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Global Information System

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1. Introduction
Currently, organizations are in the race for enhancing their capability in order to survive in the
competitions of the new century global market. Therefore, organizations are attempting to
advance their agility level by improving the decision making process to be more efficient and
highly effective to meet the successive fluctuations of the market. In an effort to achieve this,
many modern organizations, either mid or large sized, have concerned with a cycle of progressive
investments in and adopted new management information systems components. During last
decade, a high percentage of financial organizations frequently used Management Information
Systems to facilitate the provision of services; and that the speed of the adoption is expected to
grow further as the technology expands.
Whitten et al. (2004, p.12.), stated that "information is an arrangement of people, data, process,
and information technology that interact to collect, process, store and provide as output the
information needed to support an organization," which indicates that information system is an
arrangement of groups, data, processes and technology that act together to accumulate, process,
store and provide information output needed to enhance and speed up the process of decision
making. In a Bank's information system, there is always a potential crisis which makes the bank
endure an insufficiency; thus, an advanced information system supported by a superior
mechanism control is required to make certain that an information system has achieved the
required processes.
Implementing a data management system promotes an integrated picture of an organization’s
operations. It becomes easy to see how processes in one segment of the organization affect other
segments. Thus, effective integration of data is accomplished through the use of data
management solutions.
The article discusses data management as an aspect in the broader field of information
management, as well as information as a resource and the concept of the ‘new economy’. The
importance of database management systems as opposed to traditional file systems is
emphasized and some of the latest trends and developments in the field of data management are
presented.
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2. Importance of Information Systems IS/GIS in an
Organization
2.1 The role of IS/GIS as communication method in organization
The fast part of the article talks about the role of IS/GIS as communication method in organization
Using a web-based Geographical Information System or GIS can improve communication of your
data inside your company. Most data within your organization will be linked to a geographic
location, whether it be client addresses, sales figures for geographic regions or statistics to target
specific groups of people. Displaying, querying and analyzing your data over online mapping
allows you to effectively communicate your data across your organization, and see patterns that
you would not detect using databases and spread sheets alone.
In a web-based GIS, address databases can be geocoded to find a location for each address that
can be displayed over a map using a map pointer or marker. These markers can be color-coded
by a value specific to your data giving you an instant geographic picture of your data. Sales figures
or population statistics can be linked to postcode, census or administrative boundaries. The
boundaries can be colored using values in your data to visualize your data geographically.
Viewing and analyzing your data over maps allows you to detect geographic clusters that maybe
of interest, which may not have been possible when viewing only tabular data.
What is ‘GIS’, and what ‘communication’ is? Most GIS-people and communication-people will
probably have an opinion on what the two concepts mean each of them, so isn’t that satisfactory
and sufficient? Yes, it might be enough. But, on the other hand it might be sound for the domains
to take that discussion at regular intervals.
GIS has something to do with expectations and with certainty in the information exchange
between people. If for example a group in an organization gets the permission to look for and
employ a new colleague with the condition that this new colleague must be ‘good at GIS’, what
does this actually mean? What types of skills is this new colleague supposed to have? What does
the employer actually expect? What is it actually that the promise to the boss includes, when a
group promises to find a new colleague who is ‘good at GIS’? Not to speak of who can and should
apply for the job, i.e. who has the right skills that comes up to the employer’s expectations?
Using a web-based GIS to improve communication and management of data within a company
is a valuable and effective method to make the most of your data.
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3. Significance of Database in the operations.
The first step is to define the concept of "operations" with respect to GIS projects. Organizations
must develop, organize and manage the company's operational team to foster top-quality, costeffective operational performance, customer support, high standards of product quality and
successful integration of the enterprise operations. The expected result is to manage and
coordinate between staff and facilitate interdepartmental communications, and allocate tasks and
resources as needed.
The customer support function will involve many activities in a typical GIS organization. Critical to
the success of any GIS operation is a customer help desk that logs inquiries and responds to
customer requests for information. This is usually the first customer contact point and is where
impressions of the organization are formulated. Geographical data requests are usually handled
as a support function in this unit. A customer support unit may either arrange for training or provide
training on an organization’s internal procedures and GIS software applications. The nature of
almost every GIS installation is that a certain amount of ad hoc reporting and special projects are
inevitable. This is highly desirable because a GIS should be designed to handle questions which
deal with strategic issues. The GIS is then viewed as a tool that supports strategic change, rather
than one that imposes rigid institutional structure. A customer support function within any
organization should therefore include GIS analysts who know the data and the technology.
