COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE DEPARTEMENT OF TEACHER EDUCATION ACTION RESEARCH ON IMPROVING EFFECT OF CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES IN ICT ACHIEVIMENT GRADE 9TH E IN CASE OF Fasilo general SECONDARY and preparatory SCHOOL. ADVISOR:ATINAFU(Dr) BY: Getachew Fanta ID N0: PGDT MAY 1, 2018 G.C NEKEMTE, Acknowledgement First I would like to thank the almighty God in supplyng health ,strength,patience and protection through my study. I am deeply indebted to my Advisor for his coordinal guidance,suggestion and all sorts of assistance of this paper Thirdly I thanks want for Fasilo secondary and preparatory school administration and students for their cooperation of their response and the necessary information. Finally I would like to thank my family for their financial support their advancement for this action research proposal ii CHAPTER ONE 1. Introduction 1.1BACK GROUND OF THE STUDY Fasilo general secondary preparatory school is found in northern Ethiopia at Amhara region in Bahir Dar city. The school was established in 1963 E.C. At the beginning the school was teach elementary but later it is developed to high school and preparatory in 2006 E.C. in this year or 2011 the school exams for the 4th time the university entrance examination. In the school there are grade 9-12 levels and in each grade there about 5,6,7,8 sections respectively. There are also night students in grade 9and10. The totally number of teachers in the school are 98 and 430f them are females . in the school there are around eight clubs which perform different tasks in the school. I have observed the school for one month due to my practicum and initiated to do my action research on the topic of student participation in the class room activity and performance. To do my action research proposal, I have observed and interviewed to collect the data from the school. The research proposal is particularly will be done for classroom participation and activity in ICT. . The study also will be sought to determine the classroom activity load that affects student ICT achievement. In order to conduct the study an approach of action research will employed on two sections of Fasilo secondary and preparatory school. First observation of students’ activity and their perception towards ICT classroom activity was made. Students’ perceptions of classroom activity gave valuable information to improve the approaches of classroom activity so as to improve student achievement. Therefore, action will be taken to improve approaches of classroom activities by dividing students as an experimental (40) and control group (38). 1. 2 Statement of the Problem The process of teaching and learning in any setting can often encounter barriers that disrupt teachers’ plans, students’ achievement or the institutional goals. In such circumstances it is necessary for instructors and others to investigate the nature of the problems that arise and seek solutions through action research proposal. However, the existing situation does not reveal the reality of ICT subject class. The observation made during class room instruction shows that students are forced to do class room activities. They consider class room activities as extra curricula of the courses. The instruction given to the students in actual classroom refers to traditional approaches which may deny the classroom activities. 1.3 research questions The present study is trying to answer the following questions: 1. 2. What are the perceptions of students towards classroom activities? To what extent classroom activities affect the performance of students in ICT achievements? 1.4 Objectives of the Study i) General objectives To observe perception of students towards classroom activities in ICT course. ii) Specific objectives It specifically intended to: Identify factor that affect classroom activity on ICT class in grade 9”E” Fasilo school. 1.5. Significance of the Study The study will be considered of vital importance for the following reasons: It lights on the important domains of the students’ participation in classroom activities that instructors of ICT use in their classrooms. It lights on the role of ICT instructor towards enhancing students’ participation in classroom activities so as to enhance their achievements. The results of this study are going to contribute to putting solutions in how to enhance students’ participation in classroom activities. 1.6. Limitation Some extraneous variables that affect classroom activities and student test score were not controlled. The study was carried out in short period of time, for about one month. As a result data of student test score limited to only two test score which was given consecutively within 4 weeks 1 CHAPTER TWO 2 Review of related literature Large-scale comparative international and national surveys continue to show poor performance of students in ICT. Given such consistently poor productivity, much research has sought to identify students in school and outof-school experiences that influence achievement and related outcomes especially those that are alterable or partly alterable by educators and could be manipulated by policy makers (Silesh, 2001). Research in western countries has shifted attention away from school-level factors to learning environment of the classroom (Saburoh, Shyoichi, 1984). In fact, all factors that contribute to educational outcomes exist in one way or another in classrooms that differ in terms of learning environments. They have unique effects on pupils learning independently of factors operating at school and individual levels (Richard, 1994). The classroom activities influence on students’ achievement is two or three times more than the school level. Classroom teaching is nearly a universal activity designed to help students to