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The Nineteenth Century

Nineteenth Century painters had certain practical advantage. They had
wider range of colors and paints became much easier to use. Emarald Green
for instance was a discovery of the 19th century. The invention of
collapsible tubes in the 1840s were artists, both professional and amature.
Among the principle artistic movements in the First part of the century
were Romanticism, Realism, Naturalism.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively
small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on
accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the
effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of
movement as a crucial.
Vincent van Gogh. 30 March 1853, French, Dutch. ...
Pablo Picasso. 25 October 1881, Spanish. ...
Rabindranath Tagore. 07 May 1861, Indian. ...
Claude Monet. 14 November 1840, French. ...
Paul Gauguin. 07 June 1848, French. ...
Diego Rivera. 08 December 1886, Mexican
The essence of romanticism artist belief that the heart and the imagination
are more important than cerebral logic. This leads to the practice of
listening to the message within and projecting the artists own personal
The weakness which may result include sentimentally, lack of discipline,
and a tendency towards melodrama.
Characteristic of Romanticism
19th-century Romantic painters revived the great traditions of baroque
painting, adapting them to the treatment of a wide a range of subjects.
▪ They made similar use of diagonal, in composition, strong light and
shade, dark interiors permeated by light, and deep and rich colors.
▪ Between line and colors, the Romantics Favored color.
▪ Paint was applied with quick brushstrokes to give a brilliant effect.
▪ Hues of the same color were juxtaposed.
▪ The Romantics always choose subjects for dramatic treatment.
▪ Some painters drawn from contemporary life like political scandal,
and glaring injustice.
▪ There is quality in battle senses.
▪ Wild animals, both caged and the hunted, are popular subjects.
Gros Napoleon Bonaparte visiting the plague-stricken in Jaffa
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Nineteenth-century Realism was a movement whose influence was
apparent in a number of the arts, most strongly perhaps in literature and
painting. it’s wanted to create a new living popular art. They were
determined not to be dominated by what karl Marx called ‘The tradition of
the dead generations’.
Characteristic of Realism
Subjects were chosen from everyday life. Like a village girl, a peasant
family at dinner, the sick, the poor.
Some Realist pictures peasants appear as dour shapes against a distant
horizon, the shadowed hollow of their eyes being as expressionless as
the pose of their figure.
A number of paintings resemble contemporary photography in their
flat tones.
Relative absence of modelling.
Strong contrast of light and shade.
Solid paint is applied with a palette knife.
Nude figures in mythological settings were acceptable. The shocked
came naked women were portrayed in a contemporary and familiar
settings. To heighten the sense of realism other people in this picture
wore modern, everyday clothes.
Artist paintings out of doors became increasingly aware of the
different light affects caused by the changes in weather.
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In Retrospect the difference between realism and naturalism may not seem
great, but as early as 1863 writers in France accepted that there was a
distinction between two. The term Naturalists being applied to the younger
generation of Realists. Naturalism in art refers to the depiction of realistic
objects in a natural setting. The Realist movement of the 19th century
advocated naturalism in reaction to the stylized and idealized depictions of
subjects in Romanticism, but many painters have used a similar approach
over the centuries.
Characteristic of Naturalism
Many of their picture’s artist conveyed the life of the poor and outcast
in big cities.
Violent expectation was taken to some of their paintings.
Particularly those in which Laboure’s were seen neglecting their
duties to engage in a little love making or a brief celebration.
One of the main characteristics of naturalism belief that man behave
in accordance the laws of nature.
BAIL Scullery Maids
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Impressionism was a revolutionary kind of painting which emerged in
France in the second half of the 19th century. Impressionism is a 19thcentury art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible
brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in
its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time),
ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial Earlier painters
had worked in their studios and painted outdoor senses from memory and
sketches. As a result, they painted objects- a tree, a mountain or a cornfield.
Painters use to carry their camera with them.
Characteristic of Impressionism
The main concern of the impressionists was with every aspect of
light out of doors.
▪ They used their photos to study arrested movement and objects and
landscapes when viewed from unusual angle.
▪ No less important than the camera was the production of easily
transportable tubes of paint.
▪ Artist mix their paints on their palettes before applying them to
▪ The Impressionist were freed from this physical restriction.
▪ Glowing vibrant colors are characteristic of impressionist
▪ Expressionist art tried to convey emotion and meaning rather than
reality. Each artist had their own unique way of "expressing" their
emotions in their art. In order to express emotion, the subjects are
often distorted or exaggerated. At the same time colors are often
vivid and shocking.
▪ Impressionist art is a style in which the artist captures the image
of an object as someone would see it if they just caught a glimpse
of it. They paint the pictures with a lot of color and most of their
pictures are outdoor scenes. Their pictures are very bright and
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The Scream
The Scream (Edvard Munch)
This painting shows a man standing on a bridge. His hands are on his face and he is
screaming. The sky behind him is red and swirling. The picture expresses the emotion
of a person alone in their anguish and anxiety. Munch made four versions of this
picture. One of them sold for over $119 million in 2012.
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MONET Sunrise
Impressionism favored rapid brush strokes in order to accurately depict the
immediacy of the scene in front of them. In Impression: Sunrise
Monet uses such a rapid brush stroke technique in order to portray the
effect of the sun's light against the water and its fluidity in comparison the
rest of the scene.
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Symbolism was to some extent a reaction against the impressionists, in
particular against what some artists considered their excessive naturalism.
Many symbolist artists started as a Sunday painter, some continued as such.
Others gave up a steady source of income to concentrate on painting
suffering impoverishment as consequence.
Symbolists are influence by the bright palettes of the impressionists but
they tended to disregarded perspective and flatten form.
The art or practice of using symbols especially by investing things with
a symbolic meaning or by expressing the invisible or intangible
by means of visible or sensuous representations.
Characteristic of Symbolism
Bright, flat areas of color, strongly colored outlines, lack of shadows.
The general appearance is sometimes like that of stained glass.
Artist paint in an exotic setting such as Martinique and Tahiti.
A family portrait will consist of stiffy jointed.
Doll like figures with as a background.
The Symbolist did not ignore nature.\
Symbolism was largely a reaction against naturalism and realism,
anti-idealistic styles which were attempts to represent reality in its
gritty particularity, and to elevate the humble and the ordinary over
the ideal. Symbolism was a reaction in favour of spirituality, the
imagination, and dreams.
The Wounded Angel by Simberg
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Paul Gauguin, Vision after the Sermon (Jacob Wrestling with the Angel)
Vision after the Sermon Analysis. Composition: Gauguin's Vision after
the Sermon heralds his arrival as a Synthetic artist. This artwork includes
peasant women leaving the church in the lower part of the canvas, and
above them is a vision of Jacob wrestling with the Angel - probably
the sermon of the day.
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Post-Impressionism is an art movement that developed in the 1890s. It is
characterized by a subjective approach to painting, as artists opted to evoke
emotion rather than realism in their work. While their styles, therefore,
wildly varied, paintings completed in the Post-Impressionist manner share
some similar qualities. These include symbolic motifs, unnatural color, and
painterly brushstrokes.
Characteristic of Impressionism
▪ Painting Compositions describing form in terms of its underlying
geometric structure - eg sphere, cone, cube, cylinder etc (Cezanne)
▪ Use of color contrasts for defining surfaces and forms (Cezanne/ Van
Gogh/ Gauguin)
▪ Use of Advancing and Receding colors to create depth in painting
(Cezanne/ Van Gogh)
▪ Less emphasis on accuracy in drawing (Van Gogh)
▪ Use of parallel and Expressive brushstrokes (Cezanne/ Van Gogh)
▪ Use of pure color with a great emotive charge (Van Gogh)
▪ Paintings with extreme diagonals and curved brushstrokes that tend to
express anguish and depression (Van Gogh)
▪ Creation of simplified, flat painting compositions based on shapes
▪ Harmonious and bright color use (Van Gogh/ Gauguin).
DEGAS At the Café
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CEZANNE Lac d’Annecy
For this painting, Paul Cézanne wisely chose a palette consisting mostly of
blues and greens, colors that he included in the water in order to reflect the
landscape. The effect, together with his skillful brushstrokes, produced an
amplified crispness of the lake in the morning. A touch of soft yellows
gives warmth to the glow of an early sunrise as it strikes the tree trunk to
the left of the canvas, as well as some selected spots in the hilly landscape
and the buildings at the far side of the lake.
Even though the various broad and short brushstrokes in the background
unite the tree’s foliage and the ground’s grasses with the hills across the
lake, a particular curvature to his technique creates separation and distance
between them. This system of brushstrokes, while at first glance appears to
be somewhat harsh, was to eventually become a prominent feature of his
later art works. Cézanne once said that his intention was to bring “harmony
parallel to nature”, a statement especially true of ‘Lake Annecy.’
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The term ‘Neo-impressionist’ is sometimes applied to certain artists who
had a quasi-scientific method of applying paint. Artist use a method called
pointillism, would it be thought, achieve a greater brightness.
Characteristic of Neo-Impressionism
The term Neo-Impressionism refers to a pictorial technique where color
pigments are no longer mixed either on the palette or directly on canvas,
but instead placed as small dots side by side. Mixing of colors takes place
from a suitable distance, in the observer’s eye, as an "optical mixture"
Neo-impressionism is characterized by the use of the diversionist
technique (often popularly but incorrectly called pointillism, a term Paul
Signac repudiated). Divisionism attempted to put impressionist painting
of light and color on a scientific basis by using an optical mixture of
colors. Instead of mixing colors on the palette, which reduces intensity,
the primary-color components of each color were placed separately on the
canvas in tiny dabs so they would mix in the spectator’s eye. Optically
mixed colors move towards white so this method gave greater luminosity.
This technique was based on the color theories of M-E Chevreul,
whose De la loi du contraste simultanée des couleurs (On the law of the
simultaneous contrast of colors) was published in Paris in 1839 and had
an increasing impact on French painters from then on, particularly
the impressionists and post-impressionists generally, as well as the neoimpressionists.
Georges Seurat
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Georges Seurat (1859-1891). Circus
The Circus (Seurat) The Circus (French: Le Cirque) is an oil on canvas
painting by Georges Seurat. It was his last painting, made in a NeoImpressionist style in 1890-91, and remained unfinished at his death in
March 1891. The painting is located at the Musée d'Orsay in Paris.
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The 20th century saw the greatest revolution in the history of western
Artist freed themselves from the restrictions of traditional painting and set
themselves aims which had attempt never before.
The period of time called "modern art" is posited to have changed
approximately halfway through the 20th century and art made afterward is
generally called contemporary art.
Twentieth-century art—and what it became as modern art—began with
modernism in the late nineteenth century. ... Dadaism, with its most
notable exponents, Marcel Duchamp, who rejected conventional art styles
altogether by exhibiting found objects, notably a urinal, and too Francis
Picabia, with his Portraits Mécaniques.
The most influential movements of "modern art" are (1) Impressionism;
(2) Fauvism; (3) Cubism; (4) Futurism; (5) Expressionism; (6) Dada; (7)
Surrealism; (8) Abstract Expressionism; and (9) Pop Art.
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Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"), a group
of early twentieth-century modern artists whose works emphasized
painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic
values retained by Impressionism.
Modern art started to evolve during the early 20th century with French
movements such as Cubism, led by Pablo Picasso. But one of the first
artists to step away from
traditional painting altogether was French artist Henri Matisse, who led
the Fauvism movement in the 1900s.
Fauvism, the first twentieth-century movement in modern art, was initially
inspired by the examples of Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Georges
Seurat, and Paul Cézanne. The Fauves ("wild beasts") were a loosely
allied group of French painters with shared interests.
Characteristic of Fauvism
▪ The form of the paintings was realistic, and the subjects were drawn
from everyday life.
▪ The paintings were exuberant in style and joyful in treatment.
▪ A radical use of unnatural colors that separated color from its usual
representational and realistic role, giving new, emotional meaning to
the colors.
▪ Creating a strong, unified work that appears flat on the canvas.
▪ Most of the painted quickly.
▪ The colors are so vivid and so alive.
▪ Showing the individual expressions and emotions of the painter
instead of creating paintings based on theories of what
paintings should look like with objects represented as they appear in
▪ Bold brush strokes using paint straight from the tube instead of
preparing and mixing it.
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Blue Nude (Souvenir de Biskra)
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Cubism was probably the most important and certainly the most influential
movement in modern art. Cubism, highly influential visual arts style of the
20th century that was created principally by the artists Pablo Picasso and
Georges Braque in Paris between 1907 and 1914.
A style of painting and sculpture developed in the early 20th century,
characterized chiefly by an emphasis on formal structure, the reduction of
natural forms to their geometrical equivalents, and the organization of the
planes of a represented object independently of representational
Two different types of Cubism
▪ Analytical Cubism - The first stage of the Cubism movement was
called Analytical Cubism. ...
▪ Synthetic Cubism - The second stage of Cubism introduced the idea
of adding in other materials in a collage
Characteristic of Cubism
The main characteristics of Synthetic Cubism were the use of mixed
media and collage and the creation of a flatter space than with
analytical cubism. Other characteristics were a greater use of colour and
greater interest in decorative effects.A cubist painter saw an object by
contrast, believed that to give a true representation of an object. If they
wanted to draw a musical instrument, not only from the front, but also from
each of the other three sides.
Around 1912, the Cubists' focuses started to change, and a new style
of Cubism emerged. Where Analytical Cubism features dense and
complicated patterns of overlapping planes, Synthetic Cubism focuses
instead on brighter colors, much simpler shapes, and lighter lines.
Synthetic Cubism is a period in the Cubism art movement that lasted from
1912 until 1914. Led by two famous Cubist painters, it became a popular
style of artwork that includes characteristics like simple shapes, bright
colors, and little to no depth.
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PICASSO The Three women
Three Women is a classical example of the Analytical Cubism
style. Three Women, created by Picasso in 1908 with oil on canvas,
depicts three nudes posing for a picture. ... The faces of each woman seem
to take on characteristics of African art.
PICASSO The Instruments of Music
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Futurism (Italian: Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that
originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized speed,
technology, youth, violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane, and
the industrial city. ... Its glorified modernity and aimed to liberate Italy
from the weight of its past.
Futurist painting used elements of neo-impressionism and cubism to
create compositions that expressed the idea of the dynamism, the energy
and movement, of modern life. Chief artists associated with futurism were
Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, Gino Severini.
Characteristic of Futurism
▪ Futurism exalted the dynamism of the modern world, especially its
science and technology. Futurist ideology influenced all types of art.
It began in literature but spread to every medium, including painting,
sculpture, industrial design, architecture, cinema and music.
▪ The main preoccupation of the futurist was with speed, movement and
▪ Artist translate these on to canvas.
▪ Futurist artist often adapted the principles of multiple exposure
▪ Futurism, Italian Futurismo, Russian Futurizm, early 20th-century
artistic movement centered in Italy that emphasized the dynamism,
speed, energy, and power of the machine and the vitality, change, and
restlessness of modern life.
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The City Rises (1910)
It testifies to the hold that Neo-Impressionism and Symbolism maintained
on the movement's artists even after Futurism was inaugurated in 1909. It
was not until around 1911 that Boccioni adapted elements of Cubism to
create a distinct Futurist style.
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The style of the early orphists was simplified form of cubism combined
with the use of every bright colors.
Painters Became preoccupied with the representation of movement which
they expressed through swirling concentric bands of color. Aircraft and
Eiffel tower often visible in the background.
Their style later became more abstract, but the painting lost none of their
characteristic strong colors and luminosity.
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Dadaism is an artistic movement in modern art that started around World
War I. Its purpose was to ridicule the meaninglessness of the modern world.
Its peak was 1916 to 1922, and it influenced surrealism, pop art, and punk
rock. It favored going against the standards of society.
This new, irrational art movement would be named Dada. It got its name,
according to Richard Huelsenbeck, a German artist living in Zurich, when
he and Ball came upon the word in a French-German dictionary. ... “For
Germans it is a sign of foolish naiveté, joy in procreation, and
preoccupation with the baby carriage.
Zurich was the birthplace of the Dada movement and its opposition to the
cultural values its artists believed had led to the First World War. It all
began at the city's Cabaret Voltaire in February 1916.
The Dadaists rejected all traditional art and culture, which they held to have
been created by the kind of man who had made the horrors of the possible.
Characteristic of Dadaism
Dada art is nonsensical to the point of whimsy. Almost all of the people
who created it were ferociously serious, though. Abstraction and
Expressionism were the main influences on Dada, followed by Cubism
and, to a lesser extent, Futurism.
Dada art
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Rayonism (or Rayism or Rayonnism) is a style of abstract art that
developed in Russia in 1911. Mikhail Larionov and Natalia
Goncharova developed rayonism after hearing a series of lectures
about Futurism by Marinetti in Moscow.
Rayonnist painters tried to convey on canvas the essence of some of the
scientific theory. Before world war 1 among those in which they were
particularly interested were Einstein’s theoris of space, time and relativity.
Characteristic of Rayonnism
▪ Many of their paintings depicted light rays seen in movement.
▪ Some of the paintings are a shimmering grey white or silver. Later
brighter colors are also used.
▪ The influence of cubism are noticeable.
Rayonnism Art
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Neo-plasticism is a term adopted by the Dutch pioneer of abstract art, Piet
Mondrian, for his own type of abstract painting which used only horizontal
and vertical lines and primary colours. Bart van der Leck.
Characteristic of Neo-Plasticism
Mondrian's new art was based upon fundamental principles, as follows:
Only geometric shapes may be used; ignore natural form and colour. Main
compositional elements to be straight lines or rectangular areas. Choose
only primary colours (red, blue, yellow), plus black, grey and white.
The pictures are completely 2 dimensional without any depth or shading.
The painters used only five colors. Black, white, yellow, blue and red.
The vertical lines represent the male and the horizontal the female.
MONDRIAN Composition
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A style of painting, music, or drama in which the artist or writer seeks to
express the inner world of emotion rather than external reality.
Expressionist painters proclaimed that the only acceptable aim of art is to
represent emotions and feelings. Subject matter, color line composition
must all be subjugated.
Characteristic of Expressionism
Expressionist art tried to convey emotion and meaning rather than reality.
Each artist had their own unique way of "expressing" their emotions in their
art. In order to express emotion, the subjects are often distorted or
exaggerated. At the same time colors are often vivid and shocking.
Many of the expressionist pictures were woodcuts and as such were
particularly suitable for the jagged, strong lines so often used.
Expressionism is a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting,
originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait
is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it
radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas
They broke away from the literal representation of nature in order to
express more subjective outlooks or states of mind. The second and
principal wave of Expressionism began about 1905, when a group of
German artists led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner formed a loose
association called Die Brücke (“The Bridge”)
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The Blue Rider
The Blue Rider, or Der Blaue Reiter, as the title was called in German, was
one of Kandisky's last works in impressionism, but contains grains of
abstractionism.The painting is quite grainy, which is the first impression
received on looking at it. The background appears to be vast with forests
stretching out into the distance. The foreground is a beautiful meadow,
bright with the lushness of green grass. Speeding across this landscape is a
lone man on a white horse. The rider is wearing a blue coat or cloak, from
which the name of the painting probably derives. It is however believed by
some art theorists that the painting might have had a different name
originally, since the title has been discovered to be overwritten over
something else.
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Surrealism. A movement in art and literature that flourished in the early
twentieth century. Surrealism aimed at expressing imaginative dreams and
visions free from conscious rational control. Salvador dali was an
influential surrealist painter; jean cocteau was a master of surrealist film.
Surrealist painters looked largely to the subconscious for their inspiration.
Never before had this.
Surrealism movement focused on these ideas of chaos and unconscious
desires in an effort to dig deep into the unconscious mind to find inspiration
for political and artistic creativity. They believed this rejection of overly
rational thought would lead to superior ideas and expressions.
André Breton
Founded in Paris in 1924 by André Breton with his Manifesto of
Surrealism, the movement's principal aim was 'to resolve the previously
contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a
There are/were two basic types of Surrealism: abstract and figurative.
Surrealist abstraction avoided the use of geometric shapes in favour of the
more emotive impact of natural organic forms (real or imagined), as
exemplified by the work of Jean Arp, Andre Masson, Joan Miro, Yves
Tanguy, Robert Matta and others.
Characteristic of Surrealism
Surrealistic art is characterized by dream-like visuals, the use of
symbolism, and collage images. Several prominent artists came from this
movement, including Magritte, Dali, and Ernst.
Surrealist art often uses dream imagery to show the inner workings of the
mind. Have you ever had a dream that your teeth were falling out or that
you were flying? Surrealists used images like this in their art to create
instinctive meanings the viewer would not need rational thought to
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Surrealists also used symbols as a method of telling a story. Symbols are
objects that stand for ideas, events, or emotions. For example, a smile can
be a symbol of happiness; an image of a heart can be a symbol for love.
ERNST Men Shall Know Nothing of This, 1923
Of This Men Shall Know Nothing. Of This Men Shall Know
Nothing (German: Von diesem wissen Männer nichts) is oil on canvas
painting by a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet Max Ernst.
The painting was completed in 1923 in Paris, France.
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