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Intel Summarized

⌂ Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation headquartered in
Santa Clara, California.
⌂ It is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in
most personal computers.
⌂ Intel Corporation, founded on July 18, 1968, is a portmanteau of
Integrated Electronics (the fact that "intel" is the term for intelligence
information also made the name appropriate).
⌂ Intel sells its products and solutions to original equipment manufacturers
(OEMs) and original design manufacturers (ODMs).
⌂ The 80486 architecture, for example, supports clock rates of from 33 to 66
⌂ Because Intel discovered that it couldn't trademark its CPU numbers, it shifted
to a naming scheme, starting with the Pentium processors. Intel's sixthgeneration chip is called the Pentium Pro.
⌂ Intel was originally founded in Mountain View, California in 1968 by Gordon E.
Moore, Robert Noyce, Arthur Rock and Max Palevsky.
⌂ Intel's third employee was Andy Grove, a chemical engineer, who later ran the
company through much of the 1980s and the high-growth 1990s.
⌂ INTEL grown from three man start up in 1968 to industrial grant by 1981.
⌂ It had 20,000 employees & $ 188 million revenue.
⌂ Intel was distinguished by its ability to make semiconductors.
⌂ In 1969, was the 3101 Schottky TTL bipolar 64-bit static random-access
memory (SRAM).
⌂ In the same year Intel also produced the 3301 Schottky bipolar 1024bit readOnly memory (ROM) and the first commercial metal–oxide–
semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) silicon gate SRAM chip, the
256-bit 1101.
⌂ On August 19, 2010, Intel announced that it planned to purchase McAfee.
⌂ On August 30, 2010, Intel and Infineon Technologies announced that Intel
would acquire Infineon's Wireless Solutions business.
⌂ In March 2011, Intel bought most of the assets of Cairo-based SySDSoft.
⌂ In July 2011, Intel announced that it had agreed to acquire Fulcrum
Microsystems Inc.
⌂ On October 1, 2011, Intel reached a deal to acquire Telmap.
⌂ In July 2012, Intel Corporation agreed to buy 10 percent shares of ASML
Holding NV.
⌂ The acquisition of a Spanish natural language recognition startup named
Indisys was announced on September 13, 2013.
⌂ In 2008, Intel spun off key assets of a solar startup business effort to form an
independent company, SpectraWatt Inc. However, as of 2011, SpectraWatt
has filed for bankruptcy.
⌂ In February 2011, Intel announced plans to build a new microprocessor
manufacturing facility in Chandler, Arizona, which is expected to be completed
in 2013, at a cost of $5 billion.
⌂ In April 2011, Intel began a pilot project with ZTE Corporation to produce
smartphones using the Intel Atom processor for China's domestic market. This
project is intended to challenge the domination of ARM processors in mobile
Intel 4004
⌂ first commercially available microprocessor created in 1971.
⌂ Originally designed to be used in Busicom calculator.
⌂ Federico Faggin the designer of Intel 4004.
⌂ It was also 4 bit microprocessor.
⌂ It was introduced in 1974.
⌂ Characteristics
10 mm process
2300 transistors
400 – 800 kHz
4-bit word size
16-pin DIP package
Intel 8008
⌂ An 8 bit microprocessor Introduced April 1, 1972.
⌂ Originally intended for use in the Datapoint 2200 microcomputer.
⌂ Characteristics
 10 mm process
 3500 transistors
 500 – 800 kHz
 8-bit word size
 18-pin DIP package
 Intel 8080
Introduced April 1, 1974.
10 times faster than 8008.
Used in the Altair 8800, Traffic light controller, cruise missile.
6 mm process
4500 transistors
2 MHz
8-bit word size
40-pin DIP package
Intel 8086/8088
⌂ A 16 bit processors Introduced June 8, 1978(8086) and Introduced June 1,
⌂ First used in the Compaq Deskpro IBM PC-compatible computers. Later used
in portable computing, and in the IBM PS/2 Model 25 and Model 30. Also
used in the AT&T PC6300 / Olivetti M24, a popular IBM PC-compatible
(predating the IBM PS/2 line).
⌂ NASA used original 8086 CPUs on equipment for ground-based maintenance
of the Space Shuttle Discovery until the end of the space shuttle program in
⌂ The first x86 CPU.