learn. It is the process that brings the curriculum into contact with students and through which educational goals are to be contacted with students and through which educational goals are to be achieved. The quality of classroom teaching is a key to improving students learning (Brown et al., 2003). Although, setting standards for content and performance is an important first step, but merely doing so and holding teachers accountable will not improve students’ learning (Anderso Brophy, 1998). Accordingly, particular attention should be paid to the actual process of teaching. However, a number of studies in classroom activities provide the critical link between students’ achievement data and teacher practices at classroom level, this link is unfortunately lacking in most national education surveys (Deribssa, 2004). Similarly, teaching and assessment are rarely studied at level, but education policy is often discussed nationally. It is important to know what aspects of teaching and assessment contribute significantly to achievement so that national discussions of classroom practices focus on the typical experiences of students (Silesh, 2001). Findings of research suggested that several classroom instructional activities were associated with achievement and noted that the ways in which instructional activities are presented in classroom context affects student achievement (Sewell, 1984; Anderson and Brophy, 1998; Cooper, 1998). Moreover, Sommer (1999) found that quality of instruction influence achievement at the class level. Instructional activities in class include variables that describe aspects of classroom instruction such as quality of teaching style and opportunity to learn (Belay, 2006). Teacher provides a variety of instructional methods and techniques for helping learners construct their learning and develop a system for applying knowledge and theory (Brown et al., 2003). Knuth (2003) found that student learn more in classes where they spend most of their time being taught or supervised by teachers, rather than working on their own. One of the main factors related to achievement scores is opportunity to learn which refers to the amount of time students are given to learn the curriculum. The extent of the students’ opportunity to learn content bears directly and decisively on student achievement (Huntley & Rasmussen, 2000). Classroom activity is seen as a contribution towards students’ learning, extending the curriculum, which is conceived as one opportunity to learn in those regular school hours. Class room activities could be considered as a proxy measure for the degree to which teachers academically challenged “pressed” their students. While doing class room activities in ICT course depends on the amount, type and efficiency of class room activities rendered in each contact hours during instruction. CHAPTER THREE 3.Action Research Design and Methodology The design of the study will be static-group comparison -experimental action research approach which fit the nature of the study. The description of a proposed study design will determine students’ perception and classroom activity approaches that predict students’ achievement. The approaches of classroom activity will considered as independent variable while student achievement on the tests was seen as dependent variable. 3.1. Participants Based on the nature of the topic and the researcher interest to apply action research approaches, purposive sampling techniques will employed for deeper understanding of effects of classroom activities on ICT achievement for articulating an area of intervention. The target participant that will be studied includes 30 experimental groups and 26 controlled group which represent a total population of 56 students of Fasilo secondary school students’ education of male and female students collectively. These students will be selected because of the fact that they have been with the researcher for the previous semester with similar courses. 3.2. Description of Instrument The first step in the study will inventory of class room activity approach observation and focus group discussion will made by the researcher how the students perceive ICT classroom activities at glance. Furthermore the instrument comprised of 10 items will be developed for experimental groups to answer, which helps to compare students’ perception before and after intervention strategies. 3.3 Population group The population group of my research will be the grade 9thE students. There are 56 students in the class. Grade 9thE students are select because of they are beneficiary from these research for the future. And also they are well suited for this research. 3.4 Sampling technique The sample technique of my research was purposive sample technique. From the total of 56 students 26 and 30 are grouped separately and will purposively selected to do their low classroom participation. 3.5 Source of data The study primary data was used for these action research. The primary data was collected by data collection method. 3.6 Data collection method Data was collected by three different ways 1. Interview In this Iwill conducted interview with grade nine teacher at Fasilo secondary and preparatory school, because he is the main teacher and has a long experience in this school. Also he is homeroom teacher for this section, he is a ICT teacher and my mentor during practicum observation and he knows all information and problem of low achiever students of his class in addition to this he has good relationship with the student so he give me very important information which helps me to identify low achiever students. 2. Observation I have observed the classroom two times in a week during practicum two, four times in one week during guide teaching and I collected the most important information during block teaching . 