Uploaded by Sahar Mohammed

need assessment presentation

Needs Assessment for
Curriculum Development
Adopted by
Sahar Mohammed
Supervised by
Prof. Ferial Hayajneh
at the end of this lecture, students will be able
Analyze external Frame Factors Conceptual model for
application to a needs assessment for curriculum
development and evaluation.
Consider the internal frame factors that affect a nursing
education program either to develop a new program or
revise an existing one.
• Recognize basic concepts
• Definition of need assessment
• Purpose of conducting a need assessment
• The characteristics of need assessment
• Persons who involved in the need assessment
• Discuss the external factors and internal factors that
influence the curriculum
Recognition of Basic
• Need : A need is something that a person must have in order to
thrive. Without it, that person will suffer either physically or
• To Want less
 Example: We need to eat in order to live. But the choice of what to eat
leans toward want
Want : A want is a choice, a desire which a person may or may
not be able to get. Life will continue if a person doesn’t get what
they want.
Too many things
The most important needs - definition as following:
• “Needs” as a want or preference:
this conception has been criticized because of three reasons first of all ,
because the people’s views are considered to be subjective, secondly ,
people are not aware of their real needs and thirdly since the needs
concept is not the same as want concept.
” Needs” as a deficit or as a problem:
'need' implies the situation in which minimum satisfactory level is not
The concept of minimum satisfactory level is ambiguous and
arguable, since this term is used in some fields such as biology and
medicine but there is no evidence in education for it.
“Needs” as a gap or as a discrepancy :
• “needs” is considered as the discrepancy or gap between the present
situation and the ideal situation
Targeting needs scenario
There are four plants all have needs for water
• Plant A
• Plant B
• Plant C
• Plant D
You have only enough water to give one plant the
moisture it needs, What will you do?
Plant A is healthy.
Plant B is starting to wilt.
Plant C is seriously wilted.
Plant D is shriveled up
Definition of need assessment
Needs assessment
 Is a systematic process for identify gaps between what “is” and
what “needs to be”
 Needs assessment is a part of planning processes, often used for
improvement in individuals, education/training, organizations, or
Needs assessment is the starting point for curriculum
• when we contemplating a new education program or revising
an existing curriculum need assessment is indicated.
Purposes for conducting need assessment
 Validate the currency, academic and professional relevance, and
continued need for an existing program.
 To establish the feasibility for a new nursing program including
the demand for it, available resources, and financial liability.
 Useful for accreditation and program review purposes and can
serve as the organizing framework for a master plan of evaluation
 Provides direction for programs, projects, and activities (Southwest
Comprehensive Center (SCC),2008).
What are the characteristics of need assessment?
• Considers a range of needs or issues.
 Includes information gathered from a variety of sources.
 Employs the use of valid and reliable data to the maximum extent
 Meaningfully involves many individuals representing a range of
knowledge, skills and expertise.
 Results in the development of goals and action plans (SCC,2008).
Who are involved in the need assessment?
• Organizational administrators.
• Leaders of community organizations and the services
• Faculty should participate in the decision for what type
and how much data to collect and what decisions are
made that affect the curriculum.
• Stakeholder engagement
Common sources of data for comprehensive
needs assessment
common sources of quantitative and qualitative data for need assessment
Adopted from: https://www.cde.state.co.us/sites/default/files/documents/fedprograms/dl/consapp_na_guide.pd
Placing the need assessment within a
• Johnson (1977) presented a simple and linear (P [planning] – I
[implementation] –E [evaluation]) conceptual model for
curriculum development similar to the nursing process.
• Johnson expands it into a complex step-by-step logical process
for curriculum development and evaluation
the frame
within which
the program
As a conceptual model, it collects, organizes, and analyzes
information that is useful for the development and evaluation of
Frame factors ( context)
in which curriculum exists
Internal frame
Those influence
curriculum development
within the environment of
the parent institution
External frame factors
Those influence
curriculum development
from the larger
environment and outside
the parent institution
• All of these factors influence the curriculum so it is important
to recognize and analyze these factors for their impact on
the program.
They can “make or break” a program
 For example:
lack of accreditation for a nursing program can prohibit its
graduates from career opportunities and continuing education.
Whether curriculum development involves a new program or
revisions of an existing curriculum, program planners and
faculty must evaluate both external and internal frame factors that
affect the curriculum.
External frame factors
• Jonson defines external frame factors as those factors that
influence curriculum development in its environment and
outside the parent institution.
• Analyzing external frame factors in light of proposed new
programs or curriculum revisions helps to:
1. Determine the type of new program needed
2. In the case of an existing program, the extent to which
changes in the curriculum are indicated
External frame factors for a needs assessment for curriculum development in nursing. Adapted from Johnson
1. Description of the community
 Describing the community where the program exist or will exist
conveys the significance of the program and ensures the relevance
of the program to a community need and to fit the community that
it serves.