⌂ Characteristics
3 mm process
29k transistors
5-10 MHz
16-bit word size
40-pin DIP package
Intel 80286
⌂ Introduced February 2, 1982.
⌂ Widely used in IBM-PC AT and AT clones contemporary to it.
⌂ It could execute 4 million instructions per second.
⌂ Characteristics
1.5 mm process
134k transistors
6-12 MHz
16-bit word size
68-pin PGA
Intel iAPX 432
⌂ Introduced January 1, 1981 as Intel's first 32-bit microprocessor
⌂ Multi-chip CPU; Intel's first 32-bit microprocessor
⌂ Object/capability architecture
⌂ Microcoded operating system primitives
⌂ One terabyte virtual address space
⌂ Hardware support for fault tolerance
⌂ Two-chip General Data Processor (GDP), consists of 43201 and 43202
⌂ 43203 Interface Processor (IP) interfaces to I/O subsystem
⌂ 43204 Bus Interface Unit (BIU) simplifies building multiprocessor systems
⌂ 43205 Memory Control Unit (MCU)
⌂ Architecture and execution unit internal data base paths 32 bit
⌂ Clock rates:
5 MHz
7 MHz
8 MHz
⌂ Introduced in 1993.
⌂ It was also 32 bit microprocessor.
⌂ It could execute 110 million instruction per second.
⌂ It was originally named 80586.
⌂ Handles and processes more media types such as speech, sound , and
photographic images.
⌂ Cache memory.
⌂ 8 KB for instruction.
⌂ 8 KB for data.
Pentium Pro
⌂ Introduced November 1, 1995
⌂ Primarily used in server systems.
⌂ Able to handle more instructions per clock cycle
⌂ Characteristics
0.6-0.18 mm process
5.5M-28M transistors
166-1000 MHz
32-bit word size
Pentium II
Introduced May 7, 1997.
MMX (multimedia extent ion) technology was supported.
L2 cache & processor were on one circuit.
Better capable of handling video editing, sending media via the Internet, and
reprocessing music
⌂ By 1998, the Pentium began to climb in processing speeds up to 450 MHz.
⌂ Characteristics
0.6-0.18 mm process
5.5M-28M transistors
166-1000 MHz
32-bit word size
Pentium III
⌂ Introduced February 26, 1999.
⌂ It was also 32 bit MB.
⌂ Its clock speed was 1GHZ.
Pentium IV
⌂ Introduced November 20, 2000.
System Bus clock rate 400 MHz
SSE2 SIMD Extensions
Number of transistors 42 million
Used in desktops and entry-level workstations
All internal connections were made from aluminum to
Today it’s reaching upwards to a remarkable 3GHz
Intel Core
⌂ Introduced January 2006
⌂ It was 32 bit or 64 bit microprocessor.
⌂ It had two cores.
⌂ It supported SMT technology.
⌂ SMT : Simultaneously Multi threading.
⌂ E.g. : adobe Photoshop supported SMT.
Intel Core II
⌂ Introduced July 27, 2006
⌂ It was 32 bit or 64 bit microprocessor.
⌂ First multi-core Intel processor
⌂ Has 291 Million transistors.
Intel Core 7
⌂ Introduced January, 2011
⌂ -995 million transistors
⌂ 4 physical cores/8 threads
⌂ 32+32 Kb (per core) L1 cache
⌂ 256 Kb (per core) L2 cache
⌂ 8 MB L3 cache
Other types of microprocessors
⌂ The 8-bit processors
 8085 - Introduced March 1976
 Intel 8048
 Intel 8051
 Intel 80151
 Intel 80251
⌂ The bit-slice processor
3000 Family - Introduced in the third quarter of 1974
⌂ 16 Bit processors
 80186 Introduced 1982
 80188-6mhz
 80286 - Introduced February 2, 1982
o It had 134,000 transistor
o 24-bit address bus and was able to address up to 16 MB of RAM
⌂ 32 Bit processorts
 i960 aka 80960 - Introduced April 5, 1988
 i860 aka 80860 - Introduced February 26, 1989
 Xscale - Introduced August 23, 2000
 80386DX - Introduced October 17, 1985
 80386SX - Introduced June 16, 1988
 80376 - Introduced January 16, 1989; discontinued June 15, 2001
 80386SL - Introduced October 15, 1990
 80386EX - Introduced August 1994
 80486DX - Introduced April 10, 1989
Intel's second-generation of 32-bit x86 processors, included
built in floating point unit and pipelining.
 80486SX - Introduced April 22, 1991
 80486DX2 - Introduced March 3, 1992
 80486SL - Introduced November 9, 1992
 80486DX4 - Introduced March 7, 1994
 Pentium with MMX Technology - Introduced January 8, 1997
 Xeon - Introduced May 21, 2001
 Celeron - Introduced April 15, 1998
64 bit processors
Itanium-Released May 29, 2001
Itanium 2-Released July 2002
Core i3- Introduced January, 2010
Core i5- Introduced September 8, 2009
Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors on a chip will double
approximately every two years.
P5 Microarchitecture
⌂ The Intel Pentium microprocessor was introduced on March 22, 1993
P5, was Intel's fifth-generation and first superscalar IA-32 microarchitecture
⌂ Superscalar architecture — The Pentium has two datapaths (pipelines) that
allow it to complete two instructions per clock cycle in many cases.
P6 Microarchitecture
⌂ introduced in November 1995
⌂ Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium II Xeon, Pentium III, and Pentium III Xeon
⌂ The P6 architecture lasted three generations from the Pentium Pro to
Pentium III, and was widely known for low power consumption, excellent
integer performance, and relatively high instructions per cycle (IPC)
P6 Variant Pentium M
⌂ Updated version of Pentium III's P6 microarchitecture designed from the
ground up for mobile computing
⌂ Realizing their new microarchitecture wasn't the best choice for the mobile
space, Intel went back to the drawing board for a design that would be
optimally suited for this market segment. The result was a modernized P6
design called the Pentium M
P6 Variant Enhanced Pentium M
⌂ The Yonah CPU was launched in January 2006 under the Core brand.
⌂ Single and dual-core mobile version were sold under the Core Solo, Core Duo,
and Pentium Dual-Core brands, and a server version was released as Xeon
NetBurst microarchitecture
⌂ The NetBurst microarchitecture, called P68 inside Intel, was the successor to
the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel.
⌂ The first CPU to use this architecture was the Willamette-core Pentium 4,
released on November 20, 2000
⌂ all subsequent Pentium 4 and Pentium D variants have also been based on
⌂ L1 cache- 8 KB to 16 KB per core
⌂ L2 cache- 128 KB to 2048 KB, 256 KB to 2048 KB (Xeon)
⌂ L3 cache- 4 MB to 16 MB shared
⌂ Features
 Hyper-Pipelined Technology
 Rapid Execution Engine
 Execution Trace Cache
 Front-Side Bus
Inter Core
⌂ previously known as the Next-Generation Micro-Architecture
⌂ A multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006.
⌂ The first processors that used this architecture were code-named Merom,
Conroe, and Woodcrest
⌂ Merom is for mobile computing, Conroe is for desktop systems, and
Woodcrest is for servers and workstations.
⌂ Mainstream Core-based processors are branded Pentium Dual-Core or
Pentium and low end branded Celeron; server and workstation Core-based
processors are branded Xeon, while desktop and mobile Core-based
processors are branded as Core 2. Despite their names, processors sold as
Core Solo/Core Duo and Core i3/i5/i7 do not actually use the Core
microarchitecture and are based on the Enhanced Pentium M and newer
Nehalem/Sandy Bridge/Haswell microarchitectures, respectively
Penryn microarchitecture
⌂ In Intel's Tick-Tock cycle, the 2007/2008 "Tick" was the shrink of the Core
microarchitecture to 45 nanometers as CPUID model 23.
⌂ In Core 2 processors, it is used with the code names Penryn (Socket P),
Wolfdale (LGA 775) and Yorkfield (MCM, LGA 775)
⌂ code name "Allendale" with product code 80557 has two cores, 2 MB L2
cache and uses the desktop socket 775, but has been marketed as Celeron,
Pentium, Core 2 and Xeon, each with different sets of features enabled.
⌂ Wolfdale-DP and all quad-core processors except Dunnington QC are multichip modules combining two dies.
Nehalem microarchitecture
⌂ Released November 17, 2008, built on a 45 nm process and used in the Core
i7, Core i5, Core i3 microprocessors. Incorporates the memory controller into
the CPU die.
⌂ "Nehalem" is a recycled Intel codename and namesake of the Nehalem
⌂ Nehalem-based microprocessors use higher clock speeds and are more
energy-efficient than Penryn microprocessors. Hyper-threading is
reintroduced, along with a reduction in L2 cache size, as well as an enlarged
L3 cache that is shared by all cores.
⌂ Hyper-threading is reintroduced (Pentium 4 last used this)
⌂ formerly Nehalem-C
⌂ is the name given to the 32 nm die shrink of Nehalem. The first Westmerebased processors were launched on January 7, 2010 by Intel Corporation.
⌂ Native six-core (Gulftown, Westmere-EP) and ten-core (Westmere-EX)
processors, dual-cores (Arrandale, Clarkdale)
Intel® Pentium® processors
⌂ Processor numbers for the Intel Pentium brand have an alpha prefix followed
by a four character numerical sequence. All are desktop energy-efficient
dual-core processors with TDP that is greater than or equal to 65W.
Intel® Celeron® processors
⌂ Processor numbers for the Intel® Celeron® brand are expressed with either a
three digit numerical sequence or a five character sequence with an
alphabetical prefix and four digits, depending on the processor type.
Intel® Xeon® Processor E3 and E7 families
The latest Intel® Xeon® processor numbering system is an
alpha numeric representation of product line, product family and
version. An ‘L’ suffix will be used identify a low power processor. The
version number will not be used in the first processor generation.
Intel® Xeon® and Intel® Itanium® processors
⌂ Intel® Xeon® and Intel® Itanium® processor numbers are categorized in four
digit numerical sequences, and may have an alpha prefix to indicate power
and performance.
Sandy Bridge
⌂ targeted a 32 nanometer manufacturing process based on planar doublegate transistors.Intel's subsequent product, codenamed Ivy Bridge, uses a 22
nanometer process.
⌂ The Ivy Bridge die shrink, known in the Intel Tick-Tock model as the "tick", is
based on FinFET (non-planar, "3D") tri-gate transistors.
⌂ Intel demonstrated the Ivy Bridge processors in 2011.
⌂ Developed primarily by the Israel branch of Intel, the codename was
⌂ The Haswell architecture is specifically designed to optimize the power
savings and performance benefits from the move to FinFET (non-planar,
"3D") transistors on the improved 22 nm process node.
⌂ Desktop version (LGA 1150 socket): Haswell-DT
⌂ Mobile/Laptop version (PGA socket): Haswell-MB
⌂ A higher number within a processor class or family generally indicates more
features, but it may be more of one and less of another. Once you decide on
a specific processor brand and type, compare processor numbers to verify
the processor includes the features you are looking for.
Intel® Atom™ processors
⌂ Processor numbers for the Intel® Atom™ processor family are categorized by
a three digit numerical sequence. Network class Intel® Atom™ processors
have an alpha prefix of N, and Intel Atom processors with an alpha prefix of
Z indicate the processor is for Mobile Internet Devices (MIDs).
Intel® Core™ processor
⌂ Processor numbers for the Previous Generation Intel Core processor family
have an alpha/numerical identifier followed by a three digit numerical
Intel® Core™2 Quad processor
⌂ Processor numbers for the Intel® Core™2 Quad family have an alpha prefix
followed by a four digit numerical sequence. Additionally, low power Intel
Core2 Quad processors are identifiable by an "S" suffix which represents
processors having a lower thermal design power.
Intel® Core™2 Duo processor
⌂ Processor numbers for the Intel® Core™2 processor family brands are
categorized with an alpha prefix followed by a four digit numerical sequence.
The table below explains the alpha prefixes used for the Intel Core2
processor families.
2nd generation Intel® Core™ processor family
⌂ Processor numbers¹ for the 2nd generation Intel® Core™ processor family
have an alpha/numerical identifier followed by a four digit numerical
sequence, and may have an alpha suffix depending on the processor. The
table below explains the alpha suffixes used for the 2nd generation Intel Core
processor family.
Platform Controller Hub (PCH) is a family of Intel microchips, introduced circa
2008. It is the successor to the previous Intel Hub Architecture, which used a
northbridge and southbridge instead, and first appeared in the Intel 5 Series.
Cougar Point is the codename of a PCH in Intel 6 Series chipsets for mobile,
desktop, and workstation / server platforms. It is most closely associated with
Sandy Bridge processors.
Langwell is the codename of a PCH in the Moorestown MID/smartphone platform
for Atom Lincroft microprocessors.
The Intel 5 Series chipsets were the first to introduce a PCH. This first PCH is
codenamed Ibex Peak.
Langwell is the codename of a PCH in the Moorestown MID/smartphone platform
for Atom Lincroft microprocessors.
Tiger Point is the codename of a PCH in the Pine Trail netbook platform chipset for
Atom Pineview microprocessors.
Topcliff is the codename of a PCH in the Queens Bay embedded platform chipset
for Atom Tunnel Creek microprocessors.
Whitney Point is the codename of a PCH in the Oak Trail tablet platform for Atom
Lincroft microprocessors.
Panther Point is the codename of a PCH in Intel 7 Series chipsets for mobile and
desktop. It is most closely associated with Ivy Bridge processors.
Cave Creek is the codename of the PCH most closely associated with Crystal Forest
platforms and Gladden[6] or Sandy Bridge-EP/EN processors.
Patsburg is the codename of a PCH in Intel 7 Series chipsets for server and
workstation using the LGA 2011 socket.
Coleto Creek is the codename of the PCH most closely associated with Highland
Forest platforms and Ivy Bridge-EP processors.
Lynx Point is the codename of a PCH in Intel 8 Series chipsets, most closely
associated with Haswell processors with LGA 1150 socket.
Due to launch in 2014, Wellsburg is the codename for the C610 series PCH,
planned for the Haswell-EP (Xeon E5-2600 v3) and Broadwell-EP (Xeon E5-2600 v4)
FinFET- to describe a nonplanar, double-gate transistor built on an SOI substrate,
based on the earlier DELTA (single-gate) transistor design.
Silicon on insulator (SOI)- technology refers to the use of a layered siliconinsulator-silicon substrate in place of conventional silicon substrates in
semiconductor manufacturing, especially microelectronics, to reduce parasitic
device capacitance, thereby improving performance.
Tualatin-256- These Celeron processors, released initially at 1.2 GHz on 2 October
2001,[14] were based on the Pentium III 'Tualatin' core and made with a 0.13
micrometer process for the FCPGA 2 socket 370.
Intel Celeron processor family
3rd generation Intel® Core™ processor family
⌂ Processor numbers for the 3rd generation Intel® Core™ processors use an
alphanumeric scheme based on generation and product line following the
brand and its modifier. The first digit in the four-number sequence indicates
the generation of processor, and the next three digits are SKU numbers.
Where applicable, an alpha suffix appears at the end of the processor name,
which represents the processor line.
(250 nm)
(250 nm)
(180 nm)
(130 nm)
(180 nm)
(130 nm)
(65 nm)
r 2001
(250 nm)
(180 nm)
(130 nm)
(130 nm)
(65 nm)
(65 nm)
(45 nm)
April 2002
June 2002
April 2006
Cedar Mill
(90 nm)
(65 nm)
y 2008
dual (65 nm) August
dual (45 nm) 2009
dual (32 nm) Januar
y 2010
(45 nm)
(130 nm)
(90 nm)
(65 nm)
April 2006
(65 nm)
(65 nm)
(45 nm)
(32 nm)
(32 nm)
July 2008
June 2009
Dynamic frequency scaling (also known as CPU throttling) is a technique in
computer architecture whereby the frequency of a microprocessor can be
automatically adjusted "on the fly," either to conserve power or to reduce the
amount of heat generated by the chip.
Dynamic voltage scaling is a power management technique in computer
architecture, where the voltage used in a component is increased or decreased,
depending upon circumstances. Dynamic voltage scaling to increase voltage is
known as overvolting; dynamic voltage scaling to decrease voltage is known as
The Deschutes core Pentium II (80523), which debuted at 333 MHz in January
1998, was produced with a 0.25 µm process.[
The original Klamath Pentium II microprocessor (Intel product code 80522) ran at
233, 266, and 300 MHz and were produced in a 0.35 µm process.
