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Unit One
Introduction About Technology
 Technology
 Instructional Technology
 Instructional Tech. & Edu. Tech
 Educational Technology
 Why to Use Educational Technology
1. What is technology?
2. How do you define instructional technology?
3. What is the difference between instructional
and educational technology?
4. Why we use educational technology?
What is Technology
branch of knowledge that deals with the creation a
nd use of technical means and their interrelation wi
th life, society and the environment.
According to UNESCO, technology is the
extension of our human capability in order to
satisfy our needs or wants.
 Technology is often used as the generic term to
encompass all the technologies people develop
and use in their lives.
 The UNESCO (1985) defines technology as the
know-how and creative process that may assist
people to utilize tools, resources and systems to
solve problems and to enhance their control over
the natural made environment in an endeavor to
improve the human condition.
Technology is the use of scientific knowledge for
practical purposes or applications, whether in
industry or in our everyday lives.
So, basically, whenever we use our scientific
knowledge to achieve some specific purpose, we
are using technology.
1.2 Instructional Technology
Cuban defines instructional technology as:
• Any device available to teachers for use in
instructing students in a more efficient and
stimulating manner than the sole use of the
teacher’s voice.
• The application of our scientific knowledge
about human learning to the practical tasks of
teaching and learning’.
• Technology of instruction is ‘a particular,
systematic arrangement of teaching/learning
events designed to put our knowledge of
learning into practice in a predictable, effective
manner to attain specific learning objectives.
• “…instructional technology is the theory and
practice of design, development, utilization,
management, and evaluation of processes and
resources for learning”
(Association for Educational Communication and
• Instructional Technology/media for learningteaching process provide with the tools to engage
learners powerfully in the learning process. It
Educational Technology
• According to (AECT) defined educational
technology as “
The study and ethical practice of facilitating
learning and improving performance by creating,
using and managing appropriate technological
processes and resources
• Educational Technology is the process of
integrating technology into education in a
positive manner that promotes a more diverse
learning environment and a way for students to
learn how to use technology as well as their
common assignments
• The term ‘technology’, as applied to the process
of education, includes ways of organizing events
and activities to achieve educational objectives as
well as the materials and equipment's involved in
the process.
• It incorporates tools and materials that present,
support, and reinforces teaching and learning.
• The devices used range from the pad and pencil to
the computer.
Educational Technology….. Cont’d
has three domains of use:
 Technology as a tutor (computer gives instructions and
guides the user),
 Technology as a teaching tool, and
 Technology as a learning tool.
• It is a systematic and organized process of applying
modern technology to improve the quality of education
• It is a systematic way of conceptualizing the execution
and evaluation of the educational process,
• includes instructional materials, methods and organization
of work and relationships,
1.3 Instructional Tech. & Edu. Tech
• Instructional Technology is more scientific and
uses a systems approach to solve instructional
It is ‘research in and application of behavioral
science and learning theories and the use of a
systems approach to analyze, design, develop,
implement, evaluate and manage the use of
technology to assist in the solving of learning or
performance problems’.
• Educational Technology is more the way of
using technology to support the environment of
learning (Cutshall, 1999),
• ET involves processes, methods and techniques,
products, resources and technologies organized
into workable systems
1. 5. Why to Use Educational
 Educational technology improve efficiency in education in
terms of:
a) Increasing the quality of learning or the degree of mastery
b) Decreasing the time taken for learners to attain desired goals
c) Increasing independence of learners, and the flexibility in the
provision of education and training
d) Increasing the efficiency of teachers (without reducing the
quality of learning) in terms of numbers of learners taught
e) Reducing costs without affecting quality
Unit 2
Media in the Instructional Process
2.1 Instructional Media
• Media is anything used to send message(s) from
the sender(s) to the receiver(s), so it can be
aroused the learners’ thought, feeling, and interest
to gear the students’ learn. (Sadiman et al, 2002)
• A medium (plural media) is a channel of
communication, derived from the Latin word
meaning “between”. The term refers to anything
that carries information between a source and a
All the materials and physical means an instructor
might use to implemen instruction and facilitate
students‘ achievement of instructional objectives.
2.2 Media and Teaching Aids
• Both, instructional media and teaching aids, have
functions to make learners easily understand the
teaching materials
• Teaching aids are used by teachers to impart and
emphasize on information, stimulate interest, and
facilitate the learning process. They range from simple
to sophisticated ones and they can be aural, visual, or
• teaching aids are the objects and the content of the
objects is the instructional media.
• The use of variety of teaching aids have
successfully transformed most classrooms from
traditional setup, where teachers do most of the
talking and students are passive listeners, into
participatory learning centers facilitating
productive learning.
2.3 Communication
• Is transmission of information from one place to
another, that is the capacity of an individual to
pass his/her feeling, ideas, to another ; the
capacity of groups, organizations, materials, etc.
to convey effectively information to where it is
• Consists of the sending and receiving of verbal
and nonverbal messages between two or more
2.3.1 Non-Verbal Communication
• communication without words. You
communicate non verbally
• when you gesture, smile or frown, widen your
eyes, move your chair closer to someone, wear
jewelry, touch someone, or raise your vocal
• when someone receives these signals.
• The Body: Body Movements, Body Appearance,
• Facial Communication: Facial Management
•Intensifying: helps you to exaggerate a feeling;
•De-intensifying: helps you to underplay a feeling;
•Neutralizing: helps you to hide feelings;
•Masking: helps you to replace or substitute the
expression of one emotion for the emotion you’re
really feeling;
• Encoding–Decoding Accuracy:
• Eye Communication: Eye Contact and Eye Avoidance,
Pupil Dilation,
2.3.2 Verbal Communication
• The sharing of Information between Individuals by
using speech
• Individuals need to effectively use verbal
communication that employs readily understood
spoken words, as well as ensuring that the
articulation, stress and tone of voice with which the
words are expressed is appropriate.
Processes in communication
Communication as a process involves five
different elements, namely:
• Source (Encoder)
• Message
• Channel
• Receiver (Decoder),
• Destination
Key Elements Required for
Communication to Occur
• Is the initiator, or origin, that puts the model into
• It is an individual or group that has a specific
reason to begin the communication process.
• That is, there is a message that they wish another
to receive.
• It takes the concept that the source wants sent
out, and puts it into a suitable format for later
• Encoding When you put your ideas into
speech, or written form you’re putting them into
a code.
• speakers or writers are often referred to as
• The information, idea, or concept that is being
communicated from one end of the model to
the other is the message.
• Most of the time, in human communication,
the message contains a distinct meaning.
Types of massage
• Feedback Messages: self-feedback, you also
get feedback from others.
• Meta-messages A meta-message is a message
that refers to another message; it is
communication about communication.
• Workplace Messages: often classified in terms
of their direction.
Work Place Messages
Upward communication
Downward communication
Lateral communication
Grapevine/gossip communication: don’t
follow any of the formal, hierarchical lines of
communication established in an organization
in classrooms.
• It is essential for meaningful communication
that a suitable means to transmit the message
be selected.
• The channel is the route that the message
travels on, be it verbal, written, electronic, or
• The vehicle or medium through which
messages pass.
• In face-to-face conversations, for example, you
speak and listen (vocal channel), but you also
gesture and receive signals visually (visual
• You also emit and smell odors (olfactory
channel) and often touch one another; this
(tactile channel).
Face to- face contact,
Smoke signals,
And telegraph all are types of channels.
• An interference or distortion that changes the
initial message; anything that can misconstrue
the message may be noise.
• Noise can be physical, as in an actual sound that
muffles the message as it is being said, or it can
be semantic.
• In order for communication to be effective, noise
must be reduced.
Types of Noise
• Physical noise: screeching of passing cars, the
hum of a computer, sunglasses, blurred type or
fonts that are too small or difficult to read,
misspellings and poor grammar, and popup ads.
• Physiological noise: visual impairments, hearing
loss, articulation problems, and memory loss.
• Psychological noise: preconceived ideas,
wandering thoughts, biases and prejudices,
close-mindedness, and extreme emotionalism.
• Semantic noise: language or dialectical
differences, the use of jargon or overly complex
terms, and ambiguous or overly abstract terms
whose meanings can be easily misinterpreted.
• – Sunlight from windows
• – Room Temperature
• – Computer’s Fan
• – Open/Close doors
• – Chattering
• – Construction Site
• – Language
• – Homesick
• – Hunger
• – Sleepiness
• – Worry
• Before the message reaches the intended
recipient, it must be decoded, or interpreted,
from its original form into one that the receiver
• This is essentially the same interaction as that of
source and encoder, only in a reversed sequence.
• listeners or readers are decoders.
• In order for communication to be executed,
there must be a second party at the end of the
channel the source has used.
• The receiver takes in the message that the
source has sent out.
• For meaningful communication to come to
fulfillment, it is vital that the receiver provides
feedback to the source.
• Feedback relates to the source whether their
message has been received, and most
importantly, if it has been interpreted accurately.
• Without feedback, the source would never know
if the communication was successful.
• For every communication act, there is some
• These are intellectual or cognitive effects.
• For example, you may gain knowledge or learn how to
analyze, synthesize, or evaluate something.
• You may acquire new feelings, attitudes, or beliefs or
change existing ones (affective effects).
• You may learn new bodily movements, such as how to
throw a curve ball, paint a picture, give a compliment, or
express surprise (psychomotor effects).
5 “W”s of Communication Design
• Who says : Information Source
• What : Contents
• Through Which media : Media/Methods
• To Whom : Target Audience
• With What effect : Intended Effects
W“ Communication questions as
extended by Coopen (1989)
• Who?
• Says what?
• with what purpose?
• by what means?
• in which channel?
• To Whom?
• in what situation?
• with what effect?
Shannon and Weaver's Model of
 Information Source
• ========>Message Sent
 Transmitter
•========>Signal Sent
 Sources of Noise
• ========>Signal Received
 Receiver
• ========>Message Received
 Destination
• Finally, the receiver must convey the message to
its destination
Skills of Human Communication
Self-presentation skills
Relationship skills
Interviewing skills
Group interaction and leadership skills
Presentation or public speaking skills
Types of Communication
 One-Way: directive, one way influence, no
feedback, receiver is passive
 Transactional: an exchange of values between two
or more, convenient and effective
• Open: Self communication with materials, own
records, comments
• Restricted: attached to secrets, involves
Forms of Human Communication
Interpersonal Communication (Interviewing)
Small group Communication
Public Communication
Computer-mediated Communication
Mass Communication
Transactional model of
Have four Communication Context;
• Physical context is the tangible or concrete
environment, the room, park, or auditorium;
• Cultural context involves the lifestyles,
beliefs, values, behavior, and communication
of a group;
• Social-psychological context has to do with
the status relationships among speakers, the
formality of the situation, the norms of a
group or organization;
• Temporal context is a message’s position
within a sequence of events
Barriers that may hinder the
communication process
Internal and/or external, verbal and nonverbal.
Verbal barriers include
• inadequate knowledge or vocabulary;
• differences in perception, which are influenced by
age, socioeconomic background, culture,
educational background, and experiences;
• differences in language;
• inappropriate use of expressions such as slang,
jargon, and euphemisms; and abstraction and
• Nonverbal barriers include conflicting or
inappropriate signals, such as facial expressions,
gestures, and attire; differences in perception;
inappropriate emotions, such as too much
emotional involvement, prejudice, stereotyping,
and boredom.
• Other barriers include physical, competing, and
mental distractions.
Important methods to overcome
barriers of communication
involves four steps:
• (1) knowing the barriers to communication,
• (2) predicting when those barriers may occur
within any given communication situation,
• (3) identifying those barriers when they do occur,
• (4) developing strategies to overcome them
Unit 3
Categories of Instructional Media and Their
Use in Learning
Instructional Media and Teaching Aids
• Both, instructional media and teaching aids, have
functions to make learners easily understand the
teaching materials.
• teaching aids are the objects, and
• the content of the objects is the instructional
Example: The board is teaching aid and what is on
the board is instructional media.
The thing which I hear, I may forget .
The thing which I see ,I may remember .
The thing which I do , I can not forget.
• The supply of teaching aids to every school is
essential for the improvement of the quality of
teaching . It should indeed bring about an
educational revolution in the country
The psychology of using Teaching Aids
We learn1.0% through TASTE
1.5% through TOUCH
3.5% through SMELL
11.0% through HEARING
83.0% through SIGHT
We Remember20% of what we HEAR
30% of what we SEE
50%of what we SEE & HEAR
80% of what we SAY
90% of what we SAY &DO
Advantages of Using Media/Teaching
• offer teachers powerful means to make their
teaching effective ;
• helps students in greater acquisition of
knowledge and ensures longer retention;
• provides interactive learning environment;
• easily motivates the learners;
• it enhances a multisensory interest
• learning becomes more immediate and
• gives classroom instructions a more scientific
• enables teachers to transfer the knowledge in an
organized way and more systematically.
• helps teachers to draw and fix the attention of
students towards teaching.
Draws attention and concentration
improves classroom discipline.
enhances comprehension skills
Enhances the clarity of communication.
• helps in stirring the imaginational, thinking
• Develop the reasoning power of the students.
• helps the teachers to save their time and energy.
• offers opportunities of individual learning.
Basis for the Classifications of
Teaching Materials
Frames of references for the classifications of instructional
1. Overall property
of the teaching materials e.g.
• Opaque projected teaching materials
• Transparent- still projected teaching materials
• Transparent moving teaching materials…
2. Operation difference of the teaching materials
• Mechanical teaching materials
• Manual teaching materials
3. Ways of producing the teaching materials e.g.
• Commercial teaching materials
• Local teaching materials
• Industrial teaching materials
4. The sense perception the teaching materials
appealing to e.g.
• Visual teaching materials
• Aural teaching materials
Classifications of Teaching Materials
Primary – included
• actual objects,
• living plants, and animals in their natural
• cattle on the farm,
• fish in the aquarium,
• the songs of birds, heard as they come directly
from the songsters.
• Secondary – In this group are models, for
instance, mounted birds or animals,
presentations, or preserved fish. In this group,
there is alienation from the reality of the primary
• Tertiary: this group contains films with
accompanying sounds, filmstrips, slides, blue
prints, photographs, charts, blackboard drawings
and imaginative dramatizations as heard through
the medium of radio or tape record.
• These tertiary aids are clearly inferior to the
secondary, as the secondary are to the primary
Types of Instructional Media
A common grouping/types of media may be made
• Print Media i.e. News Paper, Magazines, Digest,
Journals, Bulletins, Handouts, poster etc.
• Graphic Media i.e. Overhead transparencie
Charts, graphs, Models, diagrams, Maps, globes
Photographic Media i.e. Still Pictures, Slides,
Filmstrips, Motion pictures, Multi-images etc.
• Audio Media i.e. Audiotape, Audiocassettes,
Records, Radio, Telecommunication etc.
• Audio-Visual Media: Television/Video i.e.
Broadcast television, Cable television, (Videotape
Video cassettes, Videodiscs, Teletext, Videotext
• Computers i.e. Minicomputer, Microcomputer
• Simulations and Games i.e. Boards, Written,
Human, interaction, Machine etc.
Classification of Instructional Media
• Non-Projected Media
• Projected Media
Other Classification
• Audio Media
• Video Media
• Hyper Media
• Gaming Media
• Projected Visual Aids
 Film strip and film strip projectors
 Slides and slide projectors
 Over head projectors
 Film and Film projectors
• Non-Projected Visual Aids includes, Mass
 Chalk boards
 Marker boards
 Felt boards
 Hook and loop board
 Charts and wall charts
 Posters and Flip Charts
Projected Media
• Slides, filmstrips, and overheads, Films, Film
Strip, Colored Slides
• Loop (Colored Film Cassette )
• Slide Projector, Epidiascope
• Overhead projector , LCD
Projected Media
Use to:
• Allow all students to view the same
material at the same time.
• Offer the students other perspectives on
the material
Projected Teaching Aids
• Are those aids help in their projection on the
• When a projected aid is used, an enlarged
room is either totally or partially darkened.
• It includes the following aids.
I. Film:• Motion pictures usually termed as films
represent an effective instructional device
calling upon auditory as well visual senses of the
• They are useful and suitable aids in order to cater
the students attention and create interest among
them towards effective learning.
• They provide a lot of information to the learners
apart from their recreational value.
• Educational films may be prepared on any
content material or any aspect of knowledge,
correct attitude and behavior.
• Usually we have available general
educational films, classroom films, basic
teaching films and supplementary teaching
II. Film – Strips:• A film – strip is 35mm wide and has a series of
12 to 48 picture frames arranged in a sequence so
that they develop a theme.
• A film – strip can be prepared by taking a series
of photographs using a 35mm camera and then
by taking a positive print of the negative film on
another 35mm film.
• They are then projected on a slide projector or
a film strip projector.
• A film – strip is, “a short length of film
containing a number of positives, each different
but usually having some continuity, intended to
be projected as series of still pictures by means
of film strip projector
• These are available in market and in libraries.
iii. Over – head Projector
Over – head projector is a device that can project
• chart,
• diagram,
• anything written on transparent sheet etc upon a
screen on the white wall in front of students in a
• The name ‘over-head projector’ comes from the
fact that the projected image is behind and over
the head of the speaker/ teacher.
• In it, a transparent visual is placed on a
horizontal stage on top of light source
• The light passes through this transparency and
then is reflected at 90̊ angle on the screen at the
back of the speaker.
 Overhead projector had been the most widely
used audiovisual device in classroom and
training sites
Advantages of Overhead Projector : brightness
 eye contact
 ease of use
 abundance of material
 manipulate
Iv slides
 Slides are suitable for use at all grades and curriculum
 high quality , easy of production, and flexibility of use
have made computer-based slides popular
PowerPoint Slides
 PowerPoint presentation software is easy to use and makes
colorful projected presentation
 There are templates that provide a set of colour scheme
and font choice
 allows the user to include music, animation and
video files
 possible to add hyperlinked button to other programs
 data projector makes PowerPoint presentation most
popular in this time
 data projector brings the ability to show full-motion
video in additional to the still image of traditional
Data projectors becomes popular in this days with the
following advantages :
 Image choices:-it enables to project anything that
appear on your computer monitor
 Vast capacity :- the computer can store a seemingly
infinite numbers of visuals
 Interactivity :- you can change the display just
before or even a showing
 Inspiration:- interactive medium when viewers’
idea are fed in into the program and the
Non-Projected Media
• Photographs, diagrams, and displays, Cartoons
(Graphic) Charts, Flash Cards, Graphs
• Black Board (Display), Bulletin Board, Flannel
Board, Magnetic Board
– Use to:
• Illustrate concepts
• Enhance direct instruction
• Encourage students to look at data in
diverse ways
Non Projected Teaching Aids
• Teaching aids which do not help in their
projection on the screen are called as nonprojected teaching aids.
• It includes the following:1. Graphics:• Graphics are two dimensional aids.
• These are related to writing, drawing, painting.
• These aids involves the use of graphic
presentation in the form of graphs, maps,
diagrams, charts etc
graphic aids are as:I Diagrams:- A diagram is a drawing that shows
arrangements and relations as of parts to the
• It is a visual symbol made up of lines, curves
and geometrical forms.
• These are used for teaching science, geometry,
geography etc.
II. Graphs:- A graph is a diagrammatic treatment or
representation of numeric or quantitative data.
• They are considered as pictures which are self –
explanatory and tells their story at a glance.
• They are used for analysis, interpretation and for
• The different types of graphs include line graph,
bar graph, circle or pie graph, pictorial graph and
flannel graph.
• III. Maps:- A map is an accurate representation of
plain surface in the form of a diagram drawn to
scale, the details of boundaries of continents,
countries etc.
• Give like location of mountains, rivers, altitude
of a place, contours of the earth surface and
important locations can also be represented
accurately with reference to a convenient scale
with suitable colour scheme.
• Maps are of different types viz cadastral maps,
topographical maps, wall maps, atlas maps, relief
maps, geographical maps, mineral maps,
agricultural maps etc.
• As a teaching aid, they are indispensable in
teaching fundamental concepts such as size,
distance, space, location and direction
IV. Posters:- A poster is a bold and symbolic
representation of a single idea
• . It is used in all walks of life, to convey, forcibly
the desired information to a layman.
V. Cartoons:- A cartoon is a metaphorical
presentation in the form of picture or a sketch.
• It is universal in appeal and conveys only one
VI. Flash Cards:• Flash cards are pieces of card board or hand
paper on which a word or words are written or
some picture is drawn.
• These can be used for word recognition, team
competitions, teaching in speaking, teaching
writing, match cards, order cards.
• VII. Charts:- A chart is a combination of pictorial,
graphic, numerical or vertical materials which
presents a clear visual summary.
• The most commonly used types of charts include
outline charts, tabular chart, and organization
3-D (three dimensional) teaching aids:• It is not always possible to bring real objects in
the classroom due to the reason that they may be
too large or too small in size to be brought in the
• It may also be too dangerous and expensive for
ordinary class use.
• In such situations, a teacher searches for some
good substitute for the real objects which are
three dimensional in nature.
• These teaching aids have three dimensions –
•breadth and
• Models, mock-ups, globes, diorama, puppets
and holograms are included under three
dimensional aids.
• I. Models:- A model is usually the miniature
structure of the original object. They are the
replicas or copies of the real objects.
• Thus they may be of the same size or large or
smaller than the thing it represents.
• They are generally of three types- solids, crosssectional and working models.
• II. Mock – ups:- It refers to a specialized model
or working replica of the object being depicted.
• A model is a recognizable imitation of an object,
while a mock-up may or may not be similar in
• These are often used in technical institutions for
training purposes.
III. Globe:- A globe is the three dimensional
representation of the surface of the earth on a very
small scale.
• It is a round shaped wooden or plastic model of
• It is used for teaching history and geography to
the students.
• It provides us information about areas, distances,
directions, time location, symbols, colours,
boundaries, rivers, change in weather, season,
day and night etc.
• IV. Diorama:- A diorama is a three dimensional
scene in depth incorporating a group of modeled
objects and figures in a natural setting.
• They are very effective in the teaching of
biological and social sciences.
V. Holograms:• They are three dimensional images of wonderful
• There images are created on a holographic (lens
less photography) plate without a camera.
• They are less frequently used in schools, as
preparing them requires lot of technical skills as
well as equipment.
Display boards:• A display is an organized visual arrangement
of learning materials on a vertical or horizontal
surface and is usually designed to present
significant information on a given topic
Bulletin Board,
flannel board,
pocket board,
peg board,
hook and loop board,
magnetic board and
blackboard come under the general head of
‘display boards’
Audio Media
• Cassettes and compact discs
– Use to:
• Allow students to hear other languages/dialects
• Allow auditory learners to review the lessons
• Encourage creativity through music
Radio (audio – aid)
• The aids which use sense of hearing are called audio
• These include human voice, gramophone records,
audio tapes/ discs, stereo records, radio broadcast
and telephonic conversation.
The radio broadcasts are generally used:
• to introduce a new lesson,
• to present a complete lesson,
• to review the previous lesson and to solve major
problems occurring in a lesson.
Motion Media
• Videos, computer mediated instruction, and
– Use to:
• Offer supplemental instruction
• Experience concepts in a manner that is not available in
“real life” – i.e. Magic School Bus
• The television, queen of audio – visual aids or
the electronic blackboard of the future, has
become child`s third parent and a first teacher.
• Educational televisions are of two types viz
• open circuit television (OCTV) and
• closed circuit television (CCTV)
Hyper Media
• Computer networks, software, and the Internet
– Use to:
• Offer resources beyond the library
• Develop computer and word processing skills
• Offer interactive learning
Gaming Media
• Computer games
– Use to:
Provide a playful environment for learning
Structure learning through rules
Motivating for tedious or repetitive content
Uses problem solving skills
Unit Four:
Selection, Preparation and
Utilization of Instructional Media
Preparation of the Instructional
• The fact that instructional materials facilitate
effective instruction is well documented in many
educational literatures.
• Instructional Materials for a given instructional
objective may not necessarily be available
• Thus, a need to prepare instructional materials
that suit the purpose of instruction arises.
• The teachers, students or both can prepare the
instructional materials.
• The process of production in turn considers
selecting, preparation and use of Instructional
A model for selecting and applying
technology in education
• It would work in a variety of learning contexts
• It should be diverse with respect to levels of difficulty,
reader appeal, and should present a variety of points of
• It will allow decisions to be taken both at strategic,
institution-wide, and at instructional level
• It will easily be understood;
• It will be pragmatic & cost effective
• It will accommodate new developments in
• It will give equal attention to educational &
operational issues
SECTIONS Model for Selection
S- students:
• What is known about the students & the
appropriateness of the technology for this
particular group or range of students?
E- Ease of use & reliability:
• How easy is it for both teachers & students to
use and manipulate?
• How reliable and well tested is the technology?
C - Cost:
• What is the cost structure of each technology?
• What is the unit cost per learner?
T- Teaching and learning:
• What kinds of learning are needed?
• What instructional approaches will best meet
the needs?
• What are the best technologies for supporting
this teaching and learning?
I – Interactivity:
• What kind of interaction does this technology
enable for the students and teachers ?
O - Organizational issues:
• What are the organizational requirements and the
barriers to be removed before this technology can
be used successfully?
• What organizational changes need to be made?
N- Novelty:
• How new is this technology?
• Is that updated or not ?
S - Speed:
• How quickly can courses be mounted with this
• How quickly can materials be changed?
Factors in Media Selection
Frost (1999) identify nine key factors that should
influence media selection:
• Institutional resource constraints
• Course content appropriateness
• Learner characteristics
• Teacher attitudes and skill levels
• Course learning objectives
• The learning relationships
• Learning location
• Time (synchronous versus asynchronous)
• And media Richness level.
Reiser and Dick (1996) distill nine factors down to
three major criteria for selecting instructional
Practicality: Is the intended media practical in that
the media is
• Available,
• Cost efficient,
• Time efficient, and
• Understood by the instructor?
• Student appropriateness:
Is the intended media appropriate for the
developmental and experiential levels of the
• Instructional Appropriateness:
Is the intended media appropriate for the planned
instructional strategy?
Instructional material selection
The decision about whether to use a particular
piece of instructional material depends on
several factors.
 What are the objectives, goals and aims that the
teacher wants to accomplish
 Who will be taught
 what are their age, intelligence and other factor
 Budget allotment budget limitations will determine the
aids that may be purchases or rented
Size of the group:
 the number of people in the group or class will
determine the kinds of aid that may be used.
Ability of the instructor:
 it would be senseless to select instructional aid
that an instructor cannot use effectively.
Time allotment:
 the effective use of many aids requires a definite
amount of time.
Questions to be asked during the process
of instructional material selection
• Does it match with the curriculum?
• Is it accurate and current?
• Does it contain clear and concise language?
• Would it arose motivation and maintain interest
for the target group
• Does it provide for learners participation?
• Is it of good technical quality?
