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Lesson1 2019 JVanHoudt

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Course Academic Year 2018-2019
Technology of Integrated Systems
Integrated Circuits
Lesson 1
Jan Van Houdt
[email protected]
Technology of Integrated Systems - Integrated Circuits, Lesson 1
1
Prof.Dr.ir. Jan Van Houdt
•
Jan Van Houdt received a Ph.D. in Applied Sciences from the
University of Leuven in 1994. During his PhD work, he invented the
HIMOS™ Flash memory, which he transferred to several industrial
production lines. In 1995 he received the title of Laureate of the
Belgian Academy of Literature, Sciences and Fine Arts for his
contributions to microelectronics. In 1999 he became responsible for
Flash memory at imec and as such was the driving force behind the
expansion of imec’s memory program. Today he is Scientific Director
in the Memory Department, responsible for ferroelectrics research. He
has published more than 300 papers in international journals and
accumulated more than 250 conference contributions (incl. 42
invitations and 5 best paper awards). He has filed more than 70
patents and served on the program and organizing committees of 10
semiconductor conferences. In 2014 he received the title of IEEE
Fellow for his contributions to Flash memory devices. In 2015 he
obtained a teaching assignment as a guest professor in nanoscience
and nanotechnology at the KU Leuven. His current activities are in
exploratory memory devices and ferroelectric steep subthreshold
slope transistors.
Technology of Integrated systems
IC Technology : Basic Part
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Introduction to IC & Planar Technology
Basic CMOS process steps
Scaling of CMOS and issues
Scaling of CMOS: from µm till 100nm (Microelectronics era)
Scaling beyond 100nm (Nanoelectronics era)
COURSE 2018-2019
Technology for Microelectronics
MEE
H09M6a 10 lessons
Technologie van geintegreerde systemen
MNN
H05L0a
Technology of integrated systems
MNE + EMM
H09M6a 10 lessons H06G0a
20 lessons
10 lessons
o
2 lessons/week (Wednesday C300 00.81 & Thursday ELEC B91.100)
o
Technology of Integrated Systems/
Technologie van Geintegreerde Systemen: 20 lessons
- Basics + Advanced
o
10 lessons on IC technology (Prof. Van Houdt) and 10 lessons on IC stacking (Prof. Van
Hoof)
o
First part of the IC technology course: “basics” : CMOS
• H09M6a + H05L0a
o
Second part of the IC technology course “advanced” : memory, patterning
• H06G0a + H05L0a
Part 1: Lessons basics: 13/2, 14/2, 20/2, 21/2, 27/2
Part 2: Lessons advanced: 28/2, 6/3, 7/3, 13/3, (14/3)
Part 3 (C. Van Hoof): remaining lessons
References
1. Silicon VLSI technology, chapters 1 and 2 by Plummer,
Deal and Griffin (see Toledo, in lesson IC2)
2. CMOS, Baker, Wiley-IEEE, 2011, available through imec
and university library link
3. See also Springer-Verlag e-books through university
library links.
4. Bits on chips, Harry Veendrick (www.bitsonchips.com)
Technology of Integrated Systems,
Part Integrated Circuits, Lesson 4
7
What is an IC ?
In electronics, an integrated circuit
(also known as IC, microcircuit,
microchip, silicon chip, or chip) is
a miniaturized electronic circuit
(consisting mainly of
semiconductor devices, as well as
passive components) that has
been manufactured in the surface
of a thin substrate of
semiconductor material.
Integrated circuits are used in
almost all electronic equipment in
use today and have revolutionized
the world of electronics.
Intel Pentium4
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit
8
Semiconductor Integrated Circuits changed our daily world
• Analysis of key markets of IC’s
– Wireless Networking
– Cellular Phones
– Digital Cameras and Audio
Players
– Automotive Electronics
– Video Game Consoles
– Digital TVs and Set-Top Boxes
– DVD Players and Recorders
– PCs and smartphone PDAs
– RFID, Smartcards, and more
9
IC large part of microelectronics and
semiconductor market
Mainframe computers (1980s):
▸ 8-10% of the value consists
of ICs
Personal computers (1990s):
▸ 25-33% of the value
consists of ICs
Handheld devices (2000s)
▸ 40-50% of the value
consists of ICs
10
Why studying IC technology?
Very important technology : directly affects modern society
Enabler of the microelectronic “Si” revolution  low-cost, complex systems
that have permeated nearly every aspect of everyday life
Dramatic growth of integrated system size & complexity
What has driven this industry?
What has enabled this industry?
How has it evolved?
Learning :
for future
for other applications
How will this industry further perform in the nano-age ?
11
INTRODUCTION
Why Integrated Circuits ?
Importance and need of Scaling ?
Technology (vs lab-type experiments...)
© IMEC 2013/ CONFIDENTIAL
12
WHY INTEGRATED CIRCUITS?
What are the issues when making large
electric/electronic systems?
Take a look at the history of computers...
© IMEC 2013/ CONFIDENTIAL
13
Development of computers
Crucial inventions on device level
(1) Micro relais
14
First computers: Harvard Mark I 1944
Harvard Mark 1 Computer
Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper designed the MARK series of computers
at Harvard University. The MARK series of computers began with the Mark
I in 1944. Imagine a giant roomful of noisy, clicking metal parts, 55 feet long
and 8 feet high. The 5-ton device contained almost 760,000
separate pieces. Used by the US Navy for gunnery and ballistic
calculations, the Mark I was in operation until 1959
Harvard Mark 1 Computer
http://inventors.about.com/library/blcoindex.htm
15
First computers: Harvard Mark I 1944
Harvard Mark 1 Computer
The computer, controlled by pre-punched paper tape, could carry out
addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and reference to previous
results. It had special subroutines for logarithms and trigonometric
functions and used 23 decimal place numbers. Data was stored and
counted mechanically using 3000 decimal storage wheels, 1400 rotary
dial switches, and 500 miles of wire. Its electromagnetic relays
classified the machine as a relay computer. All output was displayed on an
electric typewriter. By today's standards, the Mark I was slow, requiring 3-5
seconds for a multiplication operation.
http://inventors.about.com/library/blcoindex.htm
16
Development of computers
Inventions on device level
(1) Micro relais
(2) Vacuum tube
17
First computers: ENIAC 1948
What Was Inside The ENIAC?
The ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes along
with 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 1,500 relays,
6,000 manual switches and 5 million soldered joints. It
covered 1800 square feet (167 square meters) of floor
space, weighed 30 tons, consumed 160 kilowatts of
electrical power. There was even a rumor that when
turned on the ENIAC caused the city of Philadelphia to
experience brownouts, however, this was first reported
incorrectly by the Philadelphia Bulletin in 1946 and since
then has become an urban myth.
http://inventors.about.com/library/blcoindex.htm
The Eniac Computer
18
First computers: ENIAC 1948
In one second, the ENIAC (one thousand times faster
than any other calculating machine to date) could
perform 5,000 additions, 357 multiplications or 38
divisions. The use of vacuum tubes instead of switches
and relays created the increase in speed, but it was not a
quick machine to re-program. Programming changes
would take the technicians weeks, and the machine
always required long hours of maintenance. As a side
note, research on the ENIAC led to many
improvements in the vacuum tube
http://inventors.about.com/library/blcoindex.htm
The ENIAC, in BRL building 328
19
Development of computers
Inventions on device level
(1) Micro relais
(2) Vacuum tube
(3) Discrete transistors
20
TRANSISTOR INVENTION
Bardeen Shockley Brattain
1947 first bipolar point-contact transistor
21
First Transistorized Computer:TRADIC
1954
Transistors, unfortunately, were substantially more expensive than
vacuum tubes -- costing $20 as compared to $1 for a vacuum
tube -- but the advantages still outweighed that one drawback. In January
of 1954, supported by the military, engineers from Bell Labs built the first
computer without vacuum tubes. Known as TRADIC (for TRAnsistorized
DIgital Computer), the machine was a mere three cubic feet, a mindboggling size when compared with the 1000 square feet ENIAC hogged.
TRADIC - The First Fully Transistorized Computer
http://www.pbs.org/transistor/background1/events/sscomputer.html
http://www.cedmagic.com/history/tradic-transistorized.html
22
First Transistorized Computer:TRADIC
1954
It contained almost 800 point-contact transistors and 10,000
germanium crystal rectifiers. It could perform a million logical
operations every second, still not quite as fast as the vacuum tube
computers of the day, but pretty close. And best of all, it operated on less
than 100 watts of power.
During two years of continuous operation only 17 of these devices failed, a
vastly lower failure rate than Vacuum tube machines of the time.
http://www.pbs.org/transistor/background1/events/sscomputer.html
http://www.cedmagic.com/history/tradic-transistorized.html
23
WHY INTEGRATED CIRCUITS?
What are the issues when making large
electric/electronic systems?
▸ Performance
▸ Power
▸ Reliability
▸ COST
WHY INTEGRATED CIRCUITS?
What are the issues when making large
electric/electronic systems?
▸ Performance
▸ Power
▸ Reliability
▸ COST
▸ Form factor (size)
So far, only advantages on device
level
Micro relais
Vacuum tube
Discrete transistors
Advantages in speed and power and (device-level) reliability,
but limitations in COST reduction
26
SOME ISSUES NOT SOLVED BY
CHANGING DEVICE LEVEL
27
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Invention
Key technology
Transistor flavors
Scaling
28
What led to the invention of the IC?
“Seeing the light”
Realization that all different components can be made in the same semiconductor material
(transistors + passives R,C…)
Realization that different devices can be made on the same substrate at same time (COST
)
Realization that in-situ interconnect reduces (1) parasitics (SPEED/POWER) and (2)
complexity (RELIABILITY/COST)
Parellel invention of IC by :
Jack Kilby (Texas Instruments, 1958) and Robert Noyce (Fairchild, 1959)
(Robert Noyce later became the founder of Intel)
29
JACK KILBY’S FIRST IC
It was a relatively simple device that
Jack Kilby showed to a handful of
co-workers gathered in TI's
semiconductor lab 50 years ago -only a transistor and other
components on a slice of
germanium. Little did this group of
onlookers know, but Kilby's invention,
7/16-by-1/16-inches in size and called
an integrated circuit, was about to
revolutionize the electronics industry.
Texas Instruments' first IC
30
ROBERT NOYCE 1ST IC ON SI
But over in California, another man
had similar ideas. In January of 1959,
Robert Noyce was working at the
small Fairchild Semiconductor startup
company. He also realized a whole
circuit could be made on a single chip.
While Kilby had hammered out the
details of making individual
components, Noyce thought of a
much better way to connect the
parts. That spring, Fairchild began a
push to build what they called
"unitary circuits" and they also applied
for a patent on the idea.
31
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Invention
Key technology
= PLANAR TECHNOLOGY
Transistor Flavors
Scaling
32
Planar technology : basic principles
The fabrication of (electronic) devices to create
functional structures (computing, communication,
sensing...)
▸ On a planar substrate
▸ The structure is formed layer by layer
▸ For each step
- a material layer is formed at some places and not at other places
- where the layer will be or not is usually defined by photolithography
- in most cases, the layer is uniformly formed (deposited or grown), and
locally removed in a material etching step
33
Main steps
Materials formation:
▸ Layer growth (e.g. oxidation of Si  SiO2)
▸ Layer deposition (e.g. chemical vapor deposition or CVD)
▸ Implanting atoms (e.g. doping)
▸ Thermal steps (dopant activation/layer formation)
Structure definition:
▸ Lithography : transfer of an optical pattern to a
photosensitive layer (photoresist)
▸ Patterning: Etch (wet,dry), Chemical Mechanical Polishing
34
Example : diode fabrication
p
n
Si substrate
1. Substrate (typically a Si wafer, e.g. p-type)
37
Example : diode fabrication
SiO2
2. Growth of layer (e.g. SiO2 by oxidation of Si) /
deposition of layer (e.g. CVD SiO2 deposition)
38
Example : diode fabrication
photoresist
3. Deposition of photoresist = light sensitive layer
39
Example : diode fabrication
A
A’
AA’
4. Desired pattern made on Mask
(glass plate with local non-transparant metal coating)
40
5. Illumination of photoresist through mask
41
Example : diode fabrication
6. Development of resist : illuminated area’s are removed
42
Example : diode fabrication
7. Etch of active layer (wet/dry etch techniques)
43
Example : diode fabrication
8. active layer selectively removed
44
Example : diode fabrication
9. Removal photoresist
45
Example : diode fabrication
Local structure formation w/o mask:
Self aligned I/I
10. Ion-implant (e.g. P)
46
Example : diode fabrication
n-Si
SiO2
p-Si
Structure so far
47
Example : diode fabrication
n-Si
SiO2
p-Si
11. Metal deposition
48
Example : diode fabrication
n-Si
SiO2
p-Si
12. Photoresist coating
49
n-Si
SiO2
p-Si
13. Illumination trhough 2nd mask
50
Example : diode fabrication
n-Si
SiO2
p-Si
14. Develop Resist
51
Example : diode fabrication
n-Si
SiO2
p-Si
15. Etch metal
52
Example : diode fabrication
n-Si
SiO2
p-Si
16. “Final” Structure
53
PLANAR TECHNOLOGY
DRIVING FACTOR:
Main benefit of planar technology
▸ You can make 1 or 1E9 devices at the same time,
using exactly the same steps as those to make a single
device
 COST !
54
Planar Technology
Enabling factors:
▸ Device structure
▸ Material
▸ (Technology)
55
WHAT IS A MOSFET ?
A MOSFET functions ideally as an electronically
controlled SWITCH
mechanical switch
I
current / no current
MOSFET
VG
I
Source
Drain
56
How it was enabled?
Typical electronic device : MOSFET
▸ Essentially a 2D (planar) device
▸ Different active layers are thin
- Only upper surface layer of Si is active
- Thin gate insulator
- Thin gate electrodes
▸ Controlled by
▪ in-plane dimensions of the Silicon (W,L)
• Control current levels
▪ normal (to plane) layer thicknesses
• Control threshold voltages
▸ Process:
- layer depositions (formation)  thickness control
- In-plane structuring lateral dimension control
57
How it was enabled?
bipolar TOR is more complex but essentially similar :
▸ Thickness of layers controls voltages
▸ In plane dimensions control current levels
58
How it was enabled?
Vacuum Tube :
3D device, +
large (vertical)
dimensions
What would have been your memory stick made of w/o planar technology ?
59
THE SELECTRON TUBE
Digital memory,
Developed by RCA end of 1940’s
The original 4096-bit Selectron was a 10-inch-long
(250 mm) by 3-inch-diameter (76 mm) vacuum tube
configured as 1024 by 4 bits.
The smaller capacity 256-bit (128 by 2 bits)
"production" device[ was in a similar vacuum tube
envelope. It was built with two storage arrays of
discrete "eyelets" on a rectangular plate, separated by
a row of eight cathodes. The pin count was reduced
from 44 for the 4096-bit device down to 31 pins and
two coaxial signal output connectors. This version
included visible green phosphors in each eyelet so that
the bit status could also be read by eye.
256-bit Selectron tube
4096-bit Selectron tube
60
The material factor : Si
Si is a “wonder” material
▸ Abundant element
▸ Can be grown in large crystals
- Typically cylindrical ingots that are sawed into wafers
- Flat and rigid substrates
▸ Semiconductor properties
- P- and n-type by doping
Si can be oxidized to become SiO2
▸ Stable material (>< Ge)
▸ SiO2 is good dielectric
- Gate dielectric
- Insulating
Although first working
transistors were based
on Ge, IC technology
was built on Si
SiO2 can also be deposited
61
Basic device structure essentially made
of Si and SiO2 !!
SiO2 PMD
Silicide
Poly-Si gate
SiO2 spacer
SiO2 isolation
SiO2 gate insulator
Si substrate
62
Enabling technology :
Thin film deposition and lithography
MOSFET = 2D “planar” device controlled by
- in-plane dimensions of the Silicon (W,L) : control current levels
- normal to plane layer thicknesses : control threshold voltages
Enabled by advanced
deposition techniques as ALD
Enabled by Litho scaling
resolution  k1.
© IMEC 2012
63
BEYOND
CMOS - INTRODUCTION -2012

NA
Technology vs lab science
Important : what is a “technology”
▸ the strength of “planar” technology
- concepts as self-alignment
▸ ”technology” vs. science
- 1 working device is not yet a technology
- A technology is making >1M-1B devices at the same time
No longer only “classical” electronic IC
▸ MEMS (NEMS)
- Optical (mirrors), Chemical (lab-on-chip), Sensors/actuators
▸ TV sets
- CRT  TFT flatscreen
▸ Others !
