STUDY NOTES 2016 : ANSWERS EDMHODR: MAY/JUNE 2016 EXAM QUESTIONS & QUESTION 1 1.1 Formal operational thought – Discuss the educational implications of this stage and indicate the role of mediation of learning in the whole process of teaching and learning Piaget’s Fourth Stage of Cognitive Development – Formal Operational thought ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve and lasts into adulthood. Learners are able to think about abstract and theoretical concepts Able to use logic and come up with creative solutions to problems. Deductive reasoning become necessary during the formal operational stage. Deductive logic requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a particular outcome eg. Maths or Science While children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages, the ability to think about abstract concepts emerges during the formal operational stage. Children begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions. This type of thinking is important in long-term planning. Children are often able to plan quickly an organized approach to solving a problem. Capable of thinking about abstract and hypothetical ideas. They often ponder "what-if" type situations and questions and can think about multiple solutions or possible outcomes. While kids in the previous stage (concrete operations) are very particular in their thoughts, kids in the formal operational stage become increasingly abstract in their thinking. They also develop what is known as metacognition, or the ability to think about their thoughts as well as the ideas of others. Role of mediation of learning in the whole process of teaching and learning. ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ Educator should ensure that learners are actively involved Learners should be at the centre of teaching activities, allowing learners to construct knowledge not only absorb it. Learners should be helped to learn – provide guidance and assistance to make learning easier. Educator should provide opportunities for knowledge construction Create a real world environment – present authentic tasks and integrate assessments with learning task, don’t make it a separate activity. Encourage learners to reflect on their experiences. Construct knowledge through social negotiation Foster and encourage co-operative learning. 1.2 Differentiate between metacognition and metalearning METALEARNING METACOGNITION Metalearning arose from a close Indicates a higher order of cognition connection between metacognition or consciousness of thought contents and effective learning. and thinking processes Its a learning activity in which learners Cognition indicates possession of eg. are intentionally aware of their own Reading skills, while metacognition learning activities and are planning, refers to the awareness of and implementing and monitoring these deliberate control over these skills activities themselves. Planning – learners analyse the task Metacognition is the ability of learners to know how they know and to regulate the learning process constantly Implementation – the planned Metacognition is an awareness of learning strategy gets implemented one’s own cognitive processes and self-regulation and control of these processes according to learning tasks concerned Monitoring – learners check the task It includes deliberate selection of implementation, anticipate and verify, learning strategies and aligning it with confirm validity demands of the learning task. Evaluation – judge the product, ask if quality is evident, successful?, how do learning outcomes differ from others? how to make further use of knowledge etc. 1.3 Indicate how you as a teacher can promote meta-learning in your learners. ⦁ Pose questions to make learners think ⦁ Make time for purposeful thinking in a stress-free environment. ⦁ Help learners to use thought processes eg. How to solve a problem ⦁ Make learners aware of their own learning and thinking processes ⦁ 1.4 Allow learners to also draw on personal experience to contribute to discussions Identify how cultural differences affect learning in the classroom and how you as a mediator of learning can manage the effects of cultural differences on learning. ⦁ Teach in a culturally responsive way, this means being sensitive to the backgrounds, experiences and contexts of the learners ⦁ Gender and perceived roles of girls and boys differ culturally ⦁ Learners from different cultural groups are often from different religions. ⦁ Avoid making examples of your own religion assuming learners know about it. ⦁ Never criticise or frown upon other religions. ⦁ Never undermine other cultural groups as this will create negative attitudes and it will lower the expectations that the educator communicates, and in turn learners’ achievements will be lower. ⦁ Do not be biased or stereotyped as this kind of attitude discriminates. ⦁ Demonstrate that you respect and care for all learners in your class. ⦁ Appreciate your learners and show this by including all cultural and racial differences and backgrounds. ⦁ Incorporate the cultural wisdom and experience of students from different cultural groups into the daily educational process. ⦁ Collaborate with parents and the community to discover their values, attitudes, expected behaviour and traditions. ⦁ Learn more about cultural learning style theory, include many opportunities for experiential learning where learners can learn from their own and others experiences, values, traditions and attitudes. ⦁ Encourage co-operative activities in heterogeneous groups where appropriate so that learners not only learn from each other, but also learn to appreciate the richness that diversity brings into the classroom. QUESTION 2 2.1 Differentiate between an educator as a mediator of learning and an educator as a giver of information. Mediator of Learning - Guide and facilitate learning process - Motivates learner to participate and share experiences and Giver of Information - One way stream of info and knowledge - No opportunity for interaction meaning non existence of knowledge - - 2.2 Sensitive to cultural and racial differences Learner centred approach - Educator is a facilitator of learning - - group work and information sharing Teacher-centred No evidence of healthy relationships between teacher and learner Educator is strictly a teacher where the learner listens and the teacher talks List any 6 ways in which you can support learners to improve in the LOTL and thereby improving their academic performance. 1. Allow learners to summarise in their home language at the end of the lesson/day. 2. Provide learners with opportunities to discuss concepts to ensure they understand and are able to communicate these concepts. 3. Give learners the opportunity to work in their home language as well as LOTL. 4. Check that learners understand new concepts 5. Help with difficult concepts 6. The educators own language should be of a high standard, meaning clear, logical and understandable. 7. Create ample opportunity for learners to talk and use the LOTL 8. Allow learners to interact with the study material. 9. Let learners learn from each other. 10. Draw up vocabulary lists 11. Repeat the most important points 12. Use dictionaries 13. Use visual support and dramatisation 14. Watch learners carefully 15. Allow extra time 16. Provide examples 17. Revise prior knowledge 18. Help learners structure information 19. Help learners to read actively 2.3 Suggest 5 ways in which you can cater for the needs of gifted learners in the classroom. ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ Adapt teaching activities by giving less school work or fewer activities to make tasks less challenging Plan classroom groups carefully as this will help to reduce isolation . Try to prevent distractions eg. Avoid seating learner near a window or near to noise. ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ Seat them in the front or in the middle of the class. Give them alternatives – avoid embarrassing them in class by not posing questions in class. Encourage them to work hard. Remember to repeat information Help them to manage their time. Give oral comments Support them with reading Adjust activities Help them to remember Adapt assessment tasks QUESTION 3 In order for learners to learn effectively, they need to be actively involved in their own learning. How will you as an educator use group work as a teaching strategy. Use the following headings and examples from your subject area. 3.1 Assumptions about learning underlying group work ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ 3.2 Learning is as much a social process as it is a cognitive activity. Learners acquire knowledge through interaction with their environment and other human beings. Enable learners to construct knowledge through social negotiation. Mediation of sharing behaviour i.e give learners the opportunity to learn from each other. Educators should promote co-operation between learners as some problems are better solved through co-operation. Advantages and disadvantages of group work Advantages ⦁ Involvement – the learner is given a chance to get involved and speak and air his/her views. ⦁ Reduced group pressure –shy to give opinions in large groups ⦁ Responsibility for personal learning – group work forces learners to depend less on the educator. Disadvantages ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ 3.3 ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ 3.4 Participation in a small group is voluntary Learners cant be forced to participate Some learners can dominate the group or waste time with irrelevant contributions or jokes. Discussion in small groups do not necessarily constitute co-operative learning. The use of small group discussions Allows for learners to express themselves more easily Less intimidation Heterogeneous groups understand and support each others views cos of shared language, religion and culture. Progress scores of individuals are added together to determine a team score. It enhances skills building which involves brainstorming and creativity, and exhibits leadership qualities. Individual leadership skills are developed. It encourages planning Fosters role clarification and stimulates vigorous debate. Learners are more organised, show more initiative and are able to synthesise knowledge and to predict novel situations. Learners take active roles in group work They remain focused Co-operative learning ⦁ Encourages co-operative learning and employs co-operative teaching strategy. ⦁ Learners help each other learn, this supports the social construction of knowledge. ⦁ Groups should preferably be heterogeneous i.t.o gender, language ability and culture. ⦁ Ideally it should not consist of more than 5 members, but it may be bigger or smaller depending on the nature of the task to be completed or the problem to be solved. QUESTION 4 4.1 Explain what classroom climate entails and indicate how you will ensure a positive classroom climate. ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ It is the atmosphere in a classroom. It relates to the social and psychological feeling in the classroom. The physical structures and settings of classrooms may be similar but may differ according to atmosphere from friendly and safe to threatening etc. Classroom climate consists of four major aspects – ecology, milieu, social system and culture. These aspects interact with each other with each other and may affect the climate in the classroom negatively or positively. i. ii. Ecology ⦁ A crowded physical classroom lacking in resources can be a barrier to learning. ⦁ Altho the teacher can brighten up the classroom and create a space where the learner is comfortable and focused. Milieu ⦁ This refers to the feeling in the classroom which includes both the teacher and the learners morale. ⦁ If bothe are motivated and enthusiastic then the feeling will be positive and warm. ⦁ If the educator does not mediate goal seeking, goal-setting and goal achieving behaviour and challenges , the learners will be bored, lack motivation and antagonism. iii. Social system ⦁ Social system relates to the interpersonal relationships in classroom and schools ⦁ This includes relationships between educator & learner, educator-parent, principal-educator etc ⦁ Nature and level of communication between the various parties in general. ⦁ Good interpersonal relationships depend on a number of aspects i.e. positive expectations, constructive feedback, appropriate praise, occasional rewards, open & lively communication, a sense of humour, a caring attitude, consistency. iv. Culture ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ 4.2 Culture refers to values, belief systems and norms existing in classrooms and schools. It is determined by the school’s policy on discipline and the rules and code of conduct formulated. Norms entail the shared understanding that learners and educators have for acceptable and unacceptable classroom behaviour. Establish class rules, maintain discipline and help learners to develop a strong sense of internal discipline. Name the qualities that an educator should possess in order to increase learners’ level of motivation. ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ Knowledge – know each learner’s needs Interest – show interest in the learners’ development and always display positive feelings about every learner’s ability to succeed. Firmness and consistency – always remain firm and consistent i.t.o rules and limits. Democratic treatment – behave justly and democratically towards all learners. Warmth – try to reveal a warm personality. Respect – Show respect for the efforts of all learners. Enjoyment – enjoy your work. Discipline without humiliation – discipline the learners without humiliating them. Encouragement – encourage learners to take risks. ⦁ ⦁ ⦁ Moderation – do not expect perfection. Sense of humour – display a sense of humour. Persistence – never give up.