In 1998, the 0.25 μm Deschutes core was utilized in the creation of the Pentium II
Overdrive processor, which was aimed at allowing corporate Pentium Pro users to
upgrade their aging servers. Combining the Deschutes core in a flip-chip package
with a 512 KB full-speed L2 cache chip from the Pentium II Xeon into a Socket 8compatible module resulted in a 300 or 333 MHz processor that could run on a 60
or 66 MHz front side bus.
Tonga- The 0.25 μm Tonga core was the first mobile Pentium II and had all of the
features of the desktop models.
Later, in 1999, the 0.25; 0.18 (400 MHz) μm Dixon core with 256 KB of on-die full
speed cache was produced for the mobile market. Reviews showed that the Dixon
core was the fastest type of Pentium II produced.
Intel TeraHertz was Intel's new design for transistors. It uses new materials such
as zirconium dioxide which is a superior insulator reducing current leakages. Using
zirconium dioxide instead of silicon dioxide, this transistor can reduce the current
leakage, and thus reduces power consumption while still working at higher speed
and using lower voltages.
A translation lookaside buffer (TLB) is a cache that memory management
hardware uses to improve virtual address translation speed.[1] The majority of
desktop, laptop, and server processors includes one or more TLBs in the memory
management hardware, and it is nearly always present in any hardware that
utilizes paged or segmented virtual memory.
The CPUs codenamed Devil's Canyon, covering the i5 and i7 K-series stock keeping
units (SKUs), employ a new and improved thermal interface material (TIM) called
next-generation polymer thermal interface material (NGPTIM).
3.1Ghz-Normal CPU clock rate of an Ivy Bridge Corei7 377057
Bonnell is a CPU microarchitecture used by Intel Atom processors which can
execute up to two instructions per cycle.
Instruction Pipeline is a technique used in the design of computers to increase
their instruction throughput (the number of instructions that can be executed in a
unit of time). The basic instruction cycle is broken up into a series called a pipeline.
3.4 Dual-Core Xeon
3.4.1 "Paxville DP"
3.4.2 7000-series "Paxville MP"
3.4.3 7100-series "Tulsa"
3.4.4 5000-series "Dempsey"
4 Pentium M (Yonah) based Xeon
4.1 LV (ULV), "Sossaman"
5 Core-based Xeon
5.1 Dual-Core
5.1.1 3000-series "Conroe"
5.1.2 3100-series "Wolfdale"
5.1.3 5100-series "Woodcrest"
5.1.4 5200-series "Wolfdale-DP"
5.1.5 7200-series "Tigerton"
5.2 Quad-Core and Multi-Core Xeon
5.2.1 3200-series "Kentsfield"
5.2.2 3300-series "Yorkfield"
5.2.3 5300-series "Clovertown"
5.2.4 5400-series "Harpertown"
5.2.5 7300-series "Tigerton"
5.2.6 7400-series "Dunnington"
6 Nehalem-based Xeon
6.1 3400-series "Lynnfield"
6.2 3400-series "Clarkdale"
6.3 3500-series "Bloomfield"
6.4 5500-series "Gainestown"
6.5 C3500/C5500-series "Jasper Forest"
6.6 3600/5600-series "Gulftown" & "Westmere-EP"
6.7 6500/7500-series "Beckton"
6.8 E7-x8xx-series "Westmere-EX"
7 Sandy Bridge– and Ivy Bridge–based Xeon
7.1 E3-12xx-series "Sandy Bridge"
7.2 E3-12xx v2-series "Ivy Bridge"
7.3 E5-14xx/24xx series "Sandy Bridge-EN" and E5-16xx/26xx/46xx-series "Sandy
7.4 E5-14xx v2/24xx v2 series "Ivy Bridge-EN" and E5-16xx v2/26xx v2/46xx v2
series "Ivy Bridge-EP"
7.5 E7-28xx v2/48xx v2/88xx v2 series "Ivy Bridge-EX"
8 Haswell-based Xeon
8.1 E3-12xx v3-series "Haswell"
8.2 E5-16xx/26xx v3-series "Haswell-EP"
An MP-capable version of Paxville DP, codenamed Paxville MP, product code
80560, was released on 1 November 2005