 Many times, modifications in a program are the result of
recommendations from consumers
 Assessment should include size, location, infrastructure
accessibility to students, faculty, learning resources in addition to
knowing and understanding major industries and their support of
the program e.g. financial support
2.Demographics of the population
knowledge of the people who live in the home community of the
institution and characteristics of a population
for example., age, gender, socioeconomic status, predicted population
changes including immigrant and emigrant statistics, ethnic and cultural
groups including major languages, education levels.
 This information identifies
 potential students and their characteristics and to some extent, the needs
of the population that the students and graduates will serve
 existence of potential faculty and identification of people who have the
credentials to teach.
3.Characteristics of the academic setting
Identifying other institutions in the area that offer higher
education and knowing what programs are offered.
Identifying other institutions, their levels of higher education
(technical schools, associate degree and/or baccalaureate and higher
degree), financial base (private or public), and affiliations (sectarian
or nonsectarian)
Enables developers to understand the gaps in the types of
programs and gives the assessors an idea of the existing
competition for recruiting students, faculty, and staff
Avoid curriculum redundancies.
For example
If the institution’s curriculum offers a nurse practitioner program and
two other programs in the region offer similar programs, perhaps the
curriculum should be revised to a specialty primary care
program such as a pediatric nurse practitioner or geriatric nurse
practitioner track, discontinued, or possibly, entered into a joint
venture with the other schools
consider the need for nurses in the area and its surrounds
though there are multiple programs, the success rates of
finding employment in the region
4.Political Climate and Body Politic
The assessors should identify
Political climate: the type of government and their relationship
with the nursing program
Body politic: the major political forces and their visibility to exert
influence within the community, their view of the college and their
specific interest in nursing.
information learned from assessing the political climate is vital
to planning for the future and seeking assistance when the call
comes for additional resources or for political pressure and
support to maintain, revise, o increase the program.
5. The health care system and health needs of
the populace
• To assess the health care system, it is necessary to know the
major forms of healthcare delivery, major health care providers,
types of organizations and financial bases for the delivery of
health care, understanding the challenges of the community in
regards to healthcare.
 Major health care systems such as Medicare, Nonprofit or forprofit health care agencies , public health services, major primary
health care agencies and providers, voluntary health care
agencies and other community-based health related services
staffed by nurses such as schools, industry and so on
The desired outcome in this area of the needs assessment
 provides an overview of the health care system within which the
program is located.
 It describes the health care resources that are available or not
available to the population including the nursing school and
 It points out the gaps of services in the community.
 It identifies trends in health care services and anticipated changes
for the future that can influence curriculum development.
 Make the problems and concerns of the community matching the
focus of the curriculum
 It is useful to know if resources within the system, such as health
care libraries, are available to students and faculty during clinical
 Pinpoints existing clinical experience sites and the potential for
new ones.
 Determine availability of staff and agency personnel department
with qualifications for possible collaboration opportunities as
preceptors, mentors.
 Scholarship and research opportunities for students and faculty
may emerge from the review and can influence curriculum
6. The need for the program
Information about the increased or continued need for nurses.
The following data points act as guides to document the need for
the program
Characteristics of the nursing workforce and the extent of a
nursing shortage, if it exists
Predictions for future nursing workforce needs
 Adequate numbers of eligible applicants to the program, currently
and in the future
Employers’ projections for the numbers of nurses needed in the
Employers’ views on the types of graduates needed
 The data on the need for the program demonstrate how many of
its graduates are currently needed and in the future the level of
education necessary to provide the level of required care to met
short and long term health care system needs.
 Shortages in specialties indicate advanced practice curricula and
increased opportunities for registered nurses to continue their
7. The nursing profession
It is important to learn about the nursing profession in the region,
type of nurses available to fulfill the needs of the community and
nursing organizations that can support both students and faculty
Questions to gather information about the profession are:
Who are the nurses in the area?
Are there professional organizations can support the program?
What is the level of education for the majority of the nurses in
Are there nurses prepared with advanced degrees who could serve
as educators or preceptors?
Are scholarship and research activities in nursing and health care
underway that present opportunities for students and faculty?
8. Regulations and accreditation requirements
Whether the program is new or under revision, the country
regulations regarding schools of nursing should be reviewed for
their requirements and any recent or anticipated changes in them
that affect the curriculum.
National accreditation provides the standards for nursing schools
curricula and demonstrates program quality.
Applicants to the program will look for accreditation and students
find it advantageous to graduate from an accredited institution when
applying for job, advanced education, and for any positions in the
9. Financial Support
The financial support of the nursing program may come from
sources at the national level or from donations as well as fees,
tuition, and scholarships.
 Whatever the source, financial stability will influence the quality
of the program and how it is provided to students
 An analysis of the finances of the program provides curriculum
developers with vital information on the economic health of the
program which is influence how the curriculum will be delivered.
 If it is a new program, adequate resources including start-up
funds for its implementation must be available.