3. questionnaire I have questionnaire with may mentor students and school administrator and also staffs to collect may data. 3.7. Procedure of the Study 3.7.1. Procedure -1 Instruments: Students’ questionnaire were administered twice i.e.; before and after the intervention activities for experimental group. Students’ questionnaires focus on gathering data concerning perception of students towards classroom activities. Focus group discussions have been made with both experimental and control group of students to get areas of class room intervention approaches. The result of data gathered by questionnaire and focus group discussion were used as an instrument to design an intervention strategy for classroom activities for an experimental group. 3.7.2. Procedure -2 First round observations were conducted for 3 consecutive days to observe how their regular instructor delivers classroom activities and evaluation approaches. Based on the result of physical observation and focus group discussion, intervention strategies were designed by the researchers while one of them had an experience of teaching with high school. Accordingly, for a period of four weeks classroom activity intervention followed with two tests within a difference of two weeks as shown below. The following procedures were employed for experimental group: 42 minutes of total instruction time allotment was ensured 20 Minute discussion/lecture / with two clear examples were demonstrated to the class Two questions were given for classroom activity to be done in group for 11 minutes 11 minutes were allotted for evaluation of the work of each group Furthermore the students were ordered to practice similar activities in their text book The following procedures were employed for control group were as usual i.e. 42 minutes of total instruction time allotment was ensured Full lecture/discussion/ and example without time allotment for each activities Lots of computational exercise was given as a home work No evaluation was made during classroom activity Furthermore the students were ordered to practice similar activities in their text book It noted that the intervention strategy were time allotment, two representative practical examples and classroom group activities and evaluation which were employed on experimental group. On the other hand no intervention was made for control group .All approaches were as usual, and i.e. no time allotment for every activity, full lecture with unlimited example, and lots of computational exercise as a home work, no classroom group activities and evaluation were made for the controlled group. 3.7.3. Procedure-3 At the end of every second week test evaluated corrected from 10% was given to both of an experimental and controlled groups. In preparing the tests care was taken into consideration in selecting test item directly from their text book and topic covered which corresponds to examples given during their instructional periods. All the tests were multiple type alternative, four choices accompanied each item of the test. Students took the test in independent classes every two weeks in the afternoon at the same time. All the two tests had constituted 10 items to be corrected from 10%, and the time allotted for each test for both experimental and controlled group was 60 minutes. Each of the test score of the experimental and controlled group were recorded. Time table for the action research Weeks Week 1 Week2 Week 3 Week 4 Action taken General observation Classroom observation Gathering information through practice Group discussion with colleague Material used Pad and pen Pad, pen, record and other Teaching aid and note book, text book etc Pad and recorder 4 CHAPTER FOUR conclusion and Discussion My study will be focus on the problem related to students participation in the classroom in case of ICT and how to improve the students participation in the classroom. According to my observation in Fasilo general secondary and preparatory school in the ICT class, there is a participation and classroom activity of problem and that initiated me to do action research on the topic of how to improve student classroom participation and activity in ICT lesson. I will discuss also the problem and cause that retard the students not actively participate in the classroom. The data need for the action research will be collected through interview, questionnaire, and observation. I have also collected data through making experimental group in which I have used two experimental group by testing and recording their test. Totally I will use 78 students and divide them in to two group, 40 and 38 students separately. Summary In general as study of classroom instructional activity continue to develop and evolve, the need to examine, create and validate more classroom instruction inICT course continues to grow. This includes both opinion and perception that will form a wide- ranging and comprehensive representation of student achievement and success in ICT. The importance of classroom instruction and students’ ICT performance and performance in other subject areas is very important in making meaningful strides of ICT. Specific attention must be given to understanding the dynamics of the classroom instructional approaches so that instructors will operate in an effective manner in order to produce the desired effects for upward movement in student achievement holistically. References Brown (2003). Approaches of ICT instruction and levels of student understandings. Journal for Research in ICT Education, 34(2), 63–71 Bolender, M. (1997). A study of the evolving image of a new school within the context of school effectiveness. [On-line]. Available: http: // www.ssta.sk.ca/research/school_improvement/97-08.html Derebssa, D. (2004). 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