Application development and support Software application support staff have the responsibility to
create new applications to support business needs. The application development process
requires that developers continuously learn new software tools. Regardless of the detail, the
application development environment will continue to change very rapidly. This change catalyst
means application and development requirements will add complexity to the GIS management
environment. Software documentation standards and procedures are critical to the long-term
support of the GIS. A quality project plan for development should allow time to follow these
conventions. It is generally too easy to drop documentation requirements or squeeze
development time in order to complete a project on time. The long-term impact of these
management decisions will affect the ability of a product to be supported over time. From another
perspective, over-zealous developers should not insist on exacting procedures and complex
development methodologies for an application that has a short life expectancy. This only adds
unnecessary costs to a project.
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4. The role DSS play to help Managers in decision making
A decision-support system allows a decision-maker to (1) build relationships, both spatial and
process-based, between different types of data, (2) merge multiple data layers into synthetic
information, (3) weigh outcomes from potentially competing alternatives, and (4) forecast. To do
this a spatial decision-support system uses three basic elements: (1) data (e.g (2) known
relationships between data, and (3) analysis functions and models to synthesize relationships or
to test scenarios of different policy or decision-making alternatives.
Ultimately, success in achieving a sustainable transition will be determined not by the possession
of knowledge, but by using it, and using it intelligently in setting goals, providing needed indicators
and incentives, carefully examining alternatives, establishing effective institutions, and, most
generally, encouraging good decisions and taking appropriate actions.
To support good decisions, spatial decision-support systems that include GIS often are employed.
5. Why keep a good record of a business or unit?
For Many new organizations and new business owners the first year is generally the hardest. If
you are one first you have to decide what form of business you want, then there is extensive
business record keeping. Bad record keeping can be a serious pitfall for small business owners.
You can avoid headaches when you are filing your tax return by keeping track of your receipts
and other records throughout the year.
Everyone in business must keep records. Good business records will help you do the following:
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Monitor the progress of your business
Project your tax liability
Prepare your financial statements
Identify source of receipts
Keep track of deductible expenses
Prepare your tax returns
Support items reported on tax returns
Monitor the progress of your business
Also you need a good records to monitor the progress of your business. Records can show
whether your business is improving, which items are selling, or what changes you need to make.
Good records can increase the likelihood of business success.
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6. Challenges faced by organization to implement the database
for GIS
6.1 Death of qualified staff:
The fact that (GIS) is a relatively new technology implies that staffs with Geographic Information
System (GIS) training and skills are scares and are in high demand beyond the reach of most
natural resource managers’ budget (Transer and Le Sueur, 2002; Bretas, 1996;Fox, 1991;
Edralin, 1991; Yeh, 1991). It is possible to find sources of training for (GIS). It is very more difficult,
if not impossible for most individuals to find training on the use of (GIS) for understanding
protected area management.
6.2 Security Incidents
With more people using bitcoins, cases of malware and malicious codes targeting bitcoins have
also been reported. Malware can hack the bitcoins by infecting computers. To solve such a
problem, a PC security solution must be installed to detect malicious code. One recently found
malicious code looted game accounts and can be applied for looting the bitcoin accounts. With
more bitcoins being used for the cash transaction of online game items, security measures to
cope with it are needed. The Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack floods the targeted
server with superfluous requests to overload the system and prevent the provision of normal
service to other users. Thus, it can prevent the users of blockchain from receiving the service.
DDoS attacks include the bandwidth-consuming attack that exceeds the bandwidth of all systems
using the same network and the PPS (Packet per Second)-consuming attack that causes internal
system failure or the denial of service to other servers in the same network. The http-flooding
attack transfers a large amount of http packets to a targeted server to cause the denial of service.
Since the bitcoin service must be continuously provided to the users, countermeasures to DDoS
attacks are needed.
6.3 51% Attack
In a bitcoin environment, a 51% attack alters and falsifies 51% of the ledgers simultaneously.
Thus, it is a very difficult attack to coordinate. The attacker must have 