 If curriculum revision is being considered, financial support may
need to increase or decrease based on the changes
conceptual model of the internal frame factors that impact the curriculum (Johnson,
 Part of a needs assessment should include the institution in which the
nursing program belongs
 the structure of the parent institution should be analyzed to describe the
hierarchal and formal lines of communication that guide the developing
and revising of programs.
It sets the stage for the processes that the nursing faculty must undergo
to gain approval for the proposed changes
For example, curriculum proposals must be approved first on the local level
(the nursing curriculum committee and faculty), moved to the next level of
organization such as a college curriculum committee and dean …. final
never blindside an administrator or decision maker
consultation with key people in formal or informal way can help to
smooth the way when the proposals are ready to enter the formal
arena and they can give advice related to changes that might
enhance approval or advice on the best presentation formats that
facilitate an understanding of the proposal
2.Mission and purpose, philosophy, and goals
of the parent institution
 The mission and purpose, philosophy and goals of the parent
institution influence the nature of the nursing program and to
ensure success, the nursing program must be congruent with those
of the parent institution.
 Together the program and the organization can prepare students
for becoming professional and responsible people of the
The mission of The University of Jordan is to apply and promote the
concepts of quality assurance efficiently and effectively, to control
performance and evolve administrative procedures in order to develop
distinctive educational, administrative and research system through
applying modern quality assurance methodologies that achieve the
mission of The University of Jordan and its objectives.
The School of Nursing dedicates itself to improve health and
wellbeing of society through preparing professional nurses to provide
quality nursing care, conduct research and provide community service.
The school provides a model learning environment that encourages
life-long learning, innovation, and professional and personal
3. Internal economic situation and
influence on the curriculum
• The nursing program must have adequate resources in order to
provide quality education of tomorrow’s nurses.
• Assessment of the economic status of the parent institution and the
nursing program provides a realistic picture of the potential for
program expansion and curriculum revision.
 All institutions depend upon endowments, financial aid
programs for students including scholarships, loans, and
 These income illustrate to the parent institution that the
nursing program is viable and have secure funding
Awareness of the financial support and budgeting issues for
curriculum development and evaluation is essential for nursing
education administrators, managers, and faculty, need to ensure
the success and continuation of the program
4. Resources within the institution and nursing
 An analysis of the existing resources within the institution is
important internal frame factors that should be assessed.
 The physical environment should offer adequate
classrooms, learning laboratories, library staff and resources,
computer facilities, clinical practice simulations, instructional
technology support, and distance education resources… etc
• The need for expansion of these facilities and additional staffing
should be identified.
• If expansion is not possible, then creative approaches to
scheduling for the maximum use of these facilities can be
examined, for example, evening classes, weekend learning
experiences, and online delivery of courses.
Academic support services contribute to the maintenance of
a quality education program
Student support services
• Major student services include enrollment (recruitment,
admissions, registrar activities, advising and counseling,
disciplinary matters, remediation and study skills, work study
programs, career counseling, job placement, and financial aid).
Their role in curriculum development is important, as expanding or
changing educational programs requires student services
5. Potential faculty and student characteristics
• Finally, the characteristics of the faculty and the potential student
are reviewed to determine their match to the proposed change
• If a new program is proposed, the faculty composition is reviewed.
• There should be adequate numbers of faculty members who
represent diversity in backgrounds and to reach the desired
faculty to student ratio depending upon the nature of the program
• Teaching load for the instructor
• Yet another consideration related to faculty is the match of
knowledge to the subject matter, clinical expertise, and skills.
Information on the numbers and types of faculty needed, their
required educational levels, and scholarship and research
history feed into decisions about curriculum development
• The characteristics of the student and the types of students the
faculty hopes to attract to the new program or the revised
curriculum are important.
• The characteristics of the students in the program help to meet
a diversity of learning needs.
• Other factors to consider and the educational program must
plan to be culturally responsive as well as preparing
professionals with cultural competence
or revising
To met dynamic
health care needs of educational
the society and health
care system
For more detailed information please refer to our text book in
section three to fined:
TABLE 6.1 guidelines for assessing external frame factors. Page
TABLE 6.2 analysis of the external frame factors needs assessment
data and decision making. Page 137
TABLE 7.1 guidelines for assessing internal frame factors 154
TABLE 7.2 analysis of the internal frame factors. Page 164
Assessment of frame factors influence the educational program and
are equally important to the decision for changing a curriculum or
developing a new program.
 While the external frame factors examined the macro environment
surrounding the program, the internal frame factors looked at those
factors that are closer to the program and include the parent
institution as well as the nursing program itself.
• Johnson, M. (1977). Intentionality in education. Albany, NY: Center for
Curriculum Research and Services.
• Keating,S.B.(2014) Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing. 3rd
edition. New York: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.
• Southwest Comprehensive Center at WestEd. A Guide for Comprehensive Needs
Assessment(2008). Retrieved from: