Uploaded by Hamza Jan

Machine Learning in Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence
CSC462
Dr. Muhammad Humayoun
Assistant Professor
COMSATS Institute of Computer Science, Lahore.
[email protected]
Course homepage:
https://sites.google.com/a/ciitlahore.edu.pk/ai13/
Modified slides of AI course on Udacity, etc.
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Machine Learning
Chapter 18
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What we saw
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Bayes Network = reasons with known models
Machine learning = Learns models from data
Unsupervised Learning (Today’s topic)
Supervised Learning (Next topic)
ML is a very large field with many different
methods and many different applications
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Taxonomy
What?
• Parameters: like the probabilities of a Bayes
Network.
• Structure: like the arc structure of a Bayes
Network.
• Hidden concepts that makes better sense of data:
For example you might find that certain training
example form a hidden group.
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Taxonomy
What from?
Every ML method is driven by some sort of target
information that you care about
• Supervised learning: we have target labels
• Unsupervised learning: target labels are missing and
we use replacement principles to find, for example
hidden concepts
• Reinforcement learning: an agent learns from
feedback with the physical environment by interacting
and trying actions and receiving some sort of
evaluation from the environment
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Taxonomy
What for?
• Prediction: what's going to happen with the future
in the stockmarket for example.
• Diagnostics
• Summarization
• …
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Taxonomy
How to learn?
• Passive: if your learning agent is just an observer
and has no impact on the data itself.
• Active: Otherwise, its active.
• Online: learning occurs when the data is being
generated
• Offline: learning occurs after the data has been
generated
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Taxonomy
Outputs?
• Classification: the output is binary or a fixed
number of classes. Ex. something is either a chair
or not.
• Regression is continuous. Ex. Tomorrow’s
temperature might be 13 degrees in our
prediction.
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Taxonomy
Internal details?
• Generative: seeks to model the data as generally
as possible
• Discriminative seek to distinguish data (this might
sound like a superficial distinction but it has
enormous ramification on the learning algorithm)
It has taken us many years to fully learn all these
words. So don't expect to pick them all up in one
class
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Unsupervised Learning
• We just have a data matrix of data items of N
features each, with M records
• Task of unsupervised learning is to find structure
in data of this type
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Warm-up Quiz
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Is there any structure in these data items?
Yes. Data does not seem random.
How many groups?
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Another Quiz
• What is the dimensionality
of the space?
• 2
• How many dimensions are
needed intuitively???
• 1
• Important technique
• Dimensionality Reduction
• Useful in image resolution
reduction
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(Identically distributed and
independently drawn)
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Google street view
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Google street view
• A huge photographic database of many, many streets
in the world.
• Ground imagery of almost any location in the world
• Vast regularities in these images
• Homes, trees, cars, signboards, etc
• So one of the fascinating, unsolved, unsupervised
learning tasks is:
– Given hundreds of billions of images as comprised in the
Street View data set can we discover concepts such as
trees, lane markers, stop signs, cars, and pedestrians?
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K-means
• K-means (MacQueen, 1967) is one of the simplest
unsupervised learning algorithms that solve the
well known clustering problem.
• The procedure follows a simple and easy way to
classify a given data set through a certain number
of fixed clusters (assume k clusters).
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Calculations
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Quiz
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Quiz
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Quiz
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The K-means Algorithm for Clustering
kmeans(D, k)
choose K initial means randomly (e.g., pick K points randomly from D)
while means_are_changing
% assign each point to a cluster
for i = 1: N
membership[x(i)] = cluster with mean closest to x(i)
end
% update the means
for k = 1:K
mean_k = average of vectors x(i) assigned to cluster k
end
% check for convergence
if (new means are the same as old means) then halt
else means_are_changing = 1
end
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k-Means: Step-By-Step Example
• Consider the following data set consisting of the
scores of two variables on each of seven
individuals:
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k-Means: Step-By-Step Example
• For K=2, the data set is to be grouped into two
clusters.
• As a first step in finding a sensible initial partition,
let the A & B values of the two individuals furthest
apart (using the Euclidean distance measure),
define the initial cluster means, giving:
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k-Means: Step-By-Step Example
• The remaining individuals are now examined in sequence
and allocated to the cluster to which they are closest, in
terms of Euclidean distance to the cluster mean.
• The mean vector is recalculated each time a new member
is added. This leads to the following series of steps:
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k-Means: Step-By-Step Example
• Now the initial partition has changed, and the two
clusters at this stage having the following
characteristics:
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k-Means: Step-By-Step Example
• But we cannot yet be sure that each individual has been
assigned to the right cluster.
• So, we compare each individual’s distance to its own
cluster mean and to that of the opposite cluster. And we
find:
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k-Means: Step-By-Step Example
• Only individual 3 is nearer to the mean of the opposite
cluster (Cluster 2) than its own (Cluster 1).
• In other words, each individual's distance to its own
cluster mean should be smaller that the distance to the
other cluster's mean (which is not the case with individual
3).
• Thus, individual 3 is relocated to Cluster 2 resulting in the
new partition:
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k-Means: Step-By-Step Example
• The iterative relocation would now continue from
this new partition until no more relocations occur.
• However, in this example each individual is now
nearer its own cluster mean than that of the other
cluster and the iteration stops, choosing the latest
partitioning as the final cluster solution.
• Also, it is possible that the k-means algorithm won't
find a final solution.
• In this case it would be a good idea to consider
stopping the algorithm after a pre-chosen maximum
of iterations.
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http://home.deib.polimi.it/matteucc/Clustering/tutorial_html/AppletKM.html
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End
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