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EDMHODR Memo exam June 2016.pdf

Formal operational thought – Discuss the educational implications of this
stage and indicate the role of mediation of learning in the whole process of
teaching and learning
Piaget’s Fourth Stage of Cognitive Development – Formal Operational thought
The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve and lasts
into adulthood.
Learners are able to think about abstract and theoretical concepts
Able to use logic and come up with creative solutions to problems.
Deductive reasoning become necessary during the formal operational stage.
Deductive logic requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a
particular outcome eg. Maths or Science
While children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages,
the ability to think about abstract concepts emerges during the formal
operational stage.
Children begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions.
This type of thinking is important in long-term planning.
Children are often able to plan quickly an organized approach to solving a
Capable of thinking about abstract and hypothetical ideas. They often ponder
"what-if" type situations and questions and can think about multiple solutions
or possible outcomes.
While kids in the previous stage (concrete operations) are very particular in
their thoughts, kids in the formal operational stage become increasingly
abstract in their thinking.
They also develop what is known as metacognition, or the ability to think
about their thoughts as well as the ideas of others.
Role of mediation of learning in the whole process of teaching and learning.
Educator should ensure that learners are actively involved
Learners should be at the centre of teaching activities, allowing learners to
construct knowledge not only absorb it.
Learners should be helped to learn – provide guidance and assistance to
make learning easier.
Educator should provide opportunities for knowledge construction
Create a real world environment – present authentic tasks and integrate
assessments with learning task, don’t make it a separate activity.
Encourage learners to reflect on their experiences.
Construct knowledge through social negotiation
Foster and encourage co-operative learning.
Differentiate between metacognition and metalearning
Metalearning arose from a close
Indicates a higher order of cognition
connection between metacognition
or consciousness of thought contents
and effective learning.
and thinking processes
Its a learning activity in which learners Cognition indicates possession of eg.
are intentionally aware of their own
Reading skills, while metacognition
learning activities and are planning,
refers to the awareness of and
implementing and monitoring these
deliberate control over these skills
activities themselves.
Planning – learners analyse the task
Metacognition is the ability of learners
to know how they know and to
regulate the learning process
Implementation – the planned
Metacognition is an awareness of
learning strategy gets implemented
one’s own cognitive processes and
self-regulation and control of these
processes according to learning tasks
Monitoring – learners check the task
It includes deliberate selection of
implementation, anticipate and verify, learning strategies and aligning it with
confirm validity
demands of the learning task.
Evaluation – judge the product, ask if
quality is evident, successful?, how
do learning outcomes differ from
others? how to make further use of
knowledge etc.
Indicate how you as a teacher can promote meta-learning in your learners.
⦁ Pose questions to make learners think
⦁ Make time for purposeful thinking in a stress-free environment.
⦁ Help learners to use thought processes eg. How to solve a problem
⦁ Make learners aware of their own learning and thinking processes
Allow learners to also draw on personal experience to contribute to
Identify how cultural differences affect learning in the classroom and how you
as a mediator of learning can manage the effects of cultural differences on
⦁ Teach in a culturally responsive way, this means being sensitive to the
backgrounds, experiences and contexts of the learners
⦁ Gender and perceived roles of girls and boys differ culturally
⦁ Learners from different cultural groups are often from different religions.
⦁ Avoid making examples of your own religion assuming learners know
about it.
⦁ Never criticise or frown upon other religions.
⦁ Never undermine other cultural groups as this will create negative
attitudes and it will lower the expectations that the educator
communicates, and in turn learners’ achievements will be lower.
⦁ Do not be biased or stereotyped as this kind of attitude discriminates.
⦁ Demonstrate that you respect and care for all learners in your class.
⦁ Appreciate your learners and show this by including all cultural and
racial differences and backgrounds.
⦁ Incorporate the cultural wisdom and experience of students from
different cultural groups into the daily educational process.
⦁ Collaborate with parents and the community to discover their values,
attitudes, expected behaviour and traditions.
⦁ Learn more about cultural learning style theory, include many
opportunities for experiential learning where learners can learn from
their own and others experiences, values, traditions and attitudes.
⦁ Encourage co-operative activities in heterogeneous groups where
appropriate so that learners not only learn from each other, but also
learn to appreciate the richness that diversity brings into the classroom.
Differentiate between an educator as a mediator of learning and an educator
as a giver of information.
Mediator of Learning
- Guide and facilitate learning
- Motivates learner to participate
and share experiences and
Giver of Information
- One way stream of info and
- No opportunity for interaction
meaning non existence of
Sensitive to cultural and racial
Learner centred approach
Educator is a facilitator of
group work and information
No evidence of healthy
relationships between teacher
and learner
Educator is strictly a teacher
where the learner listens and
the teacher talks
List any 6 ways in which you can support learners to improve in the LOTL and
thereby improving their academic performance.
1. Allow learners to summarise in their home language at the end of the
2. Provide learners with opportunities to discuss concepts to ensure they
understand and are able to communicate these concepts.
3. Give learners the opportunity to work in their home language as well as LOTL.
4. Check that learners understand new concepts
5. Help with difficult concepts
6. The educators own language should be of a high standard, meaning clear,
logical and understandable.
7. Create ample opportunity for learners to talk and use the LOTL
8. Allow learners to interact with the study material.
9. Let learners learn from each other.
10. Draw up vocabulary lists
11. Repeat the most important points
12. Use dictionaries
13. Use visual support and dramatisation
14. Watch learners carefully
15. Allow extra time
16. Provide examples
17. Revise prior knowledge
18. Help learners structure information
19. Help learners to read actively
Suggest 5 ways in which you can cater for the needs of gifted learners in the
Adapt teaching activities by giving less school work or fewer activities to make
tasks less challenging
Plan classroom groups carefully as this will help to reduce isolation .
Try to prevent distractions eg. Avoid seating learner near a window or near to
Seat them in the front or in the middle of the class.
Give them alternatives – avoid embarrassing them in class by not posing
questions in class.
Encourage them to work hard.
Remember to repeat information
Help them to manage their time.
Give oral comments
Support them with reading
Adjust activities
Help them to remember
Adapt assessment tasks
In order for learners to learn effectively, they need to be actively involved in their own
learning. How will you as an educator use group work as a teaching strategy. Use
the following headings and examples from your subject area.
Assumptions about learning underlying group work
Learning is as much a social process as it is a cognitive activity.
Learners acquire knowledge through interaction with their environment and
other human beings.
Enable learners to construct knowledge through social negotiation.
Mediation of sharing behaviour i.e give learners the opportunity to learn from
each other.
Educators should promote co-operation between learners as some problems
are better solved through co-operation.
Advantages and disadvantages of group work
Involvement – the learner is given a chance to get involved and speak and air
his/her views.
⦁ Reduced group pressure –shy to give opinions in large groups
⦁ Responsibility for personal learning – group work forces learners to depend
less on the educator.
Participation in a small group is voluntary
Learners cant be forced to participate
Some learners can dominate the group or waste time with irrelevant
contributions or jokes.
Discussion in small groups do not necessarily constitute co-operative
The use of small group discussions
Allows for learners to express themselves more easily
Less intimidation
Heterogeneous groups understand and support each others views cos of
shared language, religion and culture.
Progress scores of individuals are added together to determine a team score.
It enhances skills building which involves brainstorming and creativity, and
exhibits leadership qualities.
Individual leadership skills are developed.
It encourages planning
Fosters role clarification and stimulates vigorous debate.
Learners are more organised, show more initiative and are able to synthesise
knowledge and to predict novel situations.
Learners take active roles in group work
They remain focused
Co-operative learning
Encourages co-operative learning and employs co-operative teaching
⦁ Learners help each other learn, this supports the social construction of
⦁ Groups should preferably be heterogeneous i.t.o gender, language ability and
⦁ Ideally it should not consist of more than 5 members, but it may be bigger or
smaller depending on the nature of the task to be completed or the problem to
be solved.
Explain what classroom climate entails and indicate how you will ensure a
positive classroom climate.
It is the atmosphere in a classroom.
It relates to the social and psychological feeling in the classroom.
The physical structures and settings of classrooms may be similar but may
differ according to atmosphere from friendly and safe to threatening etc.
Classroom climate consists of four major aspects – ecology, milieu, social
system and culture. These aspects interact with each other with each other
and may affect the climate in the classroom negatively or positively.
⦁ A crowded physical classroom lacking in resources can be a barrier
to learning.
⦁ Altho the teacher can brighten up the classroom and create a space
where the learner is comfortable and focused.
⦁ This refers to the feeling in the classroom which includes both the
teacher and the learners morale.
⦁ If bothe are motivated and enthusiastic then the feeling will be
positive and warm.
⦁ If the educator does not mediate goal seeking, goal-setting and goal
achieving behaviour and challenges , the learners will be bored,
lack motivation and antagonism.
Social system
⦁ Social system relates to the interpersonal relationships in classroom
and schools
⦁ This includes relationships between educator & learner,
educator-parent, principal-educator etc
⦁ Nature and level of communication between the various parties in
⦁ Good interpersonal relationships depend on a number of aspects
i.e. positive expectations, constructive feedback, appropriate praise,
occasional rewards, open & lively communication, a sense of
humour, a caring attitude, consistency.
Culture refers to values, belief systems and norms existing in classrooms and
schools. It is determined by the school’s policy on discipline and the rules and
code of conduct formulated.
Norms entail the shared understanding that learners and educators have for
acceptable and unacceptable classroom behaviour.
Establish class rules, maintain discipline and help learners to develop a strong
sense of internal discipline.
Name the qualities that an educator should possess in order to increase
learners’ level of motivation.
Knowledge – know each learner’s needs
Interest – show interest in the learners’ development and always display
positive feelings about every learner’s ability to succeed.
Firmness and consistency – always remain firm and consistent i.t.o rules and
Democratic treatment – behave justly and democratically towards all learners.
Warmth – try to reveal a warm personality.
Respect – Show respect for the efforts of all learners.
Enjoyment – enjoy your work.
Discipline without humiliation – discipline the learners without humiliating
Encouragement – encourage learners to take risks.
Moderation – do not expect perfection.
Sense of humour – display a sense of humour.
Persistence – never give up.
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