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EARTH SCIENCE-Origin of Universe

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EARTH SCIENCE
STEM-11
LESSON 1: ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE
OBJECTIVES
• state the different hypothesis
that preceded the Big Bang
Theory of the Origin of the
Universe
• explain the Big Bang Theory
Terms to
Learn
(TTL)
SOLAR SYSTEMS
STARS
BIG BANG THEORY
PLANETS
ACCELERATION
DOPPLER EFFECT
GALAXIES
HUBBLE’S EFFECT
THE NEBULAR THEORY
FREQUENCIES
TERMS TO LEARN
Big bang - how the universe formed
Acceleration - the rate at which something speeds
up
Galaxies- clusters of solar systems held together by
gravity
Solar system - planets orbiting around a star, held in
orbit by gravity
• Stars - a cluster of dust and gas going through
nuclear fusion
TERMS TO LEARN
The Nebular Theory - how planets formed by
accretion of dust
Redshift - wavelengths received from distant
galaxies are elongating, showing that galaxies
are moving away from us
Wavelength - the distance between two crests
Frequency - the amount of waves in one second
TERMS TO LEARN
Hubble’s Law - galaxies are expanding, where
more distant galaxies are moving faster away
than galaxies
Doppler Effect - the apparent change in
frequency due to relative motion of an object
from an observer
What happens
to the dots?
Do all dots move the
same direction from
the home galaxy?
LET’S GO SURFING!
Big Bang Theory
Steady State
Oscillating Universe
BIG BANG THEORY
• 1927
• Georges Lemaitre – he started the big bang
• Edwin Hubble – the universe must have been
expanding
• Hubble’s Effect
• George Gamow – developed the big bang
– helium and other heavier metals
BIG BANG THEORY
• Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson – cosmic
microwave background radiation
• 10-38 second – inflation occurred
• 10-10 second – elementary particles
• (10-38 second to 10-10 second) Electroweak era
• 0.001 seconds particle era
• 3 minutes – nucleosynthesis
Evolution of Universe
STEADY STATE THEORY
•
•
•
•
Fred Hoyle, Herman Bondi & Tommy Gold
Uniform and unchanging
Universe is same age with the solar system
Rejected due to lack of strong evidence
Oscillating Universe
• Introduced by Alexander Friedman
• Universe may end someday
• Exist between big bang and big crunch
BEYOND THE WALLS
Submit a brief report on the following
topic/questions.
What is the fate of the universe? Will the
universe continue to expand or will it eventually
contract because of gravity?
REPORT RUBRICS
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