Uploaded by samuelolalere2

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 5KVA AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE STABILIZER (1)

advertisement
ESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 5KVA
AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE STABILIZER
BY
SALIHU NASIR OMEIZA
2007/2/27476EE
A FINAL YEAR PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING, SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, FEDERAL
UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, MINNA, IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF
THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE AWARD OF THE BACHELOR OF
ENGINEERING (B. ENG.) DEGREE IN ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER
ENGINEERING
NOVEMBER 2011
DEDICATION
I dedicate this project work to the Almighty God for giving me the strength and wisdom to carry
out this work and bring it to a conclusive end. I also dedicate this project to my parents for all
their immense moral, spiritual and financial support in guiding me towards actualizing my
dream.
ii
DECLARATION
I, Salihu Nasir Omeiza declare that this work was done by me and has never been presented
elsewhere for the award of a degree. I hereby relinquish the copyright to the Federal University
of Technology, Minna.
MR.
SALI/-IU NAS/t OM9ZA
[U6E N£
Name of Supervisor
Name of Student
Signature and Date
Signature and Date
Name ofH.O.D
External Examiner
L\\ (~l~2tJ\9
Signature and Date
Signature and Date
iii
o· NtJlDZf)~
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
All praise is due to Almighty Allah the Lord of the worlds for guiding me through this
period. I wish to acknowledge the mercies, blessings, and grace of Almighty Allah in giving me
the wisdom, strength and good health in accomplishing life tasks because w ithout his will, none
of these would have been possible.
I would like to express my warmest gratitude to my parents, Alhaji Salihu and Bilkisu
Akomodi for their strife towards ensuring that they provide us with the best in life. However, the
efforts of my entire family members cannot be overlooked . My appreciation goes to my brothers
Dahiru and Abdulkarim, my Sisters Habiba and Rakiyat, my nephew Ibrahim and nieces Halima
and Maryam Odunsi.
Moreover, my appreciation extends to Engr. Kunle and Mrs. Rakiyat Odunsi for their
tremendous financial and moral support throughout my study period. I specially want to
appreciate their efforts towards exposing me to real life practices in the field of engineering.
I also wish to acknowledge the support from my supervisor, Mr. Eugene Nwozor for his
advice, support and intelligence in helping me accomplish this project work. However without
the technical support of my Technician all these would not have been possible so, my esteem
appreciation goes to Mr. Sunday Jatao.
My sincere appreciation goes to my H.O.D Engr.
Raji, my lecturers Dr. Jacob
Tsado, Dr. E.N. Onwuka, Mr. Lanre Olatomiwa, Mr. David Michael, Mr. Bala Salihu and all
others too numerous to mention for their immense contribution in my academics towards making
me a better person. And all my friends thank you all for all you have done to my life.
iv
ABSTRACT
Design and construction of a 5KVA automatic voltage stabilizer is presented in this project
report. This project report serves to highlight the method of integrating modular constructed units
to achieve a stabilized output of between 220V and 240V without neglecting the impediments
encountered to achieving it. It encapsulates the evolutionary trends involved since the first
innovation to this contemporary state-of-the-art which is achieved through the harmonization of
the desired properties of various circuit connected electronic components and also captures the
design calculations involved in components selection in line with achieving the goals of the
design . A presentation of the results, the waveform from the tests performed and finally
proffering of suggestions for future advancements in improving the precision, efficiency and
speed of an automatic voltage stabilizer was made.
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ..... . ... .. .. .... ... . ....... ... .. ............................. . .......... .. ................... (ii)
DEDICATION ............................................................................................ (111)
DECLARATION ..... . .................................................. . ....... ... .... . ............ ..... (iv)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................. .... ... ................ . .... ....... .... .. ..... (v)
ABSTRACT ......................... .. ....... ... ........... .. ......... .. .. .... .... .. .... . .. .. .. .... ....... (vi)
TABLE OF CONTENTS .. .. .. ... .. .......... ................ ........ ..... . ... .... . .. ........ . .......... (vii)
LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................... (ix)
LIST PLATES ... .......................................................................................... (x)
LIST TABLES ......................................................................... . ... . ............... (xi)
CHAPTER ONE
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
INTRODUCTION ........................ ... ... ......... ... .... ...... .. .. ... .... .. ............. . (1)
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES ......... ...... .. . ....... .. .......................................... (2)
PROJECT MOTIVATION ...... .. .... ..................................... . ......... . ..... ..... (2)
METHODOLOGy ... .. . .. .... ... ................ ....... ..... ...... ............................. (3)
PROJECT OUTLINE ............. .. ... ..... .. .. ............................. . ............ ...... (3)
SCOPE OF WORK ....... . ......................... .... .... ... ... ... ...... .. .................... (4)
CONSTRAINTS .. . ..... .... ...... .... ................................ . .. . ... .. .......... .. ...... (4)
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0
2.1
2.1.0
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.1.6
2.1.7
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ............................................................. (5)
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ... ........ . .. ...... . ..... . ............ . ........... ...... .. (7)
AUTOTRANSFORMER ................... .. ......... ...... ........................ ...... ...... (7)
RELAy ............................................................................................. (9)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR ......... ...... ..... .... .................... ... .. .... .... ... .. ....... (11)
CAPACITOR . ................. ...... ...... ... .. .... ... .. ................................... ...... (12)
DIODE .. ... .. ...... . ...... .... . ......... .. ............. .. ..... ... .. ....... ... ........ .. .... ........ (13)
TRANSISTOR .. . ..... .. ..... . .. .......... .................. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .......... . .... . ....... .. (14)
RESISTOR . .. ..... .... . ......... ............. ..... . ................. .. ......... . ..... ... .......... (15)
VOLTAGE COMPARATOR .. . ... ...... ........ ... . ............ . .... ... ..... ... ... ........... (17)
vi
CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
3.0
3.1
3.1.0
3.1.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4.0
3.4.1
3.5
BLOCK DIAGRAM ...... ... ........................... ......................................... (18)
POWER SUPPLY UNIT .. ....... ... ..... ....... ..... .... .. ... ... ... . .. . ........................ (18)
FULL WAVE BRIDGE RECTIFIER ................ .. ... .... ... .... ... . .. ........ .. ... ...... (19)
FILTERING AND REGULATION UNIT ... ... ...... ..... ... . ..... .. . ....... . .. .. ... .. ..... (21)
COMPARATOR UNIT .................... . ..................................................... (22)
SWITCHING UNIT ...... .. .......................... .... ... . ............. .... ..... .. .... ..... ... (24)
AUTOTRANSFORMER UNIT ... ...... ... ... ... ...... ... ........ . ...... .. ....... ...... .. .. ... (26)
ADVANTAGES OF AUTOTRANSFORMER ........................................... .. (27)
TRANSFORMER DESIGN CALCULATIONS . .............. . .... .. .. ... ... ... ... ..... ... (27)
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION ... . ..... ... ...... ... ............ . .... . .. ...... ....... ... ... ... (30)
CHAPTER FOUR: TESTS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.0
4.0.0
4.0.1
4.0.2
4.0.3
4.0.4
4.1
4.1.0
4.1.1
SIMULATION TESTS .. ... . ................. . ..................... .. .. .......... ... ............ (33)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE .......... .. .................. .............. .... .. .... . ............ .. ..... .. (33)
INPUT VOLTAGE .. . ...................................................... ... .................. (34)
BRIDGE RECTIFIER OUTPUT VOLTAGE .... ..... ... .. ......... ... .... ..... .... ... ...... (34)
FILTERED OUTPUT ... ..... .. .. .... ... .. ........ ....... ...... ..... . .......... .. ...... ...... ..... (35)
REGULATED OUTPUT ... ............ .......... ..... ... .. . ............. . ...... .... .. .... .. .... (36)
PRACTICAL TESTS .. . ............... ...... ......... ... ... ..... . ... .. . .... .... ...... . ... .. .... . (36)
INSULATION RESISTANCE TEST ... ... ....... .. ..................... .. ......... . ........ . (36)
PRIMARY INJECTION TEST ............................................................ .. .. (37)
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0
5.1
RECOMMENDATION .... . ..................................... . .... .. ..... . .. . .... . ... ....... (39)
CONCLUSION ........................ ............... ....... ........ . .... ... .......... ... ....... (39)
REFERENCE ............................... . .............. .... ................. . ...... .... ... .. .. (40)
APPENDICES ..... ........ ............ .. . ........... ... ... . .. .. ..... ... ... .... . .. . .. ....... ...... (41)
vii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Autotransformer ......... ...... ..................... ........ ............. . .... .. .......... 8
Figure 2.2: A typical Relay .. ... .. ........................ .. ..... .... .. . ..... . ......... . .............. 9
Figure 2.3 : Internal structure of a relay ........... ... .... ...... ...... .. ...... .. .... ... . ...... ....... 11
Figure 2.4: A typical Voltage Regulator ... ... ... ... .......... ..................... ..... .......... .. 12
Figure 2.5 : A Capacitor and Symbol. .. ... ... ... .................. . ... .................... .......... 13
Figure 2.6: A Diode and Symbol. ..... .. ... . ... ........ .................................... . .. . ...... 13
Figure 2.7: A typical Transistor and Symbol.. .................................. ...... ...... ....... 14
Figure 2.8: Voltage Comparator. .......... . ........................................ ................. 17
Figure 3.0: A sketch of the AC input voltage waveform before rectification .................. 20
Figure 3.1: A sketch of the pulsating DC waveform of rectifier output. .. . .................... 20
Figure 3.2a: Graph of Capacitor charging
Figure 3.2b: Complete circuit arrangement of the Power Supply Unit. .. ... ... ................. .. 22
Figure 3.3: Symbol of an Operational Amplifier (OP-AMP) ...... .. .... ...... .................. .22
Figure 3.4: Pin connection of Comparator IC LM324 ............ .......... .. .. ................... 23
Figure 3.5: Circuit Connection of the Switching Unit.. .......... .................. ...... ......... 26
viii
LIST OF PLATES
Plate 1: Simulated Oscilloscope waveform for AC input supply ... .. ....... . .. .... .. . ..... . ..... .. (33)
Plate 2: Simulated Oscilloscope waveform for Rectifier AC .. . ............ . .. . ... ... .. ... ........ . (34)
Plate 3: Simulated Oscilloscope Waveform for rectifier output ... . .. ...... ....... ........... ... ... (35)
Plate 4: Simulated Oscilloscope Waveform for Filtering Capacitor output .. .. .... .. .. .. .... .. ... (35)
Plate 5: Simulated Oscilloscope waveform for Voltage Regulator output. ........ .. . ... .. .. .. .. . (36)
ix
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.0: showing colour code values .... .. ...... ... ...... ... ... .............................. ... ... (16)
Table 4.0: Primary Injection Test table ........................................................ ... .... (37)
x