• Is there evidence of its effectiveness?
• Is it free from objectionable bias and adversity?
• Is a user guide or other documentation included?
Considerations in Selecting
Instructional Media
• Messages (subject-matter content/knowledgy)
• Objectives (introducing, motivating, practicing)
• Learners ( learning style, skills, experience,
• Group size ( small, large)
• Teaching method
Resources ( equipment's, facilities, costs)
Time constraint ( preparation, usage)
Location ( in class, outdoor, distance)
Teacher skills, preferences, experiences
Principles of Using Instructional
• No one type of method or material should be
used to the exclusion of others.
• Certain materials seem more appropriate than
others for certain units
• Too much materials used at anyone time may
confuse rather than clarify learning.
• Preparation for the proper use must always be
• The materials should be made in to lesson and
teaching procedures; and the learning situation.
• The students must be held responsible for what
goes on during the class.
• On the whole, examples, specimens, or
demonstrations should be positive rather than
Be sure of the following details
• How to make or where to borrow the required
teaching material?
• What materials are both necessary and available If a material is planned to be used because it is
necessary it is of no use unless it is also available.
• On the other hand, we do not use teaching aids
simply they are available unless also they are
• Know how to operate them before taking them
in to the classroom.
• Think of an alternative in case of mechanical
(technical) failure.
ASSURE Model for Selection
 If you are going to use media and technology
effectively , you must plan
systematically for their use
 The ASSURE model is a guide to major steps in
 ASSURE model , to assure effective instruction
 this model , begin by assessing your learners’
characteristics and learning objective to be attained
ASSURE model based on the
Following Assessment
 Who is your audience ?
 What are your objectives ?
 Which methods , medias and materials will you
and your learners use ?
 How can you and your learners make best use the
materials ?
How will you get your learners involved in
learning ?
 How will you evaluate both your learners and
 what should you revise if you do the
presentation again?
Steps to Apply “ASSURE” Model
Analyze learners
Set learning objectives
Select media, images, & design
Utilize materials
Require a learner response to the media
Evaluate effect
• Analyze the learners:- identify the learner,
General characteristics, specific entry
competence (knowledge , skills and attitudes)
about the topics and learning styles
• State Objectives: Specifically stated what the
learner will be able to do as a result of
instruction, the degree of acceptable performance
should be included
• Select methods , media and materials : build a
bridge b/n the above two by choosing the
appropriate methods, media and materials
• Utilized media and materials : conduct the
instruction using the selected media and
• Require learners participation: should require
active mental engagement by learners. There
should be activities that allow learners to
practice the knowledge or skills
• Evaluate and revise:- after instruction it is
necessary to evaluate its impact and
effectiveness and to asses students learning
Unit 5
Digital Environment and
ICT in Education
• ICT can be used as a substitute for almost
anything in the class: pencil, book, telephone,
TV, encyclopedia, map, library and many
• Practically, with ICT, all the applications can
be implemented using repeatedly very few
basic techniques and devices
• A lot of solutions are offered seeing only a PC
(which is a multi-tool in education) and the
Internet (which is a big river of information and
communication), in various issues and fields.
• Since technology has helped many other
branches of activity or areas of human life we
expect that it will help education indeed .
ICT enhance
• The quality of education
• The accessibility of education
• the flexibility of education delivery
• learning motivation
• scholastic performance
• ICT increase flexibility of education delivery so that
learners can access the education regardless of time
and geographical barriers.
• In today’s highly competitive and global
economy, education is no longer limited to the
• It is attempting to reach people where they are.
• ICTs can both assist education in traditional
settings and help people rise to the challenge of
lifelong learning
• Providing a more enriching and motivating
learning environment both within and outside
the classroom, ICT based learning can be both
interactive and collaborative.
• This new learning system also allows learning
to be personalized to one’s needs in terms of
both content (what you learn) and method (how
and when you learn it).
• Useful tool for instruction, it makes the teaching
and learning process more
 enjoyable,
 Interesting
 interactive
• by using software programs, educational games,
power point presentation and other audio-visual
the use of Internet and Communication
technologies to deliver a broad array solutions to
enable learning
 reaches a wider target audience by engaging
learners who have difficulty to attend in
conventional classroom
 personalizing learning paths based on learners’
needs and using simulation and games
Why Develop e-Learning
 because it can be as effective as traditional training
at a lower cost (delivering )
 reaches a wider target audience
specially : geographically dispersed with limited time and/or
resources to travel
 busy with work or family commitments which do
not allow them to attend courses with a fixed
 located in conflict and post-conflict areas and restricted
in their mobility because of security reasons
 limited from participating in classroom
because of cultural or religious beliefs
 facing difficulties with real-time communication (e.g.
