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INDIAS PRODUCTION AND RESERVES B.Tech2017

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Overview of India’s Energy
Scenario
SHARAD VALVI
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
SARDAR PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUMBAI
ENERGY MAP OF INDIA
Courtesy: Eastern Coalfields Limited
Source: http://ppac.org.in/WriteReadData/userfiles/file/IndiaRefineryMap.pdf
(As on
Coal Production in India
500
Production
450
Annual Production( Million Tonnes)
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1870
1890
1910
1930
1950
1970
1990
Year
Fig: Annual production of coal in India
2010
India - Fossil Fuel reserves
Fuel
Coal
+Lignite
(Million Tonnes)
Oil
(Million Tonnes)
N.Gas
Reserves Prodn R/P
2003-4 ratio
34000
414
~83 (P)
140 P+I
760
33
23 (7)
(117)
920
32
29
Billion m3
Uranium 61000
Tonnes
PHWR ~50
10GW
 Coal
deposits are mainly confined to
eastern and south central parts of the
country .
 The State of Jharkhand had the maximum
share (26.81%) in the overall reserves of
coal in the country .
 As on 31.03.14 the estimated reserves of
coal was 301.05 billion tons.
Fig: estimated reserves of coal

An “Inferred Resource” is
one that is based
on limited sampling and is
based on reasonably assumed,
but limited information.

An “Indicated
Resource” is a Resource
whose quantity, grade (quality),
shape, size and continuity can
be more confidently reported.

A “Measured
Resource” represents the
highest level of geologic
knowledge and confidence in a
Resource.

Although India's reserves of coal are large there are number of
problems
 SUPPLY
SIDE PROBLEMS
a) The quality of coal is poor with high ash and moisture
content.
b) Coking coal is very scarce.
c) Coal mining suffers from multiple obstacles like
environmental clearance, tribal resistance, Left wing
extremism domination etc.
d) Poor technology is causing excessive wastages.
 DEMAND SIDE PROBLEMS
a) Domestic demand is shrinking as their major buyers
i.e. Power companies are suffering losses due to non
recovery.
b) Increase in carbon cess has increased its cost.
c) With amendment to Coal act there is an oversupply
of coal in the market.
OIL
FIG: ANNUAL OIL PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF OIL IN
INDIA
The estimated reserves of crude oil in India as on
31.03.2014 stood at 762.74 million tons (MT).
 maximum reserves of crude oil
1]Western Offshore (42.91%)
2]Assam (22.69%)
 In 1951 the consumption of petroleum product was
only 3.89Mt. Consumption was 17.59Mt in 1970,
30.90Mt in 1980, 103.44Mt in 2000.
 Annual consumption of petroleum product are as
follows
From 1951 to 1970 –8.3per cent
From 1970 to 1990- 5.8 per cent
From 1990 to 2000-6.5 per cent

Fig: Estimated reserves of crude oil in India
NATURAL GAS
Fig : Annual production of natural gas in India
 The
estimated reserves of natural gas in
India as on 31.03.2014 stood at 1427.15
billion cubic meters.
 Proved recoverable reserves of natural gas
were estimated to be 352 billion M3 in 1980
and 686billion M3 in 1990.
Fig : estimated reserves of natural gas in India.
Water power
Fig: Installed capacity and electricity generation from water power in
India.
Installed capacity was only 508 MW in 1947
and 560MW at the beginning of the first five
year plan in 1951.
 Installed capacity increased at average rate of
about 6.5 per cent from 1917MW in 1960
to 31277 MW in 2005.
 Electricity production has increased from
2195 GWh in 1947 to 1,01,293 GWh in
2005.
 It is estimated that there is potential for
installing capacity about 1,48,700MW.

Potential of Small Hydropower
Total estimated potential of 180000 MW.
 Total potential developed in the late 1990s
was about 47000 MW with China
contributing as much as one-third total
potentials.
 570 TWh per year from plants less than 2
MW capacity.
 The technical potential of micro, mini and
small hydro in India is placed at 6800
MW.

Small Hydro in India
STATE
TOTAL CAPACITY (MW)
ARUNACHAL PRADESH
1059.03
HIMACHAL PRADESH
1624.78
UTTAR PRADESH & UTTARANCHAL
1472.93
JAMMU & KASHMIR
1207.27
KARNATAKA
652.51
MAHARASHTRA
599.47
Nuclear power
Fig: electricity generation from nuclear power in India.
The installed capacity of nuclear power
plant in India is about 3900MW.
 Number of units are under construction.
 Installed capacity of nuclear power will
increase to 7280MW when seven reactor
under construction are completed.
 The highest amount 19242GWh was
produced in 2002.
 Estimated reserves available are about
61000 t.

Wind power in india
Fig: installed capacity and electricity generation from wind power in India.
At the end of 1990 the capacity was only
37MW and at the end of 2005 it was
5342MW.
 India now ranks fourth in the world in
terms of wind power installed capacity.

Electricity production in India
Fig: total installed capacity and electricity generation in India from all
commercial sources.
Installed capacity has increased from
1362MW in 1947 to 16664MW in 1973
and to 124287MW in 2005.
 Average annual growth rate of 10.1 per
cent from 1947 to 1973 and to a rate of
6.5 per cent from 1973 to 2005.
 Electricity produced were 4073GWh in
1947, 66689GWh in 1973 and
6,15,746GWh in 2005.

Year
Installed capacity
Fossil
fuel
total
Hydro
Nuclear
Miscellan
eous
1947
MW
%
854
62.7
508
37.3
0
0
0
0
1362
100.0
1973
MW
%
9058
54.4
6966
41.8
640
3.8
0
0
16664
100.0
2005
MW
%
82410
66.3
31277
25.2
3360
2.7
7240
5.8
124287
100.0
Fig: installed capacity for electrical power in INDIA.
DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT
WHAT IS DSM
 NEED FOR DSM
 IMPLEMENTATION OF DSM
 BENEFITS OF DSM
 PROBLEMS OF DSM
 FUTURE

WHAT IS DSM

“Demand Side Management” is the
modification of consumer’s demand of
electricity through various methods such
as financial incentives and consumer
education.

Usually the goal of DSM is to encourage
the consumers to use less energy during
peak hours or to move the time of
energy use to the off-peak hours.
WHAT IS DSM …..(CNTD)

DSM is universal and does not only apply
to utilities, electricity or monopolies

IN SHORTLY, DSM = Large-Scale
Deployment of Energy Efficient
Equipment by use of specially designed
Programmes.
Key features of the present power systems and the
opportunities for demand side management (DSM)

Generation capacity, plant utilisation and
efficiency

supply demand that varies daily and seasonally, and given that demand
is largely uncontrollable and interruptions very costly.

installed generation capacity must be able to meet maximum (peak)
.
demand

the average utilisation of the generation capacity is below
55%.
Utilisation of transmission and
distribution networks
 After
loss of a circuit due to a fault (e.g. lightning
strike), the remaining circuits that take over the
load of the faulty line must not become
overloaded.
 this means that, under normal operation, during
peak-load conditions, circuits in the
interconnected transmission network are
generally loaded below 50%.
 Distribution networks are operated as passive
systems with real-time control problems being
resolved in the planning stage.
 application of DSM to increase the utilisation of
existing distribution network assets.
Key features of demand
demand is the diversity in usage of
appliances.
 Coincidence factor is the peak of a system
divided by the sum of peak loads of its
individual components. It tells how likely
the individual components are peaking at
the same time.


THE ISSUES

Load level
◦ a wasteful demand requires too much supply
for the specific needs

Load shape
◦ high peaks,
◦ little reserve capacity,
◦ bottlenecks in transmission and distribution
FROM THE GRAPH

The peak demand of 225 KW is there for
an average of 12 hours in a day

The base demand is 125 KW, which is
much less than the peak demand of 4,300
MW

To meet the extra demand utility has to
arrange additional installed capacity or
purchase power at high rate

Thus DSM will always try to encourage
consumers to:
◦
Use less energy during Peak hours (Peak
Clipping)
◦
Shift energy use to off peak hours (Valley
Filling)
NEED FOR DSM

Increasing energy requirement

Increasing threat of climate change and
other environmental considerations

Energy security

Lack of other supply options

Huge scope for energy efficiency measures
NEED FOR DSM ….(CNTD)

Saving 1 unit of electricity at consumer
end avoids nearly 2.5 times of capacity
addition

1 MW capacity addition of thermal power
requires Rs 6 crores for installation and
another Rs 3 crores for Transmission and
Distribution
IMPLEMETATION OF DSM

There are 3 methods to implement dsm
ENERGY EFFIENCY
2. DEMAND RESPONSE
3. DYNAMIC DEMAND
1.


Energy Efficiency:
Using less power to perform the same tasks
Demand Response:
Demand Response includes all intentional modifications to
consumption patterns of electricity of enduser customers
that are intended to alter the timing, level of instantaneous
demand, or the total electricity consumption
Dynamic Demand:
The concept is that by monitoring the power factor of the
power grid, as well as their own control parameters,
individual, intermittent loads would switch on or off at
optimal moments to balance the overall system load with
generation, reducing critical power mismatches
STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED

To charge higher prices during Peak Hours

Improving the efficiency of various end uses
by using energy efficient appliances, better
house keeping and reducing energy leakages.
This is important for agriculture where
energy efficiency is very low (30-50%)

Promoting use of Energy Efficient
Technologies and addressing Aggregate
Technical and Commercial (AT&C) Losses
Benefits of DSM and future
opportunities
1. Reducing the generation margin by DSM

the total capacity of installed generation in the system must be
larger than the system maximum demand to ensure the security of
supply in the face of uncertainty in available generation.

shortages by installing generation that would be used very
infrequently, it may be possible to identify house- holds that would
be willing (for a fee) to forgo consumption relatively infrequently.

the value of DSM could increase considerably above the cost of
generation due to difficulties and delays in the planning process
associated with building new power stations.
2. Improving transmission grid investment and
operation efficiency through DSM
system
is prepared in advance to withstand credible outages (specified
in accordance with the security standards)with no need for any
immediate corrective action to be taken following the outage.




preventive security is achieved by dispatching generating
units out of merit in order to make sure that no credible
contingency would leave the system in an untenable situation.
operate the system at lower operating costs and with
reduced network and generation capacity.
provided that over- loads that occur after outages of circuits
and generators can be effectively eliminated by carrying out
appropriate corrective actions.
some consumers would find it financially attractive to curtail
or postpone their load to help correct an emergency
situation.
3. Improving distribution network investment
efficiency through DSM
DSM could bring a spectrum of potential benefits in
terms of
I.
deferring new network investment,
II.
increasing the amount of distributed generation
that can be connected to the existing distribution
network infrastructure.
III.
relieving voltage-constrained power transfer
problems,
IV. relieving congestion in distribution substations,
V. simplifying outage management and enhancing the
quality and security of supply to critical-load
customers, and
VI. providing corresponding carbon reduction.
4.DSM in managing demand–supply balance in
systems with intermittent renewables.
Wind
power, both on- and offshore, is presently the
principal commercially available and scaleable renewable
energy technology
 deliver the majority of the required growth in renewable
energy and continue to be the dominant renewable
technology.
 when high wind conditions coincide with low demand.
In this context, DSM would allow more wind energy to
be absorbed and would therefore reduce the fuel
burned.
DSM techniques
Night-time
heating with load switching:
 night-time electricity heating has been successfully
applied in a number of countries.
 increased domestic night-time load giving a more
balanced use of the electricity generation and network
across the day
Direct-load
control
 Domestic direct-load control programmes apply to
appliances that can be turned off or cycled for relatively
short periods of time.
 Receiver systems are installed to enable communications
from the utility and to institute controls.
 The utility cycles or shuts off an appliance for a limited
number of hours for a limited number of occasions.
 Smarter control systems have memories built in to
recognise how much the equipment has been running and
are programmed to cycle at different frequencies so that
all participants provide.
 Customers who take part in direct-control schemes
receive compensation through reduced electricity bills.
Load
limiters
 Load limiters limit the power that can be
taken by individual consumers.
 The level at which the limit is set can be
adjusted to reflect system conditions.
 This scheme offers some choice to users to
decide themselves which appliances to use
and what consumption to postpone.
Commercial/industrial
 Peak-load management
programmes:
programmes are available
to commer- cial and industrial classes of
customers.
 interruptible load control is not exercised on a
daily basis but is used to support the system
following outages of generation or network
facilities.
Frequency

