of a sentence with the correct ending. Link the sentences
with because.
1 0
Learning English is important
a) it is quiet.
2 CH The library is a good place to work
3 CH Internet shopping is good
b) they want good jobs.
because
c) it is good for your health.
4 CH Many people go to university
d) it is a world language.
5 □
e} you can shop from home.
Taking exercise is important
Learning English Is Important because It Is a world language.
3 Work with a partner. Link the sentences using because.
1
I like working in the library. It is quiet.
I
like working In the library because It Is quiet.
2
I travel by car. I like driving.
3
I study biology and chemistry. I want to be a doctor.
4
I play squash and tennis. I like sport.
5 The course is interesting. The teachers are good.
4 Complete the sentences with information about you.
Compare your sentences with a partner.
1 I like / don’t like learning English because ...
2 I go / don’t go to the library because ...
3 I like / don’t like watching TV because ...
4 I get up early / don’t get up early because ...
5 I study__________ (subject) because ...
24
Unit 4 • Where we work
m
5 Work with a partner. Complete the text with words and phrases from the box.
a lot
evenings
law
lecture theatre
library
quiet
My name is David Leow and I am a ^__________
student. I study in three places. I have classes in
the \ ______________ .in the mornings. In the
afternoons, I work in the ^
and in the
^__________ , I study at home. I don’t like studying
in the library because there are
of
people. I like studying at home because it is
Make notes about you in the chart.
1 W here do you study?
2
When do you study?
3
Which places do you like? W hy?
4
Which places don’t you like? W hy not?
W h ere?
W hen?
Places 1like
Places 1don't like
7 Write a short paragraph about where you study. Use your notes from
exercise 6. Link your ideas with and, but, and because.
My name is ... and I am a . . . . I ...
8 Work with a partner. Check your partner’s work for mistakes in:
• grammar (articles, tim e prepositions, subject and verb agreement)
• punctuation (full stops, commas, capital letters)
• spelling
• linking words (ond.buf, because)
Unit 4 • Where we work
25
RESEA RCH
Search engines
Work with a partner.
Underline the important words.
Read STUDY SKILL
STUDY SKILL Using a search engine (1)
Use a search engine on your computer, for example
1 Where is the Euphrates?
Google or Yahoo, to find
information you need.
2
Which countries border Thailand?
3
W hat is the population o f Japan?
4
W hat does ‘career’ mean?
■ Use ‘define;’ to find the meaning o f the word. For example, ‘define: profession’,
5
W hat types o f engineering are there?
m Use first names and family names for people, for example Alexander Bell.
■ Choose important words (question words, nouns, and verbs).
■ Spell the words carefully.
6 W hat is Karl Benz famous for?
2 Write the underlined words from exercise 1 to put
in a search engine. Check your answers with a partner.
1
where Euphrates_________
2
________________________ _
3 ______________________________
4 ______________________________
5 ____________________
6 _________________________
3 Use a search engine on your computer to answer the questions in exercise 1.
V O C A B U L A R Y D E V E LO P M E N T Vocabulary records
1 Put the words into alphabetical order. Check your answers with a partner.
cheap
drawing
1
2
know
3
4
5
career
6
health
spell
STUDY SKILL Recording vocabulary (2)
It is important to keep a record o f new vocabulary.
2
Use a dictionary and make vocabulary
records for three words in exercise 1.
W rite the new words in a notebook or computer file. Write:
■ the word
■ the part o f speech, e.g. noun, verb, adverb, adjective
■ the meaning
■ an example sentence
■ a translation
word
career
1 part of speech 1 meaning
NOUN
a Job you learn to do and then do for years
3 Compare your records with a partner.
26
Unit 4 • Where we work
1 example sentence
Medicine is a good career.
translation
carriere
R E V IE W
1 Look at the pictures. Who is the text about?
a)
doctors
b) engineers
c) teachers
A n im p o r t a n t j o b
Civil engineers do important work. They design and build bridges, roads, railways,
and airports. Some of the time they work in offices. They use computers to plan
their work. They can also work outside in a lot of different places, for example,
in deserts, on the sea, and in our cities. Sometimes, working outside is difficult
because of the weather. Civil engineers also work long hours and weekends, but
they like their work because it is important and useful.
2 Skim the text and check your answer to exercise 1.
3 Underline the important words in the questions.
1 W hat do civil engineers build?
2
W hat do they use to plan their work?
3
W hat are the three examples o f outside work places?
4
W hy is working outside difficult?
5
W hy do civil engineers like their work?
4 Scan the text in exercise 1. Find and underline the important words from the
questions in exercise 3.
5 Read the text and answer the questions in exercise 3.
6 Complete the text below with and, but, and because. Check your answers with
a partner.
My nam e’s Liu Yang,
I’m a civil engineer. Civil engineering is
a good career ^______
_______you can go to a lot of different places. I work in
an office in the city most of the time, ^__________ I also work outside on
building sites sometimes. I like working in both places
____
they are
the building site
different. My office is clean ^
quiet.
is dirty
noisy.
Unit 4 • Where we work
27
5 Signs and instructions
READING SKILLS Understanding a text
WRITING SKILLS Completing a form
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Recording vocabulary (3)
R EA D IN G
Signs - an international language
1 Work in small groups. Answer the questions.
1 What signs are there in the streets in your town?
2 What signs do you have in your university or college?
2
Work with a partner.
Survey the pictures and the text Signs around the world.
Answer the questions.
1 What is the text about?
2 What do the signs in pictures a-c mean?
3 How many paragraphs are there in the text?
STUDY SKILLS REVIEW Understanding a text
Use different reading skills to get the information you
need from a text:
■
■
■
■
surveying (see Study Skill p4)
predicting (see Study Skill p10)
skimming (see Study Skill p16]
scanning (see Study Skill p23)
S ig n s a ro u n d th e w o r ld
0
Signs give us information or instructions. They have writing or
pictures on them. Today, many countries around the world use the
same signs.
It is important that these signs are easy and clear for everyone to
understand. There are rules about the shape and colour. A circle is
an instruction or order, for example ‘no entry’. A triangle tells you
about a danger, for example ‘large animals crossing the road’.
A rectangle gives you information, for example ‘exit’, or ‘leave here’.
The colour of a sign is also important. For example, red is for
danger and green is for safety.
0
Signs are a kind of international language, and everyone can
understand them because they are the same in many countries.
3 Skim the text Signs around the world. Which topics does the text discuss?
a) the size o f signs
b) the colour o f signs
c) the shape o f signs
4 Read the questions and underline the important words.
1 W hat does a circle mean?
2
W hat does a triangle mean?
3
W hat does a rectangle mean?
4
W hat do the colours red and green mean?
5 Scan the text and answer the questions in exercise 4.
28
Unit 5 • Signs and instructions
E
6 Work with a partner. Survey the notice below. What is it about?
a)
a lecture
b) a library
c) a cafeteria
RULES
1 Do not bring your bags into the library.
Leave them in the lockers.
2 Show your student ID card to the librarian,
3 Do not eat or drink in the library.
4 Do not smoke in the library.
5 Turn off your mobile phone.
6 Talk quietly.
7 Use a memory stick to save documents on
the library computers.
7 Work with a partner. Look at the signs. What do they mean?
8 Skim the notice in exercise 6. Match signs a-e with rules 1-7.
Which rules do not have a sign?
9 Scan the notice and answer the questions.
1 Where do you leave your bags?
2 Who wants to see your student identity card?
3 Can you talk?
4 Why do you need a memory stick?
Unit 5 • Signs and instructions
29
W R IT IN G
1
Forms
Match the words and short phrases 1-8
with the meanings a)-h).
STUDY SKILL Completing a form
1 [H
First name{s)
a) W hat is your nationality?
To complete a form correctly, read and follow the instructions
2
Family name
b) W hat do you do?
3 n
Address
c) Sign your name here.
4
n
Date o f birth
d) W here do you live?
5 n
Place o f birth
e) When were you born?
For example;
6
n
Occupation
f) W here were you born?
■ Place o f birth (= Where were you born?)
7
n
Nationality
g) W hat are your first name(s)?
8
n
Signature
h) W hat is your family name?
Read STUDY SKILL
n
carefully. For example:
■ Use CAPITAL LEHERS.
■ Tick the box \7\
Forms often use short phrases, not questions or sentences.
2 Complete the form about Hiroko with words and phrases from exercise 1.
Compare your answers with a partner.
Landing card for the UK
P le a s e c o m p le te c le a rly in C A P I T A L letters.
F a m ily n a m e
^T O
F irs t nam e(s)
H im o
D a te o f b irth
1
Kyoro, TAPAN
2
3
^TUP&NT
rAPAN5f>6
A d d r e s s in th e U K 12^
4
30
v ic ro m
Unit 5 • Signs and instructions
po ap,
m
3 Work with a partner. Look at the completed form. Find three mistakes.
Tanbury Sports Club
Tsc
Registration form
Please use CAPITAL letters and black ink.
First name(s)
Family name
Date of birth
Occupation
Hiroko
SATO
^TUP5NT
Tick the sports you are interested in
Football n
Basketball [X] Swimming CH
Running D
Volleyball CH
4 Complete the form with information about you.
Highfield University
L ibrary A pplication Form
Use black ink and CAPITAL letters.
First name
Family name
Date of birth
Address
Telephone number
Course title
Please tick
Year of study Q 1st year
Q 2nd year
O 3rd year
5 Work with a partner. Check your partner s form.
Unit 5 • Signs and instructions
31
V O C A B U L A R Y D E V E LO P M E N T Topic areas
1
Work with a partner.
Write the words from the box in the table.
STUDY SKILL Recording vocabulary (3)
You can record vocabulary by topic. For example:
black
blue
circle
red-
square
green
triangle
rectangle
lecturer
student
librarian
white
colours
shapes
2 Work with a partner. Add three words to each topic.
Use your own ideas.
subjects at university
geographical features
engineering
mountains
law
deserts
3 Put the words into two groups. Choose a heading for
each group. Compare your answers with a partner.
running
bus
swimming
car
football
taxi
train
plane
volleyball
4 In 60 seconds, write words for the topic ‘jobs’.
Compare your answers with a partner.
Jobs
a doctor
32
Unit 5 • Signs and instructions
Places:
lab
library
multimedia centre
Add to the topic groups in your notebooks when you learn new words.
red
basketball
People at university:
R E V IE W
1 Work with a partner. Survey the text below. What is it?
a) an advertisement
b) a notice
c)
an essay
Fire action
If you hear the fire alarm, follow the instructions:
1
2
3
4
5
6
Stay calm.
Leave the building.
Do not run.
Do not use the lift.
Go to the assembly point.
Do not go back into the building until it Is safe.
2 Look at the signs. What do they mean?
3 Skim the text in exercise 1. Match signs a-c with three of the
instructions 1-6.
4 Scan the text. Answer the questions.
1 What does it tell you to do?
2 What does it tell you not to do?
5 Work with a partner. Ask questions and complete the form with information
about your partner. Check your partner’s form is correct.
S tu d e n t c a rd
University of South Lonckm
Use CAPITAL letters. Write in blue or black ink only.
First name{s)
Family name
Address
Date of birth
Mobile phone number
Course title
Unit 5 • Signs and instructions
33
6
Health and medicine
READING SKILLS Understanding pronouns
WRITING SKILLS Avoiding repetition
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Recognizing parts o f speech
READING Good health
1 Look at the photos. Work in small groups.
What do people do to stay healthy? Think about:
• sport
• food
• work / free time
2 Work with a partner. Survey the picture and text.
Answer the questions.
1 Where is the text from?
a) a textbook
b) an online encyclopedia
2 What does the picture show?
3 What is the text about?
Doing exercise
A fruit and vegetable market
C hapter 3 Health and hygiene
Health and hygiene are important all over the world today,
and they were important in the past. People from different
parts of the world made useful discoveries about health
and hygiene. These discoveries are still important today.
Medicine developed in the ancient world first. The
Egyptians made many medical discoveries. For example,
they used surgery to treat people. Later, the Greeks
thought a healthy life was important. They wanted people
to eat good food, to take exercise, and to sleep well. For
the Romans, hygiene was important. They built public
baths. They also had pipes to carry away dirty water
because it causes disease.
E
.' ■ ■
In the Middle East, medicine was also important. In
Baghdad, people built the first important hospital in the
world. It opened in 850 CE. Later, more hospitals opened
in the Middle East, and doctors studied medicine and
took exams.
Europeans used the information from these early doctors,
and made more developments in the next 1,000 years.
For example, in the 19th century, Florence Nightingale
saved many people’s lives because she made hospitals
clean and safe.
Good public health today is a result of the work of people
from around the world. All these people in the past helped
jt to develop and improve.
An Egyptian priest pouring medicine
145
34
Unit 6 • Medicine
3 Skim the text. Match topics a)-e) with paragraphs 1-5.
a) [1 ] Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans
b} CH the first hospital
c) n
public health today
d) O
a European woman
e) n
the importance o f health and hygiene
4 Scan the text and answer the questions.
1 What three things did the Greeks want people to do?
2 What did the Romans build?
3 Where was the first important hospital?
4 What did Florence Nightingale do?
5
Look at the
underlined pronouns in the text.
Choose the noun that each pronoun
replaces.
W riters sometimes use pronouns, for example, he, she, it, they, in place o f nouns,
because they do not want to repeat the noun. For example:
Florence Nightingale
m the Romans
1 They
a) healthy life
2
Understanding pronouns
■
Paragraph!
c)
S T U D Y S K IL L
b) the Greeks
she
they
The pronoun refers to a noun that comes before. For example.
international history
The Egyptians made many medical discoveries. They used surgery to treat people.
it
a) pipes
b) hygiene
c) dirty water
Paragraph 4
m In Baghdad people built the first important hospital in the world. It opened in 850 CE.
3
Understanding pronouns helps you understand a text.
She
a) Florence Nightingale
b) hospitals
c) the 19th century
Paragraph 5
4
it
a) the world
b) public health
c) people
6 Read the rules. Circle three regular Past Simple verbs and five irregular
Past Simple verbs in paragraph 2 of the text.
RU LES
P a st Sim p le
To talk about events in the past, use the Past Simple,
-ed or -d.
want —► wanted
They wanted people to eat good food.
use
—►
used
They used surgery to treat people.
m W ith verbs ending replace the -y with -ied.
study —► studied
People studied medicine.
m Many common verbs are irregular.
build - ► built
They built public baths.
write —► wrote
He wrote a book.
be
—►
was! were Medicine was important for the Romans.
There were many different discoveries.
■ W ith regular verbs, add
Unit 6 • Medicine
35
W R IT IN G
Medical discoveries
1 Work with a partner. Look at the pair of sentences.
Is a) or b) better? Why?
a) In Baghdad, people built the first important hospital in the world.
It opened in 850 CE.
b) In Baghdad, people built the first important hospital in the world.
The first important hospital opened in 850 CE.
2 Read the rules. Underline the subject pronouns and circle the
object pronouns in the sentences.
1
2
3
4
5
She wrote many books. She wrote (^ le i^ in English.
I read about the Romans. They built many cities.
Jamil sent me an email. He wrote it on his phone.
Please give us your address.
They told her about the lecture.
RULES Pronouns
Use subject and object pronouns in place o f nouns.
An early doctor seeing a patient
Subject pronouns
/
you
he
she
it
we
they
O bject pronouns
me
you
him
her
it
us
them
Work with a partner. Complete the
sentences with a subject pronoun from the rules box.
Health was important for the Egyptians._____
used surgery to treat diseases.
Read STUDY SKILL
John is a scientist________ does research at a
hospital.
STUDY SKILL Avoiding repetition
W e use pronouns to avoid repeating a noun. For example:
■
Florence Nightingale worked in hospitals.
Florence Nightingale She made hospitals them clean and safe.
Use pronouns to improve your writing.
3 We read an article on the Internet.
was
very interesting.
4 My sister is a dentist._______ works in the city.
5 My brother and I are medical students________ study at the
same university.
4 Complete the sentences with an object pronoun from the rules box.
1 Paul finished his homework yesterday and gave_______ to the
teacher this morning.
2 The student read about the Greeks and he wrote an essay about
3 Anna is a medical researcher. I m et____
4 We saw Adam yesterday. We spoke t o _
5 I didn’t go to the lecture. Could you give
please?
at a conference.
__after the lecture.
____ your notes,
A medical researcher
36
Unit 6 • Medicine
5 Read the paragraph. Are the underlined words subjects (S) or objects (O)?
Compare your answers with a partner.
A s p ir in
Aspirin has a long history. Many years ago the
Greeks discovered an important tree. The Greeks
used the tree to make a medicine. The medicine
stopped pain. Years later, scientists studied the
medicine and the scientists called the medicine
‘Aspirin’. People use Aspirin today to stop pain.
6 Replace the underlined words in exercise 5 with the correct pronouns.
7 Rewrite the student’s paragraph. Use pronouns to avoid repetition.
A Brutish wouvniA/, M ary MoiA.ta0u., lived luv Tkrteey luvthe
el0hteercth oeuctucry. M ary Mokvta0uc had two ohlidrcuv. Her ohlidrekv
0Ot III. M ary toote her ehlldreuv to see a Tucrtelsh doctor. The doctor
helped the chlidrerc. M ary wcuvt bacte to Brltalrc. M ary told people
abouct the m rte lsh doctor, years later; B ritish doctor ucsed the
Tucrtelsh doctor'^ Ideas to m.atee a kvuedlcluve. The uvuedlcl^ve w as the
f i r s t vaccine, vaccluves stop people 0ettl^v0 III.
8 Compare your answers with a partner. Answer the questions.
1 How many subject pronouns did you use?
2 How many object pronouns did you use?
A doctor giving a vaccine to a child
Unit 6 • Medicine
37
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Nouns and verbs
1
Are the underlined words in each pair of
sentences nouns or verbs?
Read STUDY SKILL
1 a)
Did she answer the question?
b) Did she know the answer?
2
a)
My father is a teacher.
b) He teaches at a university.
3
a)
W hat did he discover?
b) He made an important discovery.
begin
STUDY SKILL Recognizing parts o f speech
Some verbs and nouns are related.
Some nouns have the same form as the verb.
■
to circle
a circle
Some nouns have a similar form to the verb, but have a noun ending.
■
m
m
to end
to teach
to introduce
ending
teacher
introduction
beginner
beginning
Some verbs have more than one noun.
■
to begin
a beginner (the person)
the beginning (the activity)
Making a note o f nouns and verbs increases your vocabulary.
2 Work with a partner. Use a dictionary to find one or more nouns for each
verb. Underline the noun endings.
verbs
1 email
1 nouns
teacher
email
2 introduce
3 educate
4 meet
5 discuss
6 lecture
7 write
3 Look at the sentences. Are the missing words verbs or nouns?
noun
The scientist made an important d
Dr Singh t
maths at the university.
Send me an e ______________if you have any questions.
W e can discuss this at the m
tomorrow.
It’s important for students to get a good e
4 Complete the sentences in exercise 3 with words from exercises 1 and 2.
5 Work with a partner. Write sentences using the words in the box.
introduce
introduction
mean
’d (ike to introduce you to Dr Ahmed.
38
teach
Unit 6 • Medicine
meaning
write
writer
R E V IE W
1 Work with a partner. Survey the photo and the text. Answer the questions.
1 What does the photo show?
2 Where does the text come from?
2 Skim the text. Match topics a)-c) to paragraphs 1-3.
a)
O
chemicals in our food
b)
O
chemicals to stop malaria
c)
D
the importance o f chemicals
www.science-encyclopedia.com
Search
C h e m ic a ls a n d h e a lth
Q
Many chemicals are important for our health. People started using
chemicals years ago. They keep us healthy in different ways.
Q
In tropical countries, malaria is a serious problem. People had ]t more than 4,000
years ago. In South America, people used a substance from a tree to treat malaria.
They called it quinine. In China, they used a substance called artemisinin. Both
quinine and artemisinin helped stop malaria, and people still use them today.
n
Food also stops disease. In the past, scientists studied food and its effect on
disease. In 1912, a Polish scientist, Casimir Funk, did experiments on fruit and a type
of rice. He found some chemicals in the food, and he called them vitamins. Vitamins
are necessary in our food because they keep us healthy.
Quinine leaves and bark
3 Work with a partner. Scan the text and answer the questions.
1 Where is malaria a serious problem?
2 Where does quinine come from?
3 Why do people use quinine?
4 What did Casimir Funk call the chemicals in food?
5 Why are they important?
4 Look at the underlined pronouns in the text. Choose the noun that each
pronoun replaces.
Paragraph 1
1 They
a) people
b) chemicals
c) years
Paragraph 2
2
it
a) people
b) tropical countries
c) malaria
3 them
a) people
b) malaria
c) quinine and artemisin
4
a) food
b) diseases
c) a Polish scientist
Paragraph 3
He
5 Rewrite the student’s paragraph. Use pronouns to avoid repetition.
Akvother sct-cn-tlst did cm- ex-perliacetvt w ith food avui dl&ease Li/v the I 2 th cei^tuty.
For a loiA-g tim ^, sailors ocv bocits got t-K on- Ion-0 trip s because sailors bad n-o fru it
arui \/e0etflbies at sea. In- ± y ^ y - cm- Bvu^iish doctor,javues L-ln-d, decided to do av^
experlrvcen-t on- sailors.jarues Lcn-ol 0C?ve the sailors lem-on-Ji-cloe, c?n-o( the sailors
sta y ed healthy a t sea. The ien-ton-ju.toe had Vitavuiu, c In- it. vitavuiu, c t-s 0ood for
our stec^v an^d bon-es avui feeeps ics healthy.
6 Work with a partner. Compare your answers.
1 How many subject pronouns did you use?
2 How many object pronouns did you use?
Unit 6 • Medicine
39
7 The history of transport
READING SKILLS Making notes (1)
KEY LANGUAGE Ordinal numbers • Dates
WRITING SKILLS W riting from notes
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Using a dictionary (2)
R EA D IN G
Important first flights
1 Work in small groups. Answer the questions.
1 What do scientists do in space?
2 Is space research a good thing?
3 Would you like to travel in space? Why (not)?
2 Work with a partner. Survey the photos and text. Answer the questions.
1 What do the photos show?
2 What is the title?
3 How many paragraphs are there?
4 What is the text about?
Three steps into space
Three people, Yuri Gagarin, Valentina Tereshkova, and Neil
Armstrong, all achieved important firsts in space.
Yuri Gagarin, a Russian, was always interested in space.
He learned to fly at college, and in 1960 he becam e a pilot.
A year later, on 12th April 1961, he was the first person to travel
into space, in the spaceship Vostok.
Two years later, a young Russian, Valentina Tereshkova, becam e
the first woman in space. Tereshkova was a twenty-six year old
factory worker. Then she joined the Russian space programme,
and on 16th June 1963 she left Earth in Vostok 6.
Six years later, three Americans left Earth in Apollo 11. On 20th
July 1969, they landed on the moon. Neil Armstrong left the
spaceship and became the first person to walk on the moon.
3 Skim the text. Match photos a-c with paragraphs 2-4.
4 Scan the text. Complete the sentences with the correct number or date.
Check your answers with a partner.
1 Gagarin became a pilot in
April
2 He went into space on
3 Tereshkova left Earth on _
_June
4 She travelled in Vostok.
5
years later, the Americans left Earth in Apollo
. landed on the moon on 20th July
6 Apollo
40
U nit? • The history of transport
5
Read the text on page 40 again and complete the notes in
the table. Compare your answers with a partner.
STUDY SKILL Making notes (1)
When you read, make notes o f useful
name
Yuri Gagarin
information. Look for:
nationality
American
■ important words
■ names
spaceship
Vostok 6
date
IZth April m
■ numbers and dates
i
first
6 Survey the photos and the text below. What is the text about?
Cornu's helicopter
The Montgolfier balloon
In th e history o f flying, there are three im portant inventions, th e hot-air balloon,
the plane, and th e helicopter.
In th e eighteenth century, th e M ontgolfier brothers from France designed and
made a hot-air balloon. The first flight w ith people was on th e 21st N ovem ber 1783.
The balloon flew fo r four minutes.
Tw o Am erican brothers, O rville and W ilbu r W right, designed and built a plane. They
called it the Kitty Hawk. On th e 17th Decem ber 1903, th e y flew th e plane fo r the
first tim e. They flew fo r 12 seconds.
Four years later, another Frenchman, Paul Cornu, built a helicopter. On th e 13th
N ovem ber 1907, Cornu left the ground in his helicopter and flew fo r 20 seconds.
7 Skim the text. Match photos a-c with paragraphs 2-4.
8 Read the text. Complete the notes in the table. Compare your answers
with a partner.
inventions
hot-air balloon
inventors
nationality
American
date of first flight
time of first flight
20 seconds
U nit 7 • The history o f tran sport
41
K EY LA N G U A G E
1
Ordinal numbers
Write the words in the box
next to the ordinal numbers.
Read STUDY SKILL
STUDY SKILL
O rd in a l n um b ers
Ordinal numbers are used for:
eighth
fifth
seventh
sixth
Ml J l
tenth
fourth
ninth
■ dates, for example 7th September
second
m centuries (= 100 years), for example 19th century (= from 1800 to 1899)
■ the order o f something, for example first, second, third
third
6th
It is important to understand how to read and write them.
7nd
7th
1 first 1st
3rd
8th
Most other ordinal numbers use th. For example:
4th
9th
4 fourth 4th,
5th
10th
ht
firs t
2 second 2nd
3
third 3rd
5 fifth 5th
Write the words as ordinal numbers. Check your
answers with a partner.
I?th
eighteenth
nineteenth
twentieth
twenty-first
twenty-third
3 Match years 1-4 with centuries a)-d).
1 O
1969
a) 21st century
2
1783
b) nineteenth century
n
3 n
2001
c) 20th century
4
1830
d) eighteenth century
n
4 In 60 seconds, answer the questions. Compare your answers with a partner.
1 What is the 12th letter of the alphabet?
2 What is the 3rd letter of the alphabet?
3 What is the 24th letter of the alphabet?
4 What is the 16th letter of the alphabet?
5 What is the 20th letter of the alphabet?
Dates
5 Write the months of the year in the correct order.
January,
April
August
June
March
December
May
February
November
January
October
July
September
STUDY SKILL
Compare your answers with a partner.
Dates in British English are written:
Write the dates. Use an ordinal number, the name of the
month, and the year.
a) 11/10/2012
Ilth October 2012
c) 21/2/2011
b) 30/11/2010
D ates
d) 23/4/2013
day / month / year
In academic writing, use ordinals and
the name o f the month:
■
26th February 2011
In notes, use numbers:
7 Write the following dates in two ways:
notes
1 your date o f birth
42
26/2/2011
Start days o f the week and months o f the
year with a capital letter.
2
an important date for your country
______
3
an important date for your family
______
U n ity • The history o f transport
■
academic writing
■
Monday, Tuesday. January, February
WRITING Trains
1 Label the photos with the words in the box.
passenger train
underground train
2 Skim paragraph 1 of the text below.
What is the text about?
a) the speed o f trains
b) the price o f trains
c) the history o f trains
R a ilw a y firsts
There were two important developments in railway history in England in the
nineteenth century. One was the development of a long-distance train service for
people. The second development was the introduction of the first underground
train service.
The first long-distance train service started on 15* September 1830. It went a
distance of 56 kilometres from Liverpool to Manchester. The engineer was George
Stephenson. After a few weeks, it was very successful and carried thousands of
people.
The other development was the first...
Read paragraph 2 of the text. Number the notes 1-5 in
the order they are in the text.
Read STUDY SKILL
STUDY SKILL
W r itin g fro m n o tes
When you are writing from your notes:
■ Decide what the first point, and what the
date
\s/o<i/m o
□
where
Liverpool to Manchester
□
what
first long-distance passenger train
□
distance
□
Read the notes for paragraph 3 of
the text. Decide the order of the
notes 1-5. Compare your ideas
with a partner.
■ Number your notes.
m
engineer George Stephenson
56 km
second point is.
■ W rite your text in order.
where
London
□
distance
6.2 km
□
engineer John Fowler
□
date
I0/0I/i?63
□
what
first underground train
5 Write paragraph 3 of the text about railway firsts. Use the notes in your order
1-5 in exercise 4.
6 Work with a partner. Check your partner’s paragraph for mistakes with:
• dates
• verbs and prepositions
• punctuation (capital letters, commas, full stops)
U n it? • The history o f tran sport
43
V O C A B U L A R Y D E V E LO P M E N T Verbs in the Past Simple
1 Work with a partner. Write the regular and irregular verbs in the table.
arrived
called
became
did
learned
paid
left
regular
irregular
arrived
became
started
travelled
went
Use a dictionary
to find the Past Simple of the verbs.
Compare your answers with
a partner.
Read STU D Y S K ILL
begin
STUDY SKILL
U sing a d ic tio n a ry (2)
Good dictionaries give the irregular forms
/ b r g m / ve rb (b e g in s ,
b e g in n in g , b e g a n / b i 'g s n / , h a s b e g u n
b e g in
o f verbs.
Many dictionaries also have a list o f
began
teach
irregular verbs.
see
Use a dictionary (book, online, electronic)
drive
to check the spelling o f the Past Simple
know
o f verbs.
Complete the sentences with the
verb in brackets in the Past Simple.
Use a dictionary to help.
In f in it iv e
P a st te n se
1 The teacher
(write)
beat
beat
the new words on the board.
becom e
became
b e g in
began
My tu to r__________ (send) me
an email about my homework.
3 I __________ (have) an English exam yesterday.
4 W e_______
(read) a story in English in class.
5 Yousef and I
_______ (do) the exercise together.
/br'gAn/)
1 to start to do som ething or start to
happen o s a m e m e a n i n g s ta r t: I'm
b e g in n in g to feel cold, o The film b e gin s at
7 .3 0 .
2 to start in a particular way; The n a m e lo h n
b e g in s w ith a
o o p p o s it e end
t o b e g i n w i t h at first; at the beginning: To
b e g in w ith th e y were very happy.
P
P a s t p a r tic ip le
beaten
becom e
begun
W HICH W ORD ?
B e g in or s t a r t ?
B e g in and s t a r t both mean the same
thing, but s t a r t is more often used in
speaking: S h a ll w e eat n o w ? I 'm starting to
feel hungry.
Definitions from the O xford Essential Diollonary e O xford University Pre»
Verb + preposition
4 Work with a partner. Circle the correct preposition. Use a dictionary to help.
1 Work(^fn)/ by a partner.
2 Look in / at the board.
3 Listen to / of your partner’s presentation.
4 Turn in / to page 60.
5 Ask/or t from help if you don’t understand.
6 Talk in / to your partners and ask them the questions.
Work with a partner. Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions.
Use a dictionary to help.
1 My homework is to write _
____ the history of ships.
2 Yesterday we talked_____
the history of transport.
3 Last night I prepared____
_ the maths test.
4 That bag belongs_______ _ Professor Lopez,
STUDY SKILL
5 Give your essay
your teacher.
Make a vocabulary record for the verbs and
prepositions below. Write your own example sentences.
Read STU D Y S K ILL
1 come from
come from
2 look for
verb + prep
+ place/couHtry of birtli
44
3 talk about
4 arrive in
Past: came from
Example: I come from Rio de Janeiro
U n it ? • The history o f transport
R e co rd in g v o c a b u la ry (4)
To help you use a verb correctly, record the prepositions
that follow it. W rite example sentences for the verb and
each o f its prepositions. For example:
w rite
I wrote an email to my teacher,
m I wrote about electric trains for my homework.
■
REVIEW
1 Survey the pictures from a text.
Is the text about... ?
a) sailing in the Mediterranean
b) sailing across the Atlantic
c) sailing around the world
2 Skim the text. Match the person in the photo with
one of the paragraphs 2-4.
Sailing firsts
Who was the first person to sail around the world? We don’t know for sure, but in the
history of round-the-world sailing, three people achieved important firsts.
Francis Chichester, from England, was a great sailor. On 27th August 1966, he sailed
his boat Gypsy Moth around the world. He returned to England on 28th May 1967 after
226 days sailing. He was the first person to sail single-handed around the world from
west to east.
Twenty-one years later, Kay Cottee became the first woman to sail around the world
without stopping. Kay, an Australian, left her country on 29th November 1987 in her
boat First Lady, and returned to Sydney on 5th June 1988. She was at sea for 189 days.
Another Australian, David Dicks, also achieved an important first. He became the
youngest person to sail non-stop around the world. In February 1996, at the age
of seventeen, David left Australia in his boat, Seaflight. He returned to Australia in
November 1996, after nine months at sea.
3 Read the text. Complete the notes in the table.
Compare your answers with a partner.
what
who
when
how long
name o f boat
Francis Chichester
2^/11/87 - 5 / 6 / 8 ?
youngest person to sail around world non-stop
Months
4 Read the notes for a paragraph about important firsts in car racing.
Number the notes 1-3.
what
where
when
winning car
speed km/h
1st Formula 1grand prix (take place)
Silverstone, England
13/5/W SO
Alfa Romeo (win)
1st car race (be)
France
22/7/I8< ?4
Peugeot (win)
(b e )N
1st ‘grand prix’ race (be)
Le Mans, France
2 7 /6 /N 0 6
Renault (win)
(be) 101
(be) 146
5 Write a paragraph about car racing. Use the notes in exercise 4.
Use the verbs in brackets.
Car racing-, some Iwportant firsts
The firs t car race was in France on 22nd Ju ly
was I<7 km/h.
Title:
A
Peugeot won the race. Its speed
6 Check your paragraph for mistakes with;
• dates
• verbs and prepositions
• punctuation (capital letters, commas, full stops)
U n it? • The history o f tran sport
45
8
Doing business
READING SKILLS Making notes (2)
WRITING SKILLS Writing polite emails
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Using a dictionary (3)
R EA D IN G
The business of sport
1 Work in small groups. Answer the questions.
1 Are there big sports competitions in your country? Which sports?
2 Why do countries have big sports competitions?
3 Why do business students study sports?
2 Skim the emails. Which email asks the students to ... ?
a) prepare a talk
b) read some texts and make notes
l ooo
1 From:
■ To:
Subject:
Date:
ooo
[email protected]
Econ 2 12
Business as sport homework
23/03/12
From:
To:
Subject:
Date:
Philip,[email protected]
Business Studies Group 4B
Marketing course
21/03/12
Dear all,
Dearstudents,
Please read the text on the website www.businessassport/
football.org and make notes on it, Bring your notes to the
next class,
Please prepare a short talk on online marketing. Use different
sources to find your information. The talk is for next week.
Best wishes,
Philip Stanley
Hilary Bales
Lecturer In Business Studies
Best wishes,
Senior Lecturer In Marketing
3 Work with a partner. Survey the webpage The Business of Sport on page 47.
What is it about?
Skim the webpage.
Match headings a)-e) with paragraphs 1-7. Which two
paragraphs do not have a heading?
To make notes:
a) n
Money from TV
■ Skim the text and write a heading for each paragraph.
b) O
The business o f football
■ Scan each paragraph and underline the most important words.
c) D
Selling players
d) O
Advertising
e) O
Conclusion
Read STUDY SKILL
S T U D Y S K IL L
■ W rite the underlined words under the paragraph headings.
5 Work with a partner. Choose the best headings for the other two paragraphs.
CH Selling tickets
d ! Football on TV
d
Selling products
d
Football shirts
6 Write all the headings above the correct paragraphs on the web page.
46
M ak in g n o te s (2)
U n it 8 • Doing business
G
§ LG
§LG
The Business of Sport
Today, sport is a business, and football is a good example. Football dubs need
money to pay the players. There are five ways for the clubs to make money.
Firstly, dubs sell tickets for the matches. A ticket for a match can be very expensive
The clubs also sell season tickets. These are tickets for all the matches in one year.
Secondly, companies pay clubs to advertise. For example, there are signs for their
products at the stadium and their logo is on the players’ shirts.
Some clubs make money from TV companies. This is usually only the big clubs, but it
can be a lot of money for them.
Clubs also sell products, for example, football shirts or hats. They sell their products
in their shops and on the Internet. A lot of people buy them.
Finally, a football club can sell a player to another club for a lot of money. Clubs can
only do this twice a year.
All clubs do these things, but only the top clubs get rich from them. Other sports
also have to make money and they use the same ways.
7 Scan the text and underline the important words in each paragraph.
8 Make notes. Write the heading and important words for each paragraph.
Compare your answers with a partner.
The business of football
dubs heed money - pay players
5 ways
9 Use your notes in exercise 8 to answer the questions.
1 How many ways do football clubs make money?
2 What is the name for a ticket for all the matches in a year?
3 How do companies advertise at a football club?
4 What do clubs sell on the Internet?
5 What can clubs do twice a year?
U n it 8 • Doing business
47
W R IT IN G
1
Polite emails
Skim the emails and answer the questions.
1 Who are the emails to?
2 Who are they from?
3 Which one is polite?
[ O O O
1 From:
* To:
Subject:
Date:
[email protected]
[email protected]
the effect of money on sport
12.10,2012
Hello,
Here is my homework. Sorry I didn't go to your lecture
yesterday. I was ill. Can you send me the handouts? Also,
want to talk to you about my studies.
Email me.
Bye,
Jack Carter
ooo
.£
From:
To:
Subject:
Date:
ana.g0 n2 [email protected]
[email protected]
the effect of money on sport
12.10,2012
Dear Dr Stuart,
Please find attached my homework.
I am sorry that I missed your lecture yesterday on 'The effect
of money on sport'. 1was ill. Please could you send me the
handouts? Also, I would like to talk to you about my studies.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Best wishes,
Ana Gonzalez
2
Scan email b and answer the questions.
1 Did Ana do her homework?
2 When was the lecture?
3 What was the lecture on?
4 Why didn’t Ana go to the lecture?
5 What does she want the lecturer to send her?
3
Look at these phrases from email a. Read email b and underline the polite
phrases with the same meanings.
1 Hello
2 Here is my homework.
3 Sorry 1 didn’t go to your lecture.
4 Can you send me the handouts?
5 I want to talk to you.
6 Email me.
7 Bye
48
Unit 8 • Doing business
4
Match polite phrases 1-5 with endings a)-e)
to make polite sentences.
1 CH Please could
a) my essay.
2
n
1am sorry that
b) we meet tomorrow?
3
n
Please find attached
c) talk to you about the course.
4
n
1look forward to
d) it is late.
1would like to
e) meeting you next week.
5 O
S T U D Y S K IL L
W r itin g p o lite em ails
Learn and use polite phrases to write emails. For example:
■ Dear Dr Stuart
m
m
m
m
m
m
Please find attached the PowerPoint for my presentation,
lam sorry that it is late,
Please could you send me the handouts?
I would like to talk to you about my essay,
I look forward to seeing you tomorrow,
Best wishes, Ana Gonzalez
5 Read the email from Dr Brown. What does she want students to do?
[OOP
From:
To:
Subject:
Date:
[email protected]
Business Studies Group 46
Date for essays
15/04/12
Dearall,
Please send your essays by 22nd April. There is a new reading
list for this term.
Best wishes,
Mona Brown
Senior Lecturer in Business Studies
Write an email to Dr Brown.
• Start the email correctly.
• Say that you are attaching your essay.
• Say it is late and you are sorry.
• Say you want a copy o f the reading list.
•
End the email correctly.
Work with a partner. Read your partner’s email and check it for:
• polite phrases
• spelling
• capital letters
• punctuation
U n it 8 • Doing business
49
V O C A B U L A R Y D EV ELO PM EN T
Words with more than one meaning
1
Look at the pairs of sentences 1-4.
Write the part of speech for the underlined words.
Compare your answers with a partner.
Read STUDY SKILL
STUDY SKILL Using a dictionary (3)
Some words have more than one meaning.
For example, kind can be a noun or an
part of speech
meaning
noun
1 a) Dr Stuart wrote a book about marketing,
b) Did you book a room for the meeting?
2
you look it up in a dictionary.
meaning.
a) The table shows the results o f the study,
kind^ On /kamd/ n o u n
a g ro u p o f th in g s or people that are the
sam e in s o m e w a y o s a m e m e a n i n g s o r t or
a) Connect the mouse to the computer,
t y p e ; W h a t k i n d o f m u s ic d o y o u lik e ? o The
s h o p sells ten different k in d s o f bread.
b) A mouse ran across the floor.
4
■ Look at all the entries for a word when
■ Choose the correct part o f speech and
b) He left his computer on the table.
3
adjective with tw o different meanings.
k in d ^ On /kamd/ od/ectiVe( k in d e r ,
a) Underline the correct answer.
k in d e s t )
b) The teacher is going to correct the exercise.
friendly and good to other people: ‘C a n I
c a rr y y o u r b a g ? ’ ‘ T h a n k s. T h a t ’s v e ry k i n d o f
Work with a partner. Look at the dictionary entries for the words in
exercise 1. Complete the table in exercise 1 with the number of the correct
meaning for each word.
book'* On /buk/ n o u n
a thing that you read or write in, that has a
lot of pieces of paper joined together inside
a cover: T m r e a d in g a b o o k b y C e o r g e Orwell.
0 a n exe rcise b o o k (= a book that you write in
at school)
m ouse (H* /maus/ n o u n {p lu ra l m ice
/mars/)
1
a small animal with a long tail: O u r ca t
y o u .’ o B e k i n d t o a n im a ls.
O
O PPO SIT E u n k in d
c o r r e c t ^ CHr /ka'rekt/ a d je ctiv e
right or true; with no mistakes: W h a t is th e
correct time, p le a s e ? o A ll y o u r a n s w e r s were
c a u g h t a m ou se.
correct. O O PP O S IT E in c o r r e c t
2 a thing that you move with your hand to
► c o r r e c t l y /ke'rektli/ a d v e r b : H a v e I spelt
y o u r n a m e co rre c tly ?
tell a computer what to do
C O PP O S IT E in c o r r e c t iy
b o o k ^ /buk/ verb ( b o o k s , b o o k i n g ,
b o o k e d /bukt/)
c o r r e c t ^ 0-w /ka'rekt/ verb ( c o r r e c t s ,
to arrange to have or do something later: W e
c o r r e c t in g , c o r r e c t e d )
b o o k e d a tab le for s ix a t the re sta uran t, o T h e
h o te l is fu lly b o o k e d (= all the rooms are full).
to show where the mistakes are in
something and make it right: T h e c la ss d id
the exe rcises a n d th e te a ch e r co rre cte d them , o
ta b le
o-m /'teibl/ n o u n
1 a piece of furniture with a flat top on legs:
Look at Picture Dictionary
page P10.
2 a list of facts or numbers: There is a t a b le o f
a coffee tab le o
Ple a se co rrect m e if I m a k e a m istake.
4
mice
irre g u la r v e rb s a t th e b a c k o f this dictionary.
Definitions from ttie Oxford Essential Dictionary €> Oxford University Press
3 Work with a partner. Use a dictionary to find two meanings for the words.
hard
virus
park
match
4 Write an example sentence for each meaning of the words in exercise 3.
50
U n it 8 • Doing business
REVIEW
1
Work with a partner. Survey the text and the picture. What is the text about?
Sports and television
Television shows a lot of sports programmes. Sport on TV is a big
business and many people benefit from it.
When TV started in the 1940s, it showed sports. They were very
popular because, for the first time, many people could watch important
games. More people bought televisions and watched more sport.
The TV companies paid the sports clubs and organizations a lot of money,
and this is still true today. For example, in 1985 they paid $45 million to
show the top basketball games in the USA. European TV companies paid
760 million euros to show the summer and winter Olympics of 2010 and 2012.
How do the TV companies make money from sport? They sell time on television to other
companies. These companies advertise their products at sports matches and competitions.
Millions of people watch the sport and see the advertisements.
Showing sports on TV has advantages for the top sports clubs and TV companies. Also, people
around the world can watch their favourite sports at home.
2 Skim the text. Match headings a)-b) with two of the paragraphs 1-5.
a) [ U
The business o f sport and TV
b) n
How TV companies make money
3 Write headings for the other paragraphs. Write all the headings above the
correct paragraphs in the text. Compare your answers with a partner.
4 Scan the text and underline the important words in each paragraph.
5 Make notes. Write the heading and important words for each paragraph.
6 Use your notes in exercise 5 to answer the questions.
1
2
3
4
Why was TV popular with sports fans in the 1940s?
Who makes money from sport on TV?
How do TV companies make money from sport?
Why do companies advertise at sports matches and competitions?
7 Write an email to your teacher.
• Start the email correctly.
• Say that you are sorry you did not go to his / her lecture last week.
• Ask for the handouts from the lecture.
• Say that you are attaching the homework on sport and TV.
•
End the email correctly.
8 Work with a partner. Read your partner’s email and check it for:
• polite phrases
• spelling
• capital letters
• punctuation
U n it 8 • Doing business
51
9
Water
READING SKILLS Understanding tables and charts (1) and (2)
WRITING SKILLS Describing statistics
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Recording vocabulary (5)
R EA D IN G
Using water
STUDY SKILL Understanding tables and charts (1)
1 Work with a partner. What do you use water for?
Make a list in 30 seconds.