foreign language learners or very shy learners)
e-Learning is a good option when
• learners come from geographically dispersed
• learners have limited mobility
• learners have limited daily time to devote to
• learners have at least basic computer and
Internet skills
• learners are highly motivated to learn at their
own pace
• content must be reused for different learners’
groups in the future
• training aims to build cognitive skills rather
than psychomotor skills
e-Learning approaches
There are two general approaches to e-learning:
1. self-paced and
2. facilitated/instructor-led
 Self-paced , learners are alone and completely
 facilitated and instructor-led, courses provide
different levels of support from tutors and
instructors and collaboration among learners
Self-paced e-learning
• Learners are offered e-learning courseware (also
called Web-based training (WBT)
• Can be complemented by supplemental resources
and assessments
• Courseware is usually housed on a Web server,
and learners can access it from an online learning
platform or on CD-ROM
• free to learn at their own pace and to define
personal learning paths based on their individual
needs and interests.
• providers do not have to schedule, manage or track
learners through a process
• content is developed according to a set of learning
objectives and is delivered using different media
elements, such as text, graphics, audio and video
• It must provide as much learning support as possible
(through explanations, examples, interactivity,
feedback, glossaries, etc.), in order to make learners
Instructor-led e-learning
• a linear curriculum is developed that integrates
contents and activities into a chronological
• The course is scheduled and led by an
instructor through an online learning platform
• Content can be integrated with instructor’s
lectures, assignments and collaborative
• Learners and instructors can use communication
tools such as e-mails, discussion forums, chats,
• whiteboards, application sharing and audio and
video conferencing to communicate and work
• a final step typically includes an assessment to
measure learning
e-learning components
E-learning approaches can combine different types of
 E-learning content: simple learning resources, noninteractive e-lesson, simulation etc
 E-tutoring, e-coaching, e-mentoring: support to
learners through online tools
 Collaborative learning: range from discussions and
knowledge-sharing to working together; chats,
discussion forums and blogs, are used
Virtual classroom:
• an instructor teaches remotely and in real time
to a group of learners using (PowerPoint
slides, audio or video materials).
• It is synchronous learning
Synchronous and asynchronous elearning
E-learning activities can be synchronous or
• events take place in real time
 communication between two people requires them
to be present at a given time
• Examples :- chat conversations and audio/video
• events are time-independent
• A self-paced course is an example because
online learning takes place at any time
• E-mail or discussion forums are examples of
asynchronous communication tools
Quality of e-learning
The quality of an e-learning course is enhanced
• learner-centered content: curricula should be
relevant and specific to learners’ needs, roles
and responsibilities in professional life. Skills,
knowledge and information should be
provided to this end
• granularity: content should be segmented to
facilitate assimilation of new knowledge and
to allow flexible scheduling of time for
• engaging content: Instructional methods and
techniques should be used creatively to
develop an engaging and motivating learning
• interactivity: Frequent learner interaction is
needed to sustain attention and promote learning
• personalization: Self-paced courses customized
to reflect learners’ interests and needs
 in instructor-led courses, tutors should be able
to follow the learners’ progress and performance
Advantages of eLearning
• Flexibility:- eLearning can be done in short
chunks of time that can fit around your daily
• Mobile: As eLearning can be done on laptops,
tablets and phones it is a very mobile method.
Learning can be done on the train, on a plane or
any other time that could normally be wasted
• No Travel: eLearning can be done wherever you
have a device capable of doing so. Therefore
again you can fit it in to your schedule, but also
save money on the costs of travel
• Lower cost: As you aren’t using a trainer’s time
or any room or equipment, eLearning tends to
be the much cheaper option
• Tailored to you:- eLearning courses aren’t confined
to be fixed to try and suit the needs of the majority,
everyone is able to learn at their own pace
• Technological Possibilities:- The computer based
nature of training means new technology is being
introduced all the time to help with the learning
• Global:- the same content regardless of their
location, and in many cases, their nationality.
Companies can be confident that their staff can
receive world standard content
Limitations of eLearning
• Lack of Control: Learners with low motivation
tend to fall behind when using eLearning as
there are no set times to be doing it and they are
responsible for the organization themselves
• Learning Approach: It doesn’t appeal to all
learning styles so some learners will not enjoy
the experience – especially strong activists and
• Isolated: lot of questions are easily answered when
face to face with someone when you can guarantee
an instant answer
• Technology Issues: With heavy reliance on
computers that eLearning brings, comes the
potential risks that comes with it
• Computer Competency: Some learners might not be
too comfortable using computers, especially if their
jobs don’t require them to