Uploaded by Marites Paquibulan

nature of planned change

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Planned Change
Chapter 2
Nature of Planned Change
• Change that happens to an
organization is planned by its
members
• OD is directed at bringing about
planned change to increase:
–Organization’s effectiveness
–Capability to change itself
Functions of Planned Change
• Solve organizational problems
• Learning from experiences
(benchmarking)
• Reframe shared perceptions
• Adapt to external environmental
changes
• Improve performance
• Influence future changes
Theories of planned change
• Planned change- the focus is “how to
implement change in organizations
• Theories of Changing
–Frameworks that describe the
activities that must be performed in
order to start and carry out
organizational change
Theories of Changing
• Lewins’ Change Model
• Action research Model
• Positive Model
Lewins’ Change Model
• Kurt lewin provided the earliest model of
change
• Change as a modification of forces
keeping the systems behavior stable.
• Behaviors are results of 2 groups of
forces:
– Striving to maintain the status quo
– Pushing for change
Lewin’s Change Model
Unfreezing
Movement
Refreezing
Cummings & Worley, 8e
(c)2005 Thomson/South-
2-7
Lewin’s Change Model:
Unfreezing
•
•
•
•
•
•
Creating a guiding coalition
Developing a vision and strategy
Communicating the change vision
Scouting
Entry
diagnosis
Cummings & Worley, 8e
(c)2005 Thomson/South-
2-8
Movement
• Empowering broad based
action
• Generating short term wins
• Planning
• actions
Cummings & Worley, 8e
(c)2005 Thomson/South-
2-9
Refreezing
• Anchoring new approaches
in the culture
• Stabilization
• evaluation
Cummings & Worley, 8e
(c)2005 Thomson/South-
2-10
Action Research Model
• Planned changed as a cyclical
process.
• Research will provide information
to guide subsequent actions
Action Research Model
• It is aimed at:
–Helping specific organizations
implement planned change
–Developing general knowledge that
can be applied to other settings.
Action Research Model
Problem Identification
Joint diagnosis
Consultation with a
behavioral scientist
Joint action planning
Data gathering &
preliminary diagnosis
Action
Data gathering after
action
Feedback to Client
Cummings & Worley, 8e
(c)2005 Thomson/South-
2-13
The Positive Model
• Different from other models that are deficit
based
• Positive model focuses on what the
organization is doing right
• Positive organizational scholarshipfocuses on positive dynamics in
organizations that give rise to
extraordinary outcomes
The Positive Model
• AI- appreciative inquiryreformist and rebellious form of
social constructionism
• AI infuses a positive value
orientation into analyzing and
changing organizations
The Positive Model
• Encourages positive orientation
on how change is conceived and
managed
• Promoted broad member
involvement creating a shared
vision about the organizations’
positive potential
Positive Model
Initiate the Inquiry
Inquire into Best
Practices
Discover Themes
Envision a Preferred
Future
Design and Deliver Ways to
Create the Future
Cummings & Worley, 8e
(c)2005 Thomson/South-
2-17
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