64
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Invention
Key technology
Transistor flavors
Scaling
65
IC “device-type” technologies
Many related technologies
Bipolar, NMOS, CMOS : historic evolution
CMOS is the main technology today:
▸ focus of this part of the course is on CMOS IC technology
▸ This is OK for “pure” logic IC’s
▸ (Vertical) Scaling route, also called “More Moore”
But besides CMOS, also other components:
- High Voltage, RF, Sensors, NVM
 As many functions as possible integrated on one chip = SoC
(System-on-Chip)
- also called horizontal scaling route, ”More than Moore”
66
Why CMOS got important ?
67
Why CMOS got important ?
with resistive load
Initial PMOS
with depletion transistor load
CMOS
NMOS
Driving force for change in invertor scheme ?
Benefits? Drawbacks?
68
Why CMOS got important ?
No static leakage in Complimentary
CMOS
 POWER
© IMEC 2010 / CONFIDENTIAL
69
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Invention
Key technology
Transistor flavors
Scaling
© IMEC 2010 / CONFIDENTIAL
70
Continuous drive to increase the number of
components in a system (or memory)
What limits the number of devices (transistors)
on a chip ?
▸ DIE SIZE
▸ POWER (cfr. CMOS)
© IMEC 2010 / CONFIDENTIAL
71
What limits the DIE size ?
▸ Yield (number of defects/area)
▸ Interconnect length (performance (speed)...
© IMEC 2010 / CONFIDENTIAL
72
Solution : SCALING
SCALING of devices : making devices smaller
+
SCALING of die size : making die size larger
▸ e.g. by improvement of process control
© IMEC 2010 / CONFIDENTIAL
73
What factors increase #TORs/Chip
Device scaling
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
Yield improvement
74
MOORE’S LAW
Chip area per function : 2 every 2-3 years
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
75
Moore’s law dictates the scaling beat of IC industry
#TORS/chip * 2 every 18 months
Intel co-founder
Gordon E. Moore
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
Moore’s law has been driving this industry over time towards
more complex circuits with increased performance.
76 76
TECHNOLOGY NODES
~ x0.7/node
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
77
Scaling of feature size
(= technology node)
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
78
Scaling
Size reduction
by 1/1000 !
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
79
SCALING BENEFITS
1) COST
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
80
It’s all about economics
Average transistor price per year
About 7 decades price decrease per transistor
Source: WSTS/Dataquest/Intel
Moore‟s Law is not (only) about scaling (shrinking); its primary
objective is the economy of scale (performance and cost)
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
81
It’s all about economics
Scaling: more at lower price
Enables new markets !
Example: NAND Flash substitutes HD
While cost of living increases, cost of electronic
equipment in generally has decreased in absolute values
despite major performance improvements
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
82
SCALING BENEFITS
1) COST
2) PERFORMANCE (SPEED)
Cst field scaling
B.Dennard 1974
3) POWER (/device)
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
83
MOORE’S LAW
= 2 generations !
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
84
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
Technology of Integrated Systems / GD/2009
85
The power of scaling
Enormous progress made through scaling (i.e. making things smaller 
more and faster transistors on chip)
Year
1971
2011
ratio
Transistors
2.300
1.170.000.000
~ 500.000
Speed (Hz)
10.800
3.600.000.000
~ 360.000
Gate length (nm)
10.000
32
~ 1/300
12
239
~ 20
Area (mm2)
40 years of scaling
Intel 4004
▪ Minimum feature size scaled from
10mm to 32nm in 40 years
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
Intel Core i7
86
SCALING & ROADMAPS
Scaling did not come without effort
Large R&D in SC industry
▸ Guided by ITRS Roadmaps
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
87
International Technology Roadmap for
Semconductors (ITRS: www.itrs.net)
The ITRS roadmap is a “guiding” vehicle used by the
semiconductor industry
It specifies the different device and technology
parameters required to realize the scaled devices (with a
pace according to Moore’s law), and by that specifies the
critical issues and identifies problematic area’s that guide
the technology research effort.
2010
Technology of Integrated Systems, Part I Integrated Circuits, Lesson 1
88
ITRS 2005 :
example
Wafer size scaling is another economic
drive
cost per wafer increases BUT cost per chip decreases
90
WAFER SCALING
wafers larger  cost/die decreases
▸ Process cost/wafer ~ cst
▸ More yielding dies/wafer
but :
▸ technology for making high quality large substrates
▸ tool and fab cost increases
Economy of scale..
91
INCREASING ENTRY BARRIERS
Manufacturing
At each step, fab
capacity is doubling
and critical dimensions
are shrinking
R&D
3-5 B$
0.1µ -> 32nm
25
20
R&D cost as % of
revenue for each new
generation
300 mm
15
1.5-2.5 B$
0.5µ -> 0.13µ
10
200 mm
90 M$
20µ-> 5µ
100-250 M$
5µ-> 0.8µ
Cost
proportional to
dimension
150 mm
100 mm
1980
5
0
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
0.25 um
0.18 um
0.13 um
0.09 um
Source : IC Insights, STMicroelectronics
= annual depreciation
MH, RDK - 2012
92
PRODUCTION TRENDS
MH, RDK - 2012
93
Last 30 years scaling
94
SCALING ISSUES
Happy microelectronic scaling days ended with advent
of nanoelectronics (~100nm technology)
Major scaling issues : POWER
▸ new materials replacing SiO2 and Si
▸ new device structures replacing conventional
MOSFET
95
ALTERNATIVE WAYS OF SCALING
Classical “Moore’s law” scaling is only 1
possibility
Alternatives:
▸ More than Moore
▸ 3D
▸ Bottom Up
96
Moore ‘s Law & More
More than Moore: Diversification
Baseline CMOS: CPU, Memory, Logic
More Moore: Miniaturization
Analog/RF
Passives
Biochips
Non-digital content
System-in-package
(SiP)
90nm
65nm
32nm
Sensors
Actuators
Interacting with people
and environment
130nm
45nm
HV
Power
Embedding
Functionality
Information
Processing
Digital content
System-on-chip
(SoC)
22nm
.
.
.
V
Scaling Beyond CMOS
MH, RDK - 2012
97
NEW FUNCTIONALITIES OF IC’S
Further
evolution
on system
level
scaling
ON + OFF
“chip”
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
98
3D VS 2D SCALING
Going vertical solves litho scaling bottleneck
- 3D stacking
- True 3D (no longer “planar” processing !)
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
99
3D STACKING OF SI MEMORY
two-layer stacked NAND
Issues:
•(large aspect ratio) cell penetration contacts
by etching layers vertically through the upper
level Si layers to the bottom active layer and
their sequential filling with N-doped poly-Si
and W
•Good quality Si
•Cost compared to chip-stacking ?
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
Technology of Integrated Systems, Part I Integrated Circuits, Lesson 9
100
TRUE 3D BICS NAND FLASH
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
101
Different scaling ways in the NANO
domain
▸ Traditional scaling = TOP DOWN
- Deposit LARGE
- Pattern FINE : litho & etch
▸ Alternative = BOTTOM UP
- Build-up from nanoscale
- “self-assembly”
102
The microelectronicsnanotechnology convergence
Scaling down
1 mm
Higher performance
Microe
lectron
ics
Nanotechnology
Biolo
istry ,
1 nm
sics
y
gy, Ph
Chem
New functions
Scaling up
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
2030
103
Why SC industry has been that successful?
Invention of Integrated Circuit
-Enabler = PLANAR technology :
- Using same steps, one can generate 1 or 1B devices
- Si/SiO2 is key material (Si took over from Ge!)
Technology Scaling : MOORE’s LAW
-Enablers:
- Scaling laws : a scaled FET is still a FET (physics)
- Technology: continuous litho developments ( smaller dimensions) +
continuous process improvements (yield  larger die sizes)
- CMOS : only way for low power (U)LSI
Key attributes of scaling:
- Performance increase and more functions per chip
- Economics: cost per TOR dramatically decreases !
 We can make more things and at lower prices !
© IMEC 2011 / CONFIDENTIAL
104
Technology of Integrated systems
IC Technology : Basic Part
1.
2.
3.
4.
Introduction to IC & Planar Technology
Basic CMOS process steps
Scaling of CMOS and issues
Scaling of CMOS: from um till 100nm (Microelectronics
era)
5. Scaling beyond 100nm (Nanoelectronics era)
Next lesson : how to build CMOS
2012
Technology of Integrated Systems, Part I Integrated Circuits, Lesson 2
106
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