regulation:
System frequency is the direct measure of the balance
between generation and system demand at any one
instant and must be maintained continuously within
narrow statutory limits of around 50 Hz.
 Time-of-use pricing
 Time-of-use (ToU) rates are designed to more closely
reflect the production and investment cost structure,
where rates are higher during peak periods and lower
during off-peak periods.
 This method is widely practiced in a number of
European countries, particularly for households with
electric heating.
Challenges for DSM
Lack of understanding of the benefits of
DSM solutions


there has not been enough clarity regarding the business
case for DSM, particularly due to a lack of
methodologies for the quantification of costs and
benefits.
 DSM-based solutions are often not competitive when
compared with traditional approaches
 DSM-based
solutions tend to increase the complexity of
the system operation when compared with traditional
solutions.
 Operating the power system with a corrective control
approach will increase operational complexity.
 Inappropriate market structure and lack of incentives
 The benefits of using enabling technologies such as
DSM (or storage) often accrue to different participants.
 This presents a challenge for the development of a
business case for these technologies as disaggregation
and characterisation of their multi-stream value is a
complex task.
Benefits of Demand Side
Management
Customer
Benefits
Utility Benefits
Societal Benefits
Satisfy electricity
demands
Reduce
environmental
Lower cost of service
degradation
Reduce / stabilize
costs or electricity
bill
Improve operating
efficiency,
Flexibility
Conserve resources
Maintain/improve
lifestyle and
productivity
Improve customer
service
Protect global
environment
PROBLEMS OF DSM
It might result in higher utility costs for
consumers and less profit for utilities.
 Another problem of DSM is privacy: The
consumers have to provide some
information about their usage of
electricity to their electricity company.
 Dissatisfaction may arise among the
consumers

FINAL THOUGHT….

DSM leads to,
Energy efficiency
ii. Industrial development
iii. Energy security
i.
Benefits of Renewable Energy
Use
Little to No Global Warming Emissions
 Improved Public Health and
Environmental Quality
 A Vast and Inexhaustible Energy Supply
 Jobs and Other Economic Benefits
 Stable Energy Prices
 A More Reliable and Resilient Energy
System

Little to No Global Warming
Emissions







one-third of U.S. global warming emissions, with the
majority generated by coal-fired power plants.
natural gas-fired power plants produce 6 percent of total
emissions.
Compared with natural gas, which emits between 0.6 and
2 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour
(CO2E/kWh),
coal, which emits between 1.4 and 3.6 pounds of
CO2E/kWh,
wind emits only 0.02 to 0.04 pounds of CO2E/kWh.
solar 0.07 to 0.2, geothermal 0.1 to 0.2.
hydroelectric between 0.1 and 0.5
Improved Public Health and
Environmental Quality




Wind, solar, and hydroelectric systems
generate electricity with no associated air
pollution emissions.
While geothermal and biomass energy
systems emit some air pollutants
total air emissions are generally much lower
than those of coal- and natural gas-fired
power plants.
wind and solar energy require essentially no
water to operate and thus do not pollute
water resources
A Vast and Inexhaustible
Energy Supply
In 2012, NREL found that together,
renewable energy sources have the
technical potential to supply 482,247
billion kilowatt-hours of electricity
annually.
 it is important to note that not all of this
technical potential can be tapped due to
conflicting land use needs.

Jobs and Other Economic
Benefits
Renewable energy already supports
thousands of jobs in the world.
 For example, in 2011, the wind energy
industry directly employed 75,000 fulltime-equivalent employees in a variety of
capacities, including manufacturing, project
development, construction and turbine
installation, operations and maintenance,
transportation and logistics, and financial,
legal, and consulting services.

THANK YOU
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