Read STUDY SKILL
Tables and bar charts show statistics. They are often used to
compare numbers. Look at:
■ the title
Survey the table and answer the
■ the headings and topics
questions.
1 What is the title of the table?
2 What are the headings in the table?
3 How many products are there in the table?
■ the numbers
Use the tables and charts to help you understand a text.
Litres of water necessary to produc e one kilo of food
product
apples
potatoes
bread
sugar
rice
chicken
beef
chocolate
litres of water
700
900
1,800
1,800
2,500
3,600
15,500
16,000
3 Scan the table and answer the questions.
1 How much water do we use to produce a kilo of potatoes?
2 Which product needs 3,600 litres of water?
3 Which product needs the most water?
4 Read the text and scan the table again. Correct mistakes 1-5 in the text.
Water for food
W e need w ater to grow plants and to produce food. The table shows the
number o f litres o f w ater necessary to produce 'seven gight_______ kinds o f food.
The numbers are very different. For example, it takes ^9 00 ____________ litres
to produce a kilo o f apples, but 15,500 litres
for a kilo o f ^chicken
. W e use
the same number o f litres o f w ater to
produce a kilo o f bread as a kilo o f
“^rlce
about ^26,000
,. For chocolate it takes
litres.
W h y are these numbers so different? Som e
foods, such as b eef and chocolate, use
more w ater because they take a long tim e
to produce.
52
Unit 9 • Water
5 Work with a partner. Survey the bar chart and answer the questions.
1 What is the title of the chart?
2 How many countries are there?
The use of water in different countries
Countries use water for three main reasons; in the
home, for farming, and in industry. The bar chart shows
the number o f litres o f water that people use in six
countries. It is very different around the world. In the
USA it is more than 550 litres a day, and in Australia the
number is about the same as in the USA. In Japan it is
375 litres, and in China the number is less than in Japan,
at 100 litres.
W ater is cheap in many countries and we use a lot o f
it in our homes, but we use more to produce food and
other goods.
There is a problem in many countries nowadays because
we don’t have much water. In the future, we need to
find more, or use less.
How many litres of water do people
use a day?
U SA
H
Australia Japan
Brazil
UK
Washing a car
China
litres of water
Read STU D Y SK IL L
_____________
Read the text and scan the bar chart to
answer the questions.
1 What are the three main uses of water?
2 How much water do people in Australia use?
3 Which country uses only 100 litres per day?
4 How much water do people in Brazil use?
5 Do we use more water in the home or in industry?
6 What is the problem in many countries?
7 What do we need to do?
STU D Y SK ILL Understanding tables and charts (2)
When you read a table or bar chart:
■ use a pencil or your finger to help you read the numbers.
■ check the numbers in the text with the table or bar chart.
U nit 9 • W a te r
53
W R IT IN G
1
More or less
Look at the pictures and write sentences. Use the phrases
more than / less than / the same as. Compare your answers with a partner.
STUDY SKILL Describing statistics
Learn phrases to describe statistics. For example:
■ The bar chart shows the number of litres of water necessary to produce some food,
m In China the number is less than inJapan.
m Some foods use more water because they take a long time to produce,
m In Australia, the number is (about) the same as in the USA.
people / Thailand
/ eat / more / rice / people / Japan
people / Germany / eat / more / bread / people /
°eop\e in Thailand eat more rice than people In Japan.
the UK
-----------------------------------------%
3
people / Argentina / eat / less / fish / people / China
4
people / Pakistan / drink / the same number /
cups o f tea / people / India
2 Survey the table and answer the questions.
1 What is the title of the table?
2 What are the headings?
How many cups of coffee do people drink a day?
country
cups of coffee per day
Finland
10
Germany
7
USA
5
Australia
2
Japan
2
Oman
1
Scan the table. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?
1 In Finland people drink less coffee than in Germany.
2 People drink more coffee in Germany than in the USA.
3 People in Australia and Japan drink the same amount of coffee.
4 People drink less coffee in Japan than in Oman.
54
Unit 9 • Water
%
4 Scan the table on page 54 again and complete the text below.
Use the words in the box.
as
less
more
more
same
shows
than
C o ffe e a ro u n d th e w o r ld
Coffee is a very popular drink. The table ^__________how many cups of
coffee people drink in a day. People drink
coffee in Finland
^__________ in other countries. They drink about ten cups a day.
In Australia people drink the ^__________ number ®__________ in
Japan, but people in Oman drink
coffee, only one cup a day.
Do people drink __________ coffee in some countries because the
weather is cold?
5 Survey the bar chart below and answer the questions.
1 What is the title?
2 How many countries are there?
How many litres of bottled water
did people drink in 2009?
Mexico
United Spain Thailand Saudi
Arab
Arabia
Emirates
Hong
Kong
litres of bottled water per person
6 Scan the bar chart and answer the questions.
1
2
3
4
Which country used more bottled water than the other countries?
How much bottled water did people drink in Spain?
Which two countries drank the same number of litres of bottled water?
Which country used less bottled water than the other countries?
7 Write a description of the bar chart. Use your answers in exercise 6.
The b a r chart shows how many litres of bottled water people drank around the world In
2004. People in Mexico used ...
8 Work with a partner. Check your partner s writing for:
• spelling
• punctuation
• grammar
U nit 9 • W a te r
55
V O C A B U L A R Y D E V E LO P M E N T Opposite adjectives
Match adjectives 1-5
with their opposites a)-e).
Read STUDY SKILL
S T U D Y S K IL L
R e co rd in g v o c a b u la ry (5)
Many adjectives have an opposite. For example, the opposite o f large is small.
1 □
wet
a) cold
2
□
noisy
b) long
3
□
short
c) bad
4
□
hot
d) quiet
good
e) dry
5 □
Some adjectives use a prefix, such as un or in. to make an opposite.
For example, important ^
unimportant.
Some adjectives have 2 opposites; a different word, and the same word with a
prefix. For example, expensive ^
m
inexpensive, cheap,
Use your dictionary to find the opposite(s) o f an adjective.
■ Record adjectives with their opposite(s) to increase your vocabulary.
2 Work with a partner. Write the opposite of the adjectives from the box.
big
difficult
new
rich
right
1 easy
2
small
3
wrong
4
poor
5
old
big
Underline the adjectives in the sentences. Compare your answers with
a partner.
1
2
3
4
In the 19th century, trains were very slow.
Juan is always late for class.
My email box is full.
Aminta always gets high marks in maths.
Work with a partner. Use a dictionary to find opposites for the adjectives
in exercise 3.
Write the opposite of the adjectives using a prefix un- or in-. Use your
dictionary to help.
UHlwportawt
1 important
2 popular
3
dependent
4
complete
5
successful
6 Work with a partner. Use a dictionary to find two opposites for each adjective.
clean
dirty
unclean
interesting
safe
healthy
correct
7 Work in small groups. Answer the questions.
1 Which subject at school was easy for you?
2 Which subject at school was difficult for you?
3 Where is a cheap place to eat in your town?
4 Where is an expensive place to eat?
5 Where is a quiet place to work?
6 Where is a noisy place to live?
7 What foods are healthy?
8 What foods are unhealthy?
56
U n it 9 • W a te r
small
old
new
R E V IE W
1
Work with a partner. Look at the title of the text and the photo. What do you
think the text is about?
a) drinking water
2
b) water sports
c) the oceans
Survey the table and answer the questions.
1 What is the title of the table?
2 What are the headings?
3 How many oceans are there in the table?
3
A
An important resource
The oceans co ver about 70% o f the w orld’s surface and
contain 97% o f th e Earth’s w ater. There are five oceans,
and they are all connected.
The table shows th e size o f th e oceans. The Pacific
O cean is very big and covers an area o f about 150 million
square kilom etres. The A tlantic O cean is half th e size o f th e Pacific O cean and
The size of the oceans
about th e same size as th e Indian O cean. Scientists named th e Southern O cean
ocean
size (million sq km)
Pacific
155
The oceans are very im portant. They give us a lo t o f our food , and some
Atlantic
77
countries now change sea w ater in to drinking w ater, too. W e can also use
Indian
69
Southern
20
Arctic
14
fo r the first tim e in 2000. It surrounds Antarctica. The A rctic O cean is quite
small and very cold. It is covered by ice in th e w inter.
oceans to transport goods, and w e can find minerals in them . For all these
reasons, w e need to take care o f th e oceans and keep them clean.
3 Read the text and scan the table. Answer the questions.
1 How much of the Earth’s water is in the oceans?
2 How big is the Atlantic Ocean?
3 When was the Southern Ocean named?
4 Which is the third ocean in size?
5 Which ocean is covered by ice in winter?
6 What do we use the oceans for?
Global use of water between 1960 and 2010
2500
4 The bar chart on the right shows the use of water in 1960
and 2010. Scan the bar chart and answer the questions.
1
b) industry?
c) the home?
In 2010, did people use more or less water than 1960 for;
a) agriculture?
3
1500
In 1960, how much water did people use for:
a) agriculture?
2
2,000
2000
b) industry?
c) the home?
Which figures in 1960 are about the same as the figures for 2010?
to
"o
1000
E
650
500
5 Use your answers in exercise 4 to write a description of the
use of water in 1960 and 2010.
The bar chart shows the global use of water in 14*60 and 2010. In 1^60
6 Work with a partner. Check your partner’s writing for;
• spelling
• punctuation
• grammar
1960
2010
I Agriculture
I Industry
Home
U nit 9 • W a te r
57
10 Ambition and success
READING SKILLS Understanding the organization o f a text
WRITING SKILLS Writing a paragraph • Checking your writing (3)
RESEARCH Using a search engine (2) • Checking information
R EA D IN G
Great ideas
1 Work in small groups. Discuss the questions.
1 Do you like shopping? Why (not)?
2 Where do you shop?
3 Do you shop on the Internet? Why (not)?
4 What do people buy on the Internet?
2 Work with a partner. Survey the photos on page 59.
Predict the topic of the text.
3 Skim the text. Were your ideas in exercise 2 correct?
4
Underline the first sentence
in each paragraph in the text. Match headings a)-d)
with paragraphs 1-4. Write the headings in the text.
a) Q ]
An interesting start
b) D
Amazon today
c) G Starting the business
d) G A new idea
S T U D Y S K IL L
U n d e rsta n d in g th e o rg a n iz a tio n o f a te x t
A topic sentence tells you what a paragraph is about, it is often the
first sentence. Skim the text and underline the topic sentence in each
paragraph. This helps you find information quickly.
5 Work with a partner. Decide which paragraph 1-4 has the answer
to each question.
G
b) G
c) G
d) G
e) G
f) G
g) G
h) G
a)
How many countries did he sell books to?
How
richisBezos?
W hat did big companies use computer sciences to do?
W hat does Amazon sell now?
When did he open his online shop?
When did he have his new idea?
w here was Bezos born?
Which university did Bezos goto?
6 Go to the correct paragraph to answer the questions in exercise 5.
Compare your answers with a partner.
58
U n it 10 • Am bition and success
A success story
5amazon.com
k ,
—
^ P r im e
Je ff Bezos
Ah
iHterestmfl start
Je f f Bezos was born in th e U SA in 1964. W h e n he was a child,
he was very interested in science and com puters. A fte r school,
he w e n t to Princeton University. H e planned to study physics,
but changed to co m p u ter science and electrical engineering
because he loved com puters.
In th e early 1990s, Bezos had an idea fo r a new business. He
w orked fo r big com panies on W a ll S tre e t in N e w York. He knew
th a t these com panies used com puter sciences to study the
business m arket. H e also noticed th a t m ore and m ore people
used th e In tern et e ve ry year fo r business, but n o t fo r ordinary
shopping. So, a fte r m ore research, he decid ed to start an online
book shop.
Goods in a warehouse
O n 16th Ju ly 1995, Bezos started his new business. H e opened
his online shop from his garage. H e called his business Am azon,
and in one m onth he sold books in e ve ry state in th e U SA and
in 45 d iffe re n t countries around th e w orld. By Septem ber, it had
$20,000 o f sales e ve ry w eek.
Today, Am azon.com is a huge success. It sells co m p u ter games,
DVDs, electronics, and m any o th e r things, as w ell as books.
In to tal, it sells m ore than 20 m illion d iffe re n t products. It has
m ore than 10% o f all online sales in th e U SA, and its creator, Je ff
Bezos, is a billionaire.
Goods ready for delivery
U nit 10 • Am bition and success
59
W R IT IN G
1
Success
Sentences a)-f) are from a paragraph about Kiran
Mazumdar-Shaw. Write number 1 next to the topic sentence
and number 6 next to the final sentence.
a} 0
At first, it was a very small company,
b) n
But she worked hard, and the company began to grow.
c) 0
Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw is a successful businesswoman.
d) 0
In 1978, she started a biotech company. Biocon, in a garage.
e) n
She was born in 1953 in Bangalore, in India.
f) Q
Today, Biocon is one o f the leading biotech companies in the world.
STUDY SKILL W riting a paragraph
Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw
A good paragraph is well-organized.
The topic sentence tells the reader what the paragraph is about.
Middle sentences are:
■ on the same topic
■ organized logically
The final sentence concludes the topic.
2 Look at the sentences in exercise 1 again. Number the middle
sentences from 2 to 5. Compare your answers with a partner.
3 Use the notes below to write a paragraph about Tamara Mellon. Write full
sentences in the same order as the headings. Start with the topic sentence.
Topic
Tamara Mellon - successful businesswoman
Early life________
born England N67
worked for Vogue (fashion magazine)
New idea
liked shoes
decided to sell expensive shoes
Start of company
opened 1st shop London l<T^6 with designer Jimmy Choo
Success
now - over 110shops worldwide
Tamara Mellon
Tamara Mellon is a successful businesswoman. She
60
Unit 10 • Ambition and success
Read STU D Y SK IL L
Read the students paragraph.
S T U D Y S K IL L
Find and correct:
C h e ck in g y o u r w ritin g (3)
• tw o punctuation mistakes
Before you hand in an essay, it is important to check it Look for mistakes in;
• tw o spelling mistakes
■ punctuation, for example capital letters, full stops, commas
• one grammar mistake (article)
■ spelling, for example irregular plural nouns, and Past Simple verbs
• one linking word mistake
■ grammar, for example subject and verb agreement, articles
Compare your answers with a partner.
■ sentence structure, for example subject +verb +object
■ linking words, for example and, but, because
s e r 0 e y B rlw aw d i_«rry
oo-fouvcded <^oo0ie t-w 1 ^ 2 .
T hey m.et at s>tavvford \Ayii\Jtys.it^, b u t d tc id td to (oote at
search techw oio0ys, t h a t is,, how to ftwol u^vfbrm.att.ovv ow the
iwteriA^t. T h is 0ave th e i^ a idta fo r a wew co^vtpa w y ovc y^V\
s e p t e w c b e r i ^ ? , th e y s ta r td th e ir buslvvess Ivc a 0 a ra 0 e , iltee
Jfrff bezos. A t f ir s t. It 0 o t ab o u t ±0,000 searches a d a y , b u t
vcow I t 0Cts over two bllllotA,.
5 Check your paragraph from exercise 3 on page 60 for mistakes.
RESEA RC H
Finding the right information
Read STU D Y SK IL L
Work with a partner. You need to
find out the information in 1-8. Look at the search
engine screen and write where you can find the
information. Write Web, Images, Maps, or Translate.
■ W eb for facts, for example dates, capitals, names, etc.
1 a photograph o f Sebastian Vettel, the racing driver Images
■ Images for photographs, pictures, etc.
2
■ Maps for countries, cities, etc.
the countries that border Zambia
3 the word ‘efficient’ in your language
4
S T U D Y S K IL L
U sin g a se a rch e n g in e (2)
Use a search engine to find different types o f information. Go to:
■ Translate for changing a word from one language to another
where Sabeer Bhatia was born
5 the capital city o f Morocco
6
the date o f the first supersonic flight by Concorde
7
where the shop ‘Harrods’ is in London
8
a picture o f the Ferrari 458 Italia
IM A G E S
Sebastian Vettel
TR A N S LA TE
Search
2 Use a search engine to find the information in exercise 1. Compare your
answers with a partner.
U nit 10 • Am bition and success
61
3
Read the information from websites 1 and 2.
Find two differences.
ST U D Y S K IL L
C h e ck in g in fo rm a tio n
Some websites are open. This means that the information
B
www.jsmith.blogs.com
Search
can be changed.
Other websites are business or personal sites. This means
[ack Smith's history o f Hotmail
that the information is not always accurate. Always check
your information on tw o or more websites.
W elcom e to my history o f Hotmail. Today, Hotmail
is the world’s largest email provider with 50 million
users. Bhatia started the company in 1996 and sold it to
M icrosoft in 1998.
|j] busrnet. com
Search
BUSINESS FORUM
Hotmail is the world’s largest web-based email
service, with nearly 364 million users. Microsoft
bought Hotmail in 1997.
4 Look at the information from website 3, an online encyclopedia.
Compare the information with websites 1 and 2.
Choose the correct answers a) or b).
lo n g fo rd en c.ac.u k
B
Longford Encyclopedia
1 W hen did Microsoft buy Hotmail?
a) 1997
b) 1998
Microsoft bought Hotmail in 1997. Today it has
hundreds of millions of users around the world.
2 How many Hotmail users are there?
a} 50 million people
b) more than 360 million people
5 Look at the headings for notes about Sabeer Bhatia.
Number the headings in the order you will write about them.
□
new idea
j
Topic:
Sabeer Bhatia,
creator o f
Hotmail
□
start of
company
Sabeer Bhatia
6 Use a search engine to find two pieces of information to write
under each heading.
7 Write a paragraph about Sabeer Bhatia. Use your notes from exercise 6.
Remember to write:
• a topic sentence
• middle sentences in a logical order
• a final sentence
8 Check your work for mistakes.
62
U n it 10 • Am bition and success
Search
REVIEW
1 Skim the text and underline the topic sentence in
each paragraph.
2 Match headings a)-d) to the topic sentence of each
paragraph 1-4. Write the headings in the text.
a)
b)
c)
d)
□ In te rn a tio n a l success
□ L earning
□ S tartin g th e b u sin ess
H ] T he b u sin essm an
3 Read the questions. Which paragraph (1-4) has the
answer to each question?
a) @
How many people work for Superdry today?
b) D
W hat did he do after school?
c) D
W hat was his new idea?
d) O
W hat parts o f the world have Superdry shops?
e) O
W here did he open his first shop?
f) O
W hy did Superdry become successful in 2005?
g) O
W hy didn’t he go to university to study medicine?
4 Read the text and answer the questions in exercise 3.
5 Choose a successful person from your country. Use a
search engine to find information about the person.
Write notes about:
• early life and education
• career
The story of Superdry
The busihessman
Julian Dunkerton is a
successful businessman.
He is the founder of the
clothing brand ‘Superdry’.
He was bom in England in
1965. He wanted to be a
doctor, but he did not get
good exam results at school.
So, when he left school, he
Julian Dunkerton
did not go to university, but
started selling clothes in a market.
• achievements
6 Write a paragraph about the person from exercise 5.
• W rite a topic sentence.
• Organize the middle sentences logically.
• W rite a final sentence.
• Check your work for mistakes.
At the market, he learnt a lot about people. He
learnt about what clothes they liked and what
clothes they did not like. He realized that there
were lots of people who wanted fashionable and
cool clothes but did not want ‘strange’ clothing. He
decided to design and sell clothes for these people.
He started his new business with very little money.
He called his business ‘Cult Clothing’. But when he
opened his first shop in London in 2004, he called
it ‘Superdry’. The company became very successful
in 2005 because David Beckham, an English
footballer, wore a Superdry T-shirt.
Superdry today is a huge international success.
It has shops in Europe, the Middle East, Asia,
Australia, and the Americas, and it employs
thousands of people. Julian Dunkerton started
selling clothes in a market, but today he is a
multi-millionaire.
U nit 10 • Am bition and success
63
WORD LIST
H e r e is a l i s t o f m o s t o f t h e
n e w w o rd s in th e u n its o f
N e w H e a d w a y A c a d e m ic S k ilb ,
I n t r o d u c t o r y L e v e l S t u d e n t 's
B ook.
a d j = a d je c tiv e
a d v = a d v e rb
co n j = c o n ju n c tio n
n = noun
p l - p lu ra l
p r e p = p re p o s itio n
v = v e rb
Unit1
d o c to r n /ˈ d ɒ k tə (r) /
p a ra g r a p h n /ˈ p æ r ə g rɑ ːf/
e n d V /e n d /
p a r t n e r n / 'p o : t n o ( r ) /
e n g in e e r n /ˌ e n d ʒ ɪˈ n ɪə { r)/
p e o p le n p l /ˈ p iːp l/
E n g lis h L a n g u a g e te a c h e r n
P h ilip p in e s n /ˈ f ɪlɪp i:n z /
/ ˈ ɪ ŋ g l ɪ ʃ 'l æ ŋ g w ɪ d ʒ ˈ t i ː t ʃ ə ( r ) /
e s p e c i a l l y fld v / t ' s p e j a l i /
fa m ily n /ˈ fæ m ə li/
fa th e r n /ˈ fɑ :ð ə (r )/
fin d V /f a tn d /
fo re x a m p le
/f o :( r ) ɪg ˈ z ɑ ːm p l/
fo u r /f o t(r )/
fr ie n d s n p i /f r e n d z /
a b o u tp r e p /ə ˈb a ʊ t/
a c c o u n ta n t n /ə ˈk a ʊ n tə n t/
a d d V /æ ð /
a lp h a b e t n /ˈ æ lf ɔ b e t/
a lp h a b e tic a l o r d e r n
/ˌ æ lf ə ˈ b e tɪk l ˈɔ ːd ə { r)/
a rc h ite c t n /ˈ ɑ ːk ɪte k t/
a rtic le n /ˈ ɑ ːtɪk l/
a sk V /ɑ ːs k /
A u s tr a lia n /ɒ ˈ s tr e ɪ lɪ ə /
b a c k g a tn m o n n /ˈb æ k g æ m ə rɪ/
b e V /b iː/
b e fo re p re p /b ɪˈfɔ ː(r)/
p i c t u r e n / 'p t k t , r o ( r ) /
p la c e s n p l /p l e t s t z /
p la y V /p le r/
p u n c tu a tio n n /ˌp ʌ ŋ k lʃ u ˈe ɪʃ n /
A fric a n /ˈ æ f rɪk ə /
a g re e m e n t n /ə ˈ g riːm ə n t/
A lg e r ia n /æ lˈd ʒ ɪə riə /
A lg e ria n a d j /æ lˈ d ʒ ɪə r iə n /
a lo n g p r e p /ə ˈ lɒ ŋ /
a l s o a d v / 'o t l s o o /
A n d o rra n /æ n ˈd ɔ ːrə /
q u e s t i o n n / 'k w e s t j o n /
A n g o l a n /f f ip 'g a u l o /
q u e s tio n m a r k n
A rc tic O c e a n n /ˌ ɑ ː k tɪ k ˈə ʊ ʃn /
/ 'k w e s t j a n m o :k /
a r e a n / 'e o r i o /
fro m p re p /fro m /
q u i c k l y a d v / 'k w t k l i /
A rg e n tin a n /ˌ ɑ :d ʒ ə n ˈtiːn ə /
f u l l s t o p n / ˌ f ʊ l 's t o p /
re a d V /r i:d /
a r o u n d p r e p / o 'r a o n d /
g o V /9 ɔ ʊ /
r e g is te r v / 'r e d j t s t a f r ) /
A tla n tic O c e a n n
h a v e V /h æ v /
h e lp V /h e lp /
re g is tra tio n d e sk n
/ˌ re d ʒ ɪˈs tre ɪʃ n d e s k /
/ ə t ˌ l æ n t ɪ k 'ə ʊ ʃ θ /
B a n g la d e s h n /ˌ b æ ŋ g lə ˈ d e ʃ /
ru le s n p l /r u tlz /
B h u t a n n / b u t 't o : n /
h o u s e w i f e n / 'h a o s w a t f /
sc re e n n /s k ri:n /
b ig a d j /b tg /
h o w m a n y / h a u 'm e n i /
s e n t e n c e n / 's e n t o n s /
B o li v ia n / b ə ˈ l ɪ v i ə /
h u s b a n d n /ˈ h ʌ z b ə n d /
s is te r n /ˈ s ɪs tə ( r ) /
b o rd e r V /ˈb ɔ ːd ə (r)/
six /s ɪk s /
b o r d e r s n p / / 'b o : d o z /
s m a l l l e t t e r s n p l / s m ɔ ː l 'l e t o z /
B r u n e i n / b r u : 'n a t /
h o s p ita l n /ˈ h ɒ s p ɪtl/
a l o t o f / ə 'l o t a v /
p h o t o n / 'f o o t o u /
Unit 2
i m p o r t a n t fld ; / ɪ m ˈ p ɔ : t n t /
in p re p h n l
in d e x n /ˈ ɪn d e k s /
I n d i a n / 't n d i o /
in s tru c tio n s « p i /ɪn ˈ s tr ʌ k ʃ n z /
s o n n / 8 ʌ ɪı /
B u r m a n / 'b o : m a /
s ta r t n /S to tt/
b u t conj /h \t/
s t u d e n t n / 's t j u t d n t /
C a n a d a n /ˈk æ n ə d ə /
s tu d y V /ˈs tʌ d i/
c a p i t a l ( c i ty ) n / ˈ k æ p ɪ t l ˈ s ɪ t i /
s u r v e y V / s o 'v e t /
c a rs n p l /k o :z /
In te rn e t n /ˈ ɪn tə n e t/
te x t n /te k s t/
c e n t r e w / 's e n t a ( r ) /
in tro d u c tio n s M p/ /ˌ ɪn tr ə ˈ d ʌ k ʃ n z /
t e x t b o o k n / 't e k s t b o k /
C h a d n /tʃæ d /
T h a ila n d n /ˈ ta ɪlæ n d /
C h ile n /ˈ tʃ I li/
title n /ˈ ta ɪtl/
C h in a n /ˈ tʃa ɪn ə /
c lim a te n /ˈ k la ɪm ə t/
in te rn a tio n a l sc h o o l n
/ˌ ɪn tə ˈ ^ æ ʃ n ə l s k u ːl/
Ja p a n n /d ʒ ə ˈp æ n /
b e g in n e r n /b ɪˈ g ɪn ə { r ) /
k e y b o a rd n /ˈ k iːb ɔ ːd /
T u rk e y V / ' t 3 :k i/
b e lo w p r e p /b ɪˈlə ʊ /
k n o w V /θ ə ʊ /
tw o / t u ː/
c o a s t n /k o o s t/
b o o k n lh u k.1
la b e l V / 'l e t b l /
u n c le n /ˈ ʌ ŋ k l/
c o a s t l i n e n / 'k o o s t l a t n /
B r a z il n / b r ə ˈ z ɪ l /
le a r n V /la :n /
u n d e r lin e V /ˌʌ n d ə ˈla ɪn /
c o lle g e n /ˈ k ɒ lɪd ʒ /
b r o th e r n /ˈb rʌ ð ə (r)/
le c tu re r n /ˈ le k tʃ ə r ə ( r ) /
u n d e rs ta n d v /ˌʌ n d ə ˈs tæ n d /
c o m m a n / 'k o m o /
b u s in e s s w o m a n n
l e t t e r s n p l / 'l e t o z /
u n iv e r s ity n /,J u ːn ɪˈ v ɜ ːs ə ti/
d e s e r t n / 'd e z o t /
li k e V / l a ɪ k /
u s e V /J u ːz /
d i f f e r e n t a d j / 'd ɪ f r ə n t /
v e rb n /v ɜ ːb /
d ry a d j /d ra t/
v e r y m u c h a d v / 'v e r i m M f /
e a s i e r a d j / 'i : z i a { r ) /
v o w e ls n p l / ' v a o s l z J
e a s t n /1ː51/
/ˈ b ɪz n ə s w ʊ m ə n /
c a p ita l le tte r s n p l /ˌ k æ p i tl ˈ le tə z /
liv e V / l i v l
c a r e f u l l y a d v / 'k e a f o l i /
l o o k a t V / 'l o k æ t /
check V /tʃe k /
m a k e s u re v /m e tk ˈʃ ɔ ː(r )/
ch ess n l i j t s i
m a r r ie d a d j / 'm s r i d /
c h i l d r e n Mp i / ˈ t ʃ ɪ l d r ə r ɪ /
m a tc h V /m æ tʃ/
c ir c le V /ˈ s ɜ :k l/
rn e d ic a l s tu d e n t n
c ity n
/ˈs ɪti/
/ 'm e d t k l ' s t j u : d n t /
c lu b n /k lʌ b /
m e e t v /m iːt/
c o m e f r o m V /ˈ k ʌ m f r o m /
m e m b e r s n p l / 'm e m b a z /
c o m p le te V /k ə m ˈ p liːt/
m e n n p l /m e n /
c o m p u te r e n g in e e rin g n
/lc ə m ˈp ju ːtə (r) ˌe n d ʒ ɪˈn ɪə rɪŋ /
c o m p u te r p ro g ra m m e r n
/l^ ə m ˈp ju :tə ˈp rə ʊ g ræ m ə (r)/
c o n fe re n c e n /ˈk ɒ n fə rə n s /
c o n s o n a n ts « p / /ˈk ɒ n s ə n ə n ts /
c o r r e c t (v, a d j ) / k ə ˈ r e k t /
c o u n tr y n /ˈ k ʌ n tri/
c o u rs e n /k o ts /
m ista k e n /m ɪˈ s te ɪk /
n a m e n /n e tm /
n e c e s s a r y a d ) / 'n e s o s o r i /
n e w a d j /n ju :/
n o u n n /n a o n /
n u m b e r v / 'n A m b a ( r ) /
n u rs e n /n a :s /
o c c u p a tio n n /ˌ ɒ k ju ˈp e ɪʃn /
o f f ic e n / 'o f t s /
d a u g h te r n /ˈ d ɔ :tə ( r ) /
d e n tis t n / 'd e n t t s t /
d ic tio n a ry n /ˈ d ɪk ʃ ə n r i/
do
64
V
/d u ː/
W ord list
o n e /w ʌ n /
o n li n e a d j /,ɒ n ˈ la ɪn /
p a g e n /p e ɪd ʒ /
w e b p a g e n /ˈ w e b p e ɪd ʒ /
E a st A f r i c a n /i ːs t ˈæ fr ɪk ə /
w h a t? /w o t/
e i g h t / 6 ɪ 1/
w h e re ? /w e o (r )/
E u r o p e n / 'j o o r o p /
w h ic h ? / w ɪ t ʃ /
e x a m p l e n / t g 'z o : m p l /
w ith p re p /w i6 /
e x p o rt V /ɪk ˈs p ɔ ːt/
w o rd n /w ɜ ːd /
fiv e / f a t v /
w o rk V /w ɜ ːk /
fla g n / f l s g /
w rite V /^ a ɪt/
fla t a d j / f læ t/
fo re st n I 'fo n s V
F ra n c e n /frɑ ːn s /
g e o g ra p h y n /d ʒ iˈɒ g rə fi/
g r a m m a r n /ˈ g r æ m ə { r ) /
h a lf /h ɑ ːf/
h ig h a d j /h a ɪ/
h ill n /h r l/
h o t a d j /h o t/
id e a n /a ɪˈ d ɪə /
In d o n e s ia n /ˌ ɪn d ə ˈn iːʒ ə /
I t a ly w / ˈ ɪ t ə l i /
land n /lænd/
large adj /laːdʒ/
Libya n /ˈlɪbiə/
link V /lɪŋk/
list n /lrst/
location n /ləʊˈkeɪʃn/
long adj /lɒŋ/
Malaysia n /məˈleɪʒə/
Malaysian adj /məˈleɪʒn/
Mali n /ˈmɑ:li/
many /ˈmeni/
map n /mæp/
Mauretanian /ˌmɒrɪˈteɪnɪə/
meaning n /ˈmi:nɪŋ/
medicines np/ /ˈmedɪsnz/
Mediterranean Sea n
/ˌmedɪtəˈreɪniən siː/
Mexico n /ˈmeksɪk^ʊ/
million /'mɪljən/
modern n /ˈmɒdn/
Morocco n /məˈrɒkəʊ/
most /moost/
mountains np/ /ˈmaʊntənz/
national adj /ˈnæʃnəl/
Nepal n /nəˈpɔːl/
New Zealand n /ˌnjuː ˈziːlənd/
Niger n /niː'ʒeə{r)/
north n InoiQI
North Africa n /no:0 ˈæfrɪkə/
North America n /ɒɔːθ əˈmerɪkə/
Oceania n /əʊ5ɪˈɑːɒɪə/
oceans npl psojnz!
oil n /oil/
on prep loni
other adj /ˈʌðə(r)/
over prep /ˈəʊvə(r)/
Paciflc Ocean n /pəˌsɪfɪk ˈəʊʃn/
Pakistan n /ˌpækɪˈstæn/
Paraguay n /ˈpærəgwaɪ/
part ofspeech n /ˌpɑ:t ov ˈspi:tJ■/
population n /,pɒpjuˈleɪʃn/
Portugal n /ˈpɔːtʃʊgl/
predict V /prɪˈdɪkt/
prepare V /prɪˈpeə(r)/
rainforest n /'reɪnfɒrɪst/
river n /ˈrɪvə(r)/
Saudi Arabian /ˌsaʊdi əˈreɪbiə/
school n /sku:l/
seas n pl /siːz/
second /ˈsekənd/
short adj /ʃɔ:ɪ/
similar adj /ˈsɪm^lə(r)/
south n /sao9/
South Africa n /saʊθˈæfrɪkə/
South China Sea n
/sao6 ˈtʃaɪnə siː/
South East Asia n /saoO itst ˈɑɪʃə/
Spain n /spetn/
state capital n /steɪt ˈkæpɪtl/
Strait of Malacca n
/streɪt nv mo'lako/
subject n /ˈsʌbdʒekt/
sunny adj /ˈsʌni/
Switzerland n /ˈswɪtsələnd/
technical institute n
/ˈteknɪkl 'ɪnstɪtjuːt/
there are /deo(r) m(r)/
there is /deo(r) tz/
thing n /θɪŋ/
tourists n pl /'toonsts/
travelling n /ˈtrævəlɪŋ/
Tunisia n /tju'ntzio/
Uruguay n /'joorogwat/
USA n /,ju: es ˈɑɪ/
weather n /ˈweðə(r)/
west n /west/
Western Sahara n
/ˈwestən sə'hɑːrə/
Unit ^
p re p o s itio n n /ˌ p re p ə ˈz ɪʃn /
re c o rd V /rɪˈk ɔ ːd /
afternoon n /ˌɑɪftəˈnuːn/
article n /ˈɑːtɪkl/
at prep /æt/
beginning n /bɪˈgɪnɪŋ/
box n /boks/
breakfast n /ˈbrekfəst/
business studies n
/ˈbɪznəs ˌstʌdiz/
cafeteria n /ˌkæfəˈtɪəriə/
car n /kɑː(r)/
chemistry n /ˈkemɪstri/
choose v /tj utz/
clock n /klok/
coffee n /ˈkɒfi/
colour n /ˈkʌlə(r)/
compare v /kəmˈpeə(r)/
computer n /kəmˈpjuːtə(r)/
computer centre n
/kəmˈpjuɪtə(r) ˈsentə(r)/
day n /det/
dinner n /ˈdɪnə(r)/
drink v /drɪŋk/
drive v /dratv/
each /ɪːʃı/
emails n pl /ˈiːmeɪlz/
evening n /ˈiːvnɪŋ/
every day adv /ˈevrideɪ/
false adj /fɔːls/
football match n /ˈfʊtbɔːl mætʃ/
Trench n /frentj /
friday n /ˈfraɪdeɪ/
general Information n
/ˈdʒenrəl ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃn/
get up v /get ˈʌp/
give v /gɪv/
go on v /goo ˈɒn/
go to v /goo tut/
go together v /goo təˈgeðə(r)/
group n /gruːp/
gym n /dʒɪm/
home n /hoom/
homework n /ˈhəʊmwɜːk/
how oldf /hao oold/
lab n /1æð/
language n /ˈlæŋgwɪdʒ/
leave v /lɪːv/
lecture n /ˈlektʃə(r)/
library n /lmbrorl/
look for v /ˈlʊk fɔː(r)/
lunch n /lʌntʃ/
make v /meɪk/
maths n /mæ^s/
medicine n /ˈmedɪsn/
hfondayn /ˈmʌndeɪ/
morning n /ˈmɔːnɪŋ/
multimedia centre n
/ˌmʌltɪˈmɪːdiə ˈsentə(r)/
note n /noot/
nursing n /ˈnɜːsɪŋ/
object n /ˈɒbdʒɪkt/
order n /ˈɔːdə(r)/
part n /pɑːt/
physics n /ˈfɪzɪks/
r e m e m b e r V /r ɪˈ m e m b ə ( r ) /
re s e a rc h n / r ɪ 's ɜ ː t ʃ /
S a tu rd a y n /ˈ s æ tə d e ɪ /
s e e V /»1ː/
s e m in a r n /ˈ s e m ɪn ɑ ː(r )/
s e n d V /s e n d /
s im p le a d ) /ˈs ɪm p l/
s k im m in g n /s k ɪm ɪŋ /
so m e a d j /s ʌ m /
S p a n is h n /ˈ s p æ n ɪʃ /
s p e ll c h e c k to o l n /ˈ s p e l t ʃ e k tu t l/
s p e llin g n /ˈ s p c lɪŋ /
s p o rts p ro g ra m m e s n p l
/s p o :ts ˈp rə ʊ g ræ m z /
s ta rt V /s tɑ ːt/
s tu d ie s n p l /ˈ s tʌ d iz /
S u n d a y n /ˈ s ʌ n d e ɪ/
te le v is io n n /ˈ te l ɪv ɪ ʒ n /
T h u rs d a y n /ˈ θ ɜ ːz d e ɪ/
tim e n /ta ɪm /
tim e e x p re s s io n n
/ˌta ɪm ɪk ˈs p re ʃn /
tru e
adj
/tru :/
T u esd ay n /ˈ tju ːz d e ɪ/
TV «
A ti: ˈ v iː/
u n d e r p re p /ˈ ʌ n d ə (r) /
v is it V /ˈ v ɪz ɪ t/
v o c a b u la ry n /v ə ˈ k æ b jə lə r i/
w a tc h V /w ɒ tʃ /
W e d n e sd a y n /ˈw e n z d e ɪ/
w e e k n /w i:k /
w e e k e n d n /ˌ w i:k ˈe n d /
w h e n ? /w e n /
w o rk n /w ɜ ːk /
w ritin g n /ˈ r a ɪt ɪŋ /
Unit 4
a d je c tiv e n /ˈ æ d ʒ ɪk tɪv /
a d v a n ta g e s /ə d ˈv ɑ ːn tɪd ʒ /
a d v e r b n / 'æ d v ɜ ː b /
a irp o rts n p i /ˈ e ə p ɔ ːts /
a l o n e a d v /ə ˈ 1 ə ʊ θ /
a rriv e v /ə ˈ ra ɪv /
b a d a d j /b æ d /
b e c a u se co n j /b ɪˈk ɒ z /
b e c a u s e o f p r e p / b i 'k o z o v /
b e tte r a d j r b e t o ( r ) /
b i o l o g y M / b a ɪ ˈ ɒ l ə d 3 i/
b o th /b o o 0 /
b rid g e s n p l /ˈb rɪd ʒ ɪz /
b u ild V /b ɪld /
b u il d in g s ite M /ˈ b ɪld ɪŋ s a ɪ t /
c a n V /k æ n /
c a r e e r n / k o 'r t o ( r ) /
c h e a p a d j /tʃi:p /
c iv il e n g i n e e r n
/ˌs ɪv l e n d ʒ ɪˈ n ɪə ( r ) /
c la s s n / k l o : s /
c le a n a d j /k li:n /
c le a re r a d ) /ˈ k lɪə r ə ( r ) /
c o m p a n ie s t t p / /ˈk ʌ m p ə ^ iz /
c o m p u t e r file n / k ə m ˈ p j u ː t ə f a i l /
c o n d u d e V /k ə n ˈk lu :d /
d e fin e V /d ɪˈfa ɪn /
d e s ig n V /d ɪˈ z a ɪn /
d iffic u lt a d j /ˈ d ɪf ɪ k ə lt /
d irty a d ) /ˈd ɜ ːti/
d is a d v a n ta g e n /ˌ d ɪs ə d ˈ v ɑ : n tɪ d ʒ /
d ra w in g n /ˈ d r ɔ ːɪŋ /
e a c h o th e r / i : t ʃ ˈʌ ð ə (r)/
e a r l y fld v / ˈ ɜ ː l i /
e a s ily a d v /ˈ iːz ə li/
e a s y a d j / ˈ iː z i/
e le c tric ity n /ɪˌ le k ˈ tr ɪs ə ti/
e n d in g n /ˈe n d ɪŋ /
e n g in e e rin g n /ˌ e n d ʒ ɪˈ n ɪə r ɪŋ /
E n g lis h n /ˈ ɪŋ g lɪʃ /
e x e rc is e n /ˈ e k s ə s a ɪz /
fa m ily n a m e s /ˈ fæ m ə li ˌn e ɪm /
fa m o u s a d j /ˈ fe ɪm ə s /
f i n a l l y fld v / ˈ f a ɪ n ə l i /
f irs t n a m e / ˈ f ɜ ː s t ˌn e ɪm /
f i r s t l y f ld v / ˈ f ɜ : s t l i /
fre e tim e n /f r iː ta im /
g e t ill / g e t ˈɪl/
g o o d a d j /g o d /
g r e a t e r fld j / ˈ g r e ɪ l ə ( r ) /
h e a lth n /h e l0 /
notebook n /ˈnəʊtbʊk/
notes n p l /noots/
now fldv /nau/
open-plan fldj /,oopon ˈplæn/
outside fldv /ˌaʊtˈsaɪd/
pair n /peo(r)/
place s /piers/
plan V /plffin/
privately adv /ˈpraɪvətll/
profession n /p^əˈfeʃn/
put V /pot/
quiet fld) /ˈkwaɪət/
railways s p / /ˈreɪlweɪz/
reason s /ˈriːzn/
record n /ˈrekɔːd/
researchers s pi /rɪˈsɜ:tʃəz/
roads s pl /roodz/
rootn s /ru:tn/
scanning s /ˈskænɪŋ/
search engine s /ˌsɜːtʃ ˈendʒɪn/
secondly fldv /ˈsekəndli/
shop V /ʃɒp/
shopping s /ˈʃɒpɪŋ/
show V /ʃəʊ/
silence s /ˈsaɪləns/
small adj /smo:l/
sometimes fldv /ˈsʌmtaɪmz/
spell V /spel/
spoil s /spɔːt/
squash s /skwnf/
study s /ˈstʌdi/
take V /tetk/
talk V /to:k/
tennis n /ˈtenɪs/
the same /ðə ˈseɪm/
then /den/
think V /0ipk/
three /0rit/
together fldv /təˈgeðə(r)/
translation s /trænsˈleɪʃn/
travel V /ˈtrævl/
types n p l /tatps/
useful fldp /ˈjuːsfl/
want v /wont/
well fldv /wel/
why? /war/
work colleagues s pl
/wa:k ˈkɒliːgz/
work long hours /wa:k lop ˈaʊəz/
world s /watld/
world language n
/w ɜ ːld ˈlæ ŋ g w ɪd ʒ /
years n p l /jtoz/
Unit 5
a c tio n s
/ 'æ k ʃ n /
a d d re s s s /ə ˈ d re s /
a d v e rtis e m e n ts /ə d ˈ v ɜ :tɪs m ə n t/
a n im a ls s p / /ˈ æ n ɪm lz /
a p p lic a tio n fo rm
/ˌ æ p lɪˈ k e ɪʃn fo tm /
a s s e m b ly p o in t s
b ^ s n p l /b æ g z /
b a s k e tlia ll s /ˈ b ɑ ː s k ɪ tb ɔ ː l/
b la c k
n, adj / b t e k /
adj / b l u : /
b lu e s ,
b o rn
b rin g
V /b o :rt/
V /b r ɪŋ /
b u ild in g s
/ˈ b ɪld ɪŋ /
b u s s /b ʌ s /
c a lm
adj / k ɑ ː m /
c ir c le s
/ˈs ɜ :k l/
c l e a r fld ; / k l t o ( r ) /
c l e a r l y fld v / ˈ k l ɪ ə l l /
c ro ss
V /k r o s /
danger s
/ 'd e ɪ n d ʒ ə ( r ) /
d a te o f b i r t h s
d is c u s s
/ d e ɪ t n v ˈb 3 ːθ /
V / d ɪ 's k ʌ s /
d o c u m e n ts s p / /ˈ d ɒ k ju m e n ts /
eat
V /lːt/
e m a il a d d re s s s
essay s
e v e ry o n e /ˈe v riw ʌ n /
e :d t s
/ˈ e k s ɪt/
fire s /ˈ f a ɪə ( r ) /
U K s /ˌ ju ː ˈk e ɪ/
fire a la r m n /ˈ f a ɪə r o lo :m /
until conj /ənˈtɪl/
volleyball n /ˈvɒlibɔ:l/
white s /waɪt/
fo llo w V /ˈ ıɒ ıɔ ʊ /
fo o tb a ll n /ˈ f ʊ tb ɔ :l/
fo r m s /f o :m /
f o r m a l fld j / ˈ f ɔ ː m l /
g e o g ra p h ic a l fe a tu re s s p l
/ˌdʒiːəˈgræfɪkl ˈfiːtʃəz/
g o b a c k V /g o o ˈb æ k /
g re e n s
/g r iːn /
h e a r v /h ro (r)/
h e r e fld v / h t o ( r ) /
in k s
/ɪŋ k /
i n t e r e s t e d fld j / 't n t r o s t t d /
in to p re p /ˈ ɪn tə /
Japanese
adj / ˌ d ʒ æ p ə 'n i ː z /
la n d in g c a r d s /ˈ læ n d ɪŋ k u td /
lib ra ria n n /la ɪˈ b ^ e ə riə n /
lift s / l r f t /
lo c k e r s n p l /ˈ lɒ k ə z /
m e m o r y s t i c k s /ˈ m e m ə ri s tɪk /
m o b ile p h o n e s
jo b n /d s n b /
n a tio n a lity s
le c tu re th e a tr e n
/ˈlcktʃə(r) '0toto(r)/
less /les/
more /mɔː(r)/
m usics /ˈmjuːzɪk/
near prep /nɪə(r)/
need V /ni:d/
noise s /notz/
noisy fld) /ˈnɔɪzi/
66
W ord list
/ 'i ː m e ɪ l ə ˈ d r e s /
/ˈ e s e ɪ/
in f o rm a tio n n /ˌ ɪn fə ˈ m e ɪʃn /
la w n /lo t/
/ə ˈs e m b li p ɔ ɪn t/
road s /rəʊd/
run V /rʌn/
safety s /ˈseɪfti/
save V I s e i v l
seconds s p / /ˈsekəndz/
September s /sepˈtembə(r)/
shape s /ʃeɪp/
sign V /satn/
signature s /ˈsɪgnətʃə(r)/
signs s p l /saɪnz/
size s / s a i z l
smoke V /smook/
sports club s /ˈspɔːts klʌb/
stay V /stet/
streets n p l / s t r u t s /
student ID card s
/ ˈ s tj u ːd n t 3ɪ ˈdi: k ɑ ːd /
student identity card s
/ˈstJuːdnt aɪˈdentəti kɑːd/
swimmings /'swɪmɪŋ/
table n /ˈteɪbl/
taxi s /ˈtæksi/
telephone number s
/ˈtelɪfəʊn ˌnʌmbə(r)/
tell V /tel/
tickv /tɪk/
today fldv /təˈdeɪ/
topic n /ˈtɒpɪk/
town s /taon/
train s /trern/
triangle n /ˈtraɪæŋgl/
turn off V /ts:n 'of/
/ˌ m ə ʊ b a ɪl ˈfə ʊ n /
/ˌ n æ ʃ ə ˈn æ lə ti/
n o e n tr y /n o u ˈe n tri/
n o t i c e s /ˈ n ə ʊ tɪs /
o f t e n fld v /ˈ ɒ f r ı/
p h ra s e s s p / /ˈ fre ɪz ɪz /
p la c e o f b i r t h s /p l e ɪs Dv ˈb ɜ :θ /
p la n e s
/p le ɪn /
re c ta n g le s
/ˈ r e k tæ ŋ g l/
re d s /r e d /
re g is tr a tio n fo r tn s
/ˌre d ʒ ɪˈs tre ɪʃ n fm m /
Unit 6
a g o a d v I s 'g s u l
a n /ɔ ːı/
a n o v e r th e w o rld
m a la r ia n /m ə ˈle ə riə /
m e d ic a l a d j /ˈ m e d ɪk l/
m e e t i n g n / 'm l t t t p /
lV Iid d le E a s t n / , m t d l ˈ i : s t /
m o d e r n a d j /ˈ m ɒ d n /
Unity
a fe w /ə 'f j u t /
a c a d e m ic a d j /ˌæ k ə ˈd e m ɪk /
a c h ie v e v /ə ˈ t ʃ i ː v /
p a y V /p e !/
p e r s o n n / 'p a t s n /
p i l o t / ! / 'p a t l a t /
p io n e e r n /ˌ p a ɪə ˈ n ɪə (r )/
p o i n t n /p O ! n t/
p r e s e n t a t i o n / ! / ˌ p r e z n 't e ɪ ʃ n /
n e x t ad j /n e k s t/
ag e n /e ɪd ʒ /
a n c ie n t w o r ld n / ˈ e ɪ n ʃ ə n t ˈ w ɜ ːld /
o p e n V /ˈə ʊ p ə n /
A m e ric a n a d ; /ə ˈ m c r ɪk ə ɪı/
a n o th e r /ə ˈ n ʌ ð ə (r) /
p a in n /p e tn /
A m e ric a n s n p l /ə ˈ m e r ɪk ə n z /
a rte m is in in n /ˌ a ːtɪˈ m iːs ɪn ɪn /
p ast n /p o ts t/
A p r il n / ˈ e ɪ p r ə l /
ra c e V /re ts /
a s p ir in n /ˈ æ s p rɪn /
p a tie n t n /ˈ p e ɪʃ n t/
A u g u st n /ˈɔ ːg ə s t/
ra ilw a y n /ˈ r e ɪlw e ɪ/
a t s e a / æ ı ˈ s i:/
p h o n e n /fo o n /
b e c o m e v /b ɪˈk ʌ m /
a v o id V /ə ˈ v ɔ ɪd /
p ip e s n p l /p a ɪp s /
b e l o n g t o V / b ɪ 'l ɒ ŋ t o /
b a rk n /b u :k /
p o u r V /p o t(r)/
b o a r d n /b o td /
b e g in V /b ɪˈg ɪn /
p rie s t n /p r lts t/
c a r r y v /ˈ k æ r i/
/ ɔ ː l ˈ ə ʊ v ə ( r ) ð ə ˈ w 3 ːl d /
b o a t n /b o u t/
p ro b le m n /ˈ p rɒ b lə m /
b o n e s n p l Ih d o n zJ
p r o n o u n n / 'p r o o n a u n /
p ric e n /p ra ts /
p r o f e s s o r n / p r a 'f e s o f r ) /
r e t u r n V / n 't 3 ! n /
R u s s ia n n /ˈ rʌ ʃɪı/
s a il V / s e t l /
s e c o n d / 's e k a n d /
S e p t e m b e r n / s e p 't e m b o ( r ) /
d a te n /d e ɪt/
s e rv ic e n /ˈ s ɜ ː v ɪs /
D e c e m b e r n /d ɪˈ s e m b ə ( r ) /
s e v e n th /ˈ s e v ^ θ /
d is ta n c e n /ˈ d ɪs tə n s /
s h ip s n p l /ʃ ɪp s /
E a rth n /ɜ ːθ /
s in g le -h a n d e d a d v
B ritis h a d j / ˈ b r ɪ t ɪ ʃ /
p u b lic b a th s « /ˌ p ʌ b lɪk ˈ b ɑ ːð z /
c a ll V / k ɔ ː l /
p u b l i c h e a l t h n / ˌ p ʌ b l ɪ k ˈ h e lθ /
c a r r y a w a y V / ˈ k æ r i ə 'w e ɪ /
q u in in e « /k w ɪˈ n iːn /
c a u s e V Ik o iz J
re c o g n iz e V /ˈ re k ə g n a ɪz /
C E / ˌ s l: ˈi:/
e ig h th /e ɪtθ /
re fe r to v /r ɪˈ f ɜ ː( r ) to /
c e n tu ry « /ˈ s e n tʃ ə ri/
e le c tric a d ; /ɪ ˈ l e k tr ɪ k /
sp a c e n /s p e ɪs /
re g u la r a d ; /ˈ re g j^ lə (r)/
c h a p t e r n / ˈ t J 'æ p t ə ( r ) /
e l e c t r o n i c a d ; / t , l e k 't r o n t k /
sp ace p ro g ra m m e n
r e l a t e d a d ; / r t 'l e t t t d /
c h e m ic a ls n p / /ˈ k e m ɪk lz /
re p e a t v /rɪˈp i:t/
c h ild n /tʃ a ɪ ld /
r e p e titio n /I /ˌre p ə ˈtɪʃn /
c o m m o n a d j /ˈk ɒ m ə n /
re p la c e v /r ɪˈp le ɪs /
e ig h te e n th /ˌ e ɪˈtiːn θ /
E n g la n d n /ˈ ɪŋ g lə n d /
fa c to ry w o rk e r n
/ ˌ s ɪ ŋ g l 'h æ n d ɪ d /
s ix th /s ɪk s θ /
/ˌs p e ɪs ˈp rə ʊ g ræ m /
s p a c e s h ip n / ˈ s p e ɪs ʃ ɪp /
/ˈ f æ k tə r i ˈw ɜ ːk ə ( r)/
sp e e d n /s p i:d /
F e b r u a r y /! /ˈ fe b ru ə r i/
s t o r y / ! / 's t O ! r i /
fifth /f tf e /
s u c c e s s f u l a d ; / s o k 's e s f l /
firs t / f s ts t/
te n th /te n 6 /
flig h t n /f la r t/
te s t n / t e s t /
f ly V / f l a / /
t h i r d /0 3 ! d /
th o u s a n d s /ˈ θ a ʊ z n d z /
c o u ld V /k n d /
r e s u lt n /r ɪˈ z ʌ lt/
d e c i d e v / d ɪ 's a ɪ d /
re w rite v /ˌ r iːˈ r a ɪt/
d e v e lo p V /d ɪˈ v e lə p /
ric e n /r a r s /
d e v e lo p m e n t n /d ɪˈ v e lə p m ə n t/
R o m a n s n p l /ˈrə ʊ m ə n z /
d is c o v e r y /d ɪˈ s k ʌ v ə ( r ) /
s a ilo r n /ˈ s e ɪlə ( r ) /
d i s c o v e r i e s u p i / d ɪ 's k ʌ v ə r i z /
fo r s u re /fo (r) ˈʃʊ ə (r)/
s c i e n t i s t n / 's a t o n t t s t /
d is e a s e /! /d ɪˈz i:z /
f o u r th /fo :0 /
t r a n s p o i l n / 't r f f i n s p o : t /
s e rio u s a d j /ˈ s ɪə r iə s /
F re n c h m a n n /ˈfre n tʃm ə n /
t u r n to V /ˈ ı ɜ ː θ ta /
e a r l y a d j / ’3 ːl i/
e d u c a te v /ˈ e d ʒ u k e ɪt/
s k i n n / s lc t n /
g r a n d p r i x n / ˌ g r ɑ : 'p r i : /
t u t o r / ! / 't j u ! t o ( r ) /
S o u th A m e ric a n /s a o 0 ə ˈm e rɪk ə /
g re a t a d j /g r e tt/
t w e n t i e t h / 't w e n t i o S /
e d u c a tio n n /ˌ e d ʒ u ˈk e ɪʃn /
s t il l a d v / s t r l /
g ro u n d n /g ra u n d /
tw e n ty -firs t /.tw e n ti ˈ f ɜ ːs t/
e ffe c t n / t 'f e k t /
E g y p tia n a d j /i ˈ d ʒ ɪ p ʃ n /
s to p V /s to p /
h e lic o p te r n /ˈh e !ɪk ɒ p t^ (^ )/
u n d e rg ro u n d tra in n
E g y p tia n s n p l / i ˈ d ʒ ɪ p ʃ n z /
s u b s ta n c e n /ˈ s ʌ b s tə n s /
h o t- a ir b a llo o n n
e ig h te e n th a d j /ˌ e ɪˈtiːn θ /
s u r g e r y /ɪ / ˈ s ɜ ː d ʒ ə r i /
e n c y c lo p e d ia n /ɪn ˌs a ɪk lə ˈ p iːd iə /
E u ro p e a n a d j /ˌ jʊ ə rə ˈ p iːə n /
sle e p V /s liːp /
/ ˌ h ɒ t ˈɑ ə b o 'l u t n /
w h o ? /h u :/
tre a t y /tr i:t/
in tro d u c tio n /! /ˌɪn trə ˈd ʌ k ʃn /
w in V /w tn /
y o u n g e s t a d ; / 'j ʌ ŋ g ɪ s t /
te a c h y / t i ː t ʃ /
tre e n /tr i:/
e v e n ts /I p i /ɪˈv e n ts /
tr ip n I t n p l
in v e n to r n /ɪn ˈ v e n tə ( r ) /
e x a m s n p i /ɪg ˈz æ m z /
tr o p ic a l a d ; /ˈ tr ɒ p ɪk l/
Ja n u a ry n /ˈd ʒ æ n ju ə ri/
e x p e rim e n t n /ɪk ˈs p e r ɪm ə n t/
ty p e n /t a ɪp /
j o i n V / d 3 0 !n /
fin is h V /ˈ f ɪn ɪʃ /
v a c c i n e n / 'v æ k s i ː n /
Ju ly n /d ʒ u ˈ la ɪ/
first /f m s t/
v e g e ta b le s /I p i /ˈ v e d ʒ tə b lz /
Ju n e n /d 3 u :n /
fo o d n /fu ːd /
v ita m in n /ˈ v ɪtə m ɪn /
la n d y /læ n d /
w a te r n /ˈ w ɔ ː tə ( r ) /
l o n g - d i s t a n c e a d j /ˌ lɒ ŋ ˈ d ɪ s t ə n s /
G re e k s n p l /g riːk s /
w ay s n p l /w e tz /
M a rc h n /m u !tf/
h e a l t h y fld ; / ˈ h e l θ i /
w rite rs n p l /ˈ r a ɪtə z /
M a y n /m e t/
h is to ry n /ˈ h ɪs tri/
y e s te rd a y a d v /ˈ je s tə d e ɪ/
fr u it n /f r u ːt/
m in u te s n p l /ˈ m ɪn ɪts /
h y g ie n e n /ˈ h a ɪd ʒ iːn /
m o n th s n p l /m ʌ n θ s /
im p o r ta n c e n /ɪm ˈ p ɔ :tn s /
m o o n n /m u tn /
im p ro v e V /ɪm ˈ p r u ːv /
n in e te e n th /ˌ n a ɪn ˈti:n θ /
i n p la c e o f p r e p / t n 'p l e t s o v /
n in th /n a tn 0 /
in c r e a s e v /ɪn ˈ k r i:s /
n o n - s t o p a d v / ˌ θ ɒ θ 's t o p /
in tro d u c e V /ˌɪn trə ˈd ju ːs /
N o v e m b e r n /n ə ʊ ˈ v e m b ə (r )/
ir re g u la r a d j /ɪˈ r e g jə lə ( r ) /
n u m b e r n /ˈn ʌ m b ə (r)/
k e e p V /k i:p /
O c t o b e r n / n k 't o o b o ( r ) /
l a t e r fld v / ˈ l c ɪ t ə ( r ) /
o rd in a l n u m b e rs n p l
le a v e s n p l / l i t v z /
le m o n ju ic e n /ˈle m ə n d 3 u :s /
life n / l a ɪ f /
w a lk v /w o :k /
h o w lo n g ? / h a o 'l ɒ ŋ /
in v e n tio n n /ɪn ˈ v e n ʃ n /
E u r o p e a n s Mp i / j ʊ ə r ə ˈ p ^ ː ə n z /
/ˈ ʌ n d ə g r a ʊ n d tr e /n /
/ ˌ ɔ ː d ɪ n l 'H A m b a z /
p a sse n g e r tra in n
/ 'p s s ! n d 3 0 (r) tr e /n /
W ord list
67
U n its
a d v e rtis e v /ˈ æ d v ə ta ɪz /
a d v e rtis in g n /ˈ æ d v ə ta ɪz ɪŋ /
a tta c h V /ə ˈ tæ tʃ /
b e n e fit fro m V /ˈ b e n ɪf ɪt fro m /
B e s t w is h e s / b e s t w ɪ ʃ ɪ z /
b o o k v /b o le /
b re a d n /b re d /
b u s in e s s n /ˈ b ɪz n ə s /
b u y V /b a r /
b y e /b a t/
c o m p e titio n s « p / /ˌ k ɒ m p ə ˈ tɪʃ n z /
c o n c lu s io n n /k ə n ˈ k lu ːʒ n /
c o n n e c t V /k ə ˈn e k t/
c o p y /j /ˈk ɒ p i/
D e a r /d r o (r) /
e m a il V /ˈiːm e ɪl/
e n tr ie s n p l /ˈ e n triz /
e u r o s n p l /ˈ jʊ ə ^ ə ʊ z /
e x p e n s i v e fld j / ɪ k ˈ s p e n s ɪ v /
fa n s n p l /fæ n z /
fa v o u rite a d j / ˈ f e ɪv ə r ɪt /
f r i e n d l y fld ) / ˈ f r e n d i i /
g a m e s n p l /g e ɪm z /
h a n d o u t s n p l / 'h æ n d a ʊ t s /
h a rd adp a d v /h a td /
h a ts n p l /h æ ts /
h e a d in g n /ˈ h e d ɪŋ /
h e llo /h ə ˈ lə ʊ /
h o w ? /h a o /
ill a d j / t l /
k in d n, a d j /k a tn d /
la te a d j /le ɪt/
l o g o n / ' 1ə ʊ 9 ə ʊ /
lo o k fo r w a rd to ...
/lo k ˈf ɔ ːw ə d to /
m a rk e tin g n /ˈ m ɑ ːk ɪtɪŋ /
m is s V /m ts /
m o n e y n /ˈ m ʌ n i/
m o u s e n /m a u s /
O ly m p ic s n p l /ə ˈ lɪm p ɪk s /
o n ly a d v /ˈ ə ʊ ^ 1 /
o rg a n iz a tio n s n p l
/ˌɔ ːg ə n a ɪˈz e ɪʃn z /
p a r k n , V /p ɑ ːl^ /
p la y e r n /ˈ p le ɪə ( r ) /
p le a s e f i n d a tta c h e d .. .
/p liːz fa ɪn d ^ ˈ tæ tʃt/
p o l i t e a d j / p ə 'l a ɪ t /
p o p u la r a d j /ˈ p ɒ p jə lə ( r)/
p r o d u c ts ? ! p i /ˈp rɒ d ʌ k ts /
r e a d i n g l i s t n / 'r e d ɪ ŋ l t s t /
s e a s o n tic k e t n /ˈ s iːz n t ɪ k ɪ t /
s e ll V / s e l /
S e n i o r L e c t u r e r ?!
/ˈ s i:n iə ( r) ˈle k tʃ ə r ə ( r ) /
s h irts n p l /ʃ ɜ : t s /
s o r r y /ˈ s ɒ ri/
s o u rc e s ? !p i I s y .s iz /
s ta d iu m n /ˈs te ɪd iə m /
s u m m e r? ! /ˈ s ʌ m ə ( r)/
ta lk n /to tk /
te r m n /t3 :m /
tic k e ts ? ! / ˈ t ɪ k ɪ t s /
to p a d j /to p /
tw ic e a d v / t w a t s /
u n k in d a d j /ˌʌ n ˈk a ɪn d /
68
W ord list
u s u a lly a d v /ˈ ju ːʒ u ə li/
v i r u s ?! / ˈ v a ɪ r ə s /
w in te r n /ˈw ɪn tə { r)/
w o u l d li k e t o V / w a d ˈ l a ɪk t o /
tr a n s p o il V /træ n ˈs p ɔ ːt/
Unit 9
u n c l e a n a d j / ˌ ʌ n ˈ k li :r ɪ/
agriculture ?ı /'ægrɪkʌltʃə(r)/
Antarctica?! /ænˈta:ktɪkə/
apples n p l /ˈæplz/
barchart?! /ˈbɑː !ʃɑː^
beef?! /bitf/
bottled water n /ˈbɒtld ˈwɔːtə(r)/
change V /tfe?nd 3/
chart n /tʃɑːt/
chicken ?! /ˈtʃɪkm/
chocolate n /ˈtʃɒklət/
cold adj /kould/
complete adj /kəmˈpliːt/
connected adj /kəˈnektɪd/
contain v /kənˈteɪn/
cover V /ˈkʌvə(r)/
crops p l /krops/
cup n /lcAp/
dependent adj /dɪˈpendənt/
describe V /dɪˈskraɪb/
descriptiun ?! /dt'skrtpjn/
drinking water ?ı
/ˈdrɪŋkɪŋ wo:ta(r)/
email box?! /ˈiːmeɪl boks/
farming n /ˈfɑːmɪŋ/
figures n p l /ˈfɪgəz/
finger n /ˈfɪŋgə(r)/
Finland n /ˈfɪnlənd/
future?! /ˈfjuːtʃə(r)/
Germany n /ˈdʒɜ:məni/
global adj /ˈgləʊbl/
goods n p l / g u d z l
grow V /groo/
high marks
/haɪ ˈmɑːks/
Hong Kong ?! /hog ˈkɒŋ/
how much? /hao ˈmʌtʃ/
ice n /ats/
incomplete adj /ˌɪnkəmˈpliːt/
independent adj /ˌɪndɪˈpendənt/
Indian Ocean n /ˌɪndiən ˈəʊʃn/
industry?! /'?ndostri/
inexpensive adj /ˌɪnɪkˈspensɪv/
kilo n /ˈkiːləʊ/
litres n p l /ˈliːtəz/
main adj /me?n/
minerals n p l /ˈmɪnərəlz/
name v /netm/
nowadays adv /'naoodetz/
old adj /oold/
Oman?! /əʊˈmɑːn/
pencil n /ˈpensl/
plants n p l /plotnts/
poor adj /pm{r)/
potatoes?!pi /pəˈteɪtəʊz/
produce V /prəˈdjuːs/
resource n /rɪˈsɔ:s/
rich adj /rttj/
right adj /ratt/
seawater?! /ˈ81ː wo!to(r)/
Southern Ocean ?! /ˈsʌ^ən ˈəʊʃɪı/
square kilometres n p l
/skwe: ˈkɪləˌmiːtəz/
statistics ?! pi /stəˈtɪstɪks/
sugar n /ˈʃʊgə(r)/
surface n /ˈsɜ:fɪs/
surround V /səˈraʊnd/
take care of v /tetk ˈkeə(r) nv/
? !
npl
u n h e a lt h y a d j /ʌ n ˈ h e lθ i/
u n im p o r ta n t a d j /ˌ ʌ n ɪm ˈp ɔ ːtn t/
U n ite d A ra b E m ira te s n
/juˌnaɪtɪd ˌærəb ˈemɪrəts/
u n p o p u la r a d j /ʌ n ˈ p ɒ p jə lə { r) /
u n su c c e ssfu l a d j /ˌʌ ^ s ə k ˈs e s fl/
u s e ?! / j u i z J
w a te r V /ˈ w ɔ :tə { r) /
w a te r s p o r ts n p l
/ˈw ɔ ːtə { r) s p o : ts /
w e t a d j /w e t/
w ro n g a d j Ito q/
Unit 10
a c c u ra te a d j /ˈ æ k jə r ə t/
a c h ie v e m e n ts n p i / ə ˈ tʃ i ːv m ə n ts /
A m e ric a s n p l /ə ˈ m e r ɪk ə z /
A s ia n / ˈ e ɪ ʃ ə /
b illio n /ˈ b ɪljə n /
b illio n a ir e n /,b ɪ lj ə ˈ n e ə ( r ) /
b io te c h c o m p a n y n
/ˈ b a ɪə ʊ te k ˈk ʌ m p ə n i/
b ra n d n /b r s n d /
b u s in e s s m a n n /ˈ b ɪz n ə s m æ n /
c lo th in g n /ˈ k lə ʊ ð ɪŋ /
c o - f o u n d V / ˈ k ə ʊ ˈ1ɑʊθ<^/
sh o p n /ʃɒ p /
stra n g e a d j /s tre ɪn d ʒ /
su c c e s s n /s ə k ˈs e s /
s u p e r s o n ic a d j /ˌ s u :p ə ˈ s ɒ n ɪk /
te c h n o lo g ie s n p i /te k ˈ n ɒ lə d ʒ iz /
to p ic s e n te n c e n /ˈ tɒ p ɪk ˈ s e n tə n s /
tr a n s la te v /tr æ n s ˈ le ɪt/
T - s h ir t n / 't l : f 3 : t /
u se rs n p l /ˈju ːz ə z /
w eb n /w e b /
w e ll-o rg a n iz e d a d j
/w e l ˈ ɔ :g ə n a ɪz d /
w o rld w id e a d j /ˈ w ɜ ːld w a ɪd /
Z a m b ia n /ˈz æ m b iə /
c o m p u te r g a m e s n p l
/k ə m ˈp ju ːtə { r ) g e ɪm z /
c o m p u te r s c ie n c e s n p l
/lc ə m ˈp ju ːtə (r) ˈs a ɪɔ n s ɪz /
c o n c lu d e v /k ə n ˈ k lu ːd /
c o o l a d ) /k u :l/
c re a to r n /k r iˈ e ɪtə ( r ) /
d e s ig n e r n /d ɪˈz a ɪn ə (r)/
D V D s n p / /ˌ d i: v l t ˈ d i :z /
e ffic ie n t a d ; /ɪ ˈ f ɪ ʃ n t /
e le c tric a l e n g in e e rin g «
/ɪˈle k tɪu k l ˌ e n d ʒ ɪˈn ɪə rɪŋ /
e le c tro n ic s « p i /ɪˌ le k ˈ tr ɒ n ɪk s /
e m a il p r o v id e r n
/ˈ iːm e ɪl p r ə ˈ v a ɪd ə ( r ) /
e m a i l s e iw ic e fi / ˈ i ː m e ɪ l ˈ s ə ː v ɪ s /
e m p lo y V /ɪm ˈp lɔ ɪ/
e x a m re s u lts n p l
/ɪg ˈz æ m r ɪˈ z ʌ lts /
fa s h io n m a g a z in e n
/ˈ f æ ʃ n ˌm æ g ə ˈz iːn /
fa s h io n a b le a d j /ˈ f æ ʃ n ə b l/
fin a l s e n te n c e n /ˈ fa ɪn l ˈ s e n tə n s /
fo o tb a lle r n /ˈ f ʊ tb ɔ ːlə ( r ) /
fo u n d e r n /ˈfa ʊ n d ə (r)/
g a r a g e n / 'g æ r ɑ ː ʒ /
h a n d i n V / h æ n d ˈɪn /
h u g e a d ; /h ju ːd ʒ /
h u n d re d s /ˈh ʌ n d rə d z /
i m a g e s n p i / 'ɪ m ɪ d ʒ ɪ z /
in to ta l /ɪŋ ˈtə ʊ tl/
in te r e s tin g a d ; / 'ɪ n t r ə s t ɪ ŋ /
in te rn a tio n a l a d ; /ˌ ɪn tə ˈn æ ʃn ə l/
le a d in g a d j /ˈ li:d ɪŋ /
little /ˈlɪtl/
logically adv /ˈlɒdʒɪkli/
love V /lʌv/
market n /ˈmɑ:kɪt/
middle sentence n
/ˈ m ɪd l ˈ s e n tə n s /
multi-millionaire n
/ˌ m ʌ ltim ɪljə ˈ n e ə (r) /
notice V /ˈθəʊıɪ8/
ordinary ad; /ˈɔ:dnri/
organize V /ˈɔːgənaɪz/
personal adj /ˈpɜːsənl/
photographs u pi /ˈf^ʊtəgrɑːfs/
racing driver « /ˈreɪsɪŋ ˈdraɪvə(r)/
realize v /ˈrɪəlaɪz/
sales n p l /setlz/
science n /ˈsaɪəns/
search n /sɜːtʃ/
search engine n / 8ɜː 1ʃ ˈendʒɪn/
shoes n p l /futz/
W ord list
69
NOTES
70
Notes
PHONETIC SYMBOLS
Consonants
Vowels
1
/p/
as in
pen / p e n /
25
/i:/
as in
see /s i:/
2
/b /
as in
26
/:/
as in
h is / h iz /
3
/t/
as in
27
m
as in
t w e n t y / 't w e n t i /
4
/d /
as in
28
Id
as in
te n / t e n /
5
/k /
as in
big / b i g /
tea / t i : /
do /du:/
cat /k£6t/
29
/æ /
as in
s ta m p /s t æ m p /
6
/g /
as in
30
/a :/
as in
f a t h e r / 'f a :ð ə /
7
/f /
as in
go /gou/
four / f o : /
31
/ŋ /
as in
h o t /h o t/
8
/v /
as in
32
h -J
as in
m o r n i n g / 'm o i n i o /
9
/s /
as in
33
Id
as in
f o o tb a ll / 'f u t b o : ! /
10
/z /
as in
34
/u ;/
as in
y ou /ju :/
11
/!/
as in
very /'V e r i/
son / sad/
zoo / z u : /
live /l i v /
35
/a/
as in
s u n /sA n/
12
/m /
as in
m y /m a i/
36
/3 :/
as in
le a r n /la m /
13
/n /
as in
37
/ə /
as in
le tte r / 'l e t o /
14
/h /
as in
15
/r /
as in
n e a r/n ia /
h a p p y /'hæ pi/
red / r e d /
16
/j/
as in
17
/w /
as in
18
/θ /
19
Diphthongs (two vowels together)
38
/ e i/
as in
n a m e / n e im /
as in
yes /je s/
w ant / w n n t /
thanks /9aeoks/
39
/o u /
as in
n o /n o u /
/ð /
a s in
th e / ð ə /
40
/a i/
as in
m y /m a i/
20
/J /
a s in
41
/a u /
as in
h o w /h a u /
21
/3 /
a s in
42
h i!
as in
boy
22
/ t; /
a s in
43
/ıə /
as in
h e a r/h io /
23
/d s /
a s in
44
/e o /
as in
w h e re /w e o /
24
/ŋ /
a s in
sh e /Ji:/
television / 't e l i v i 3 n /
child / t J a i l d /
G erm an /'d 3 3 :m a n /
E nglish /'IŋglIJ‘/
45
/u o /
as in
to u r /tu a /
Pool!
Phonetic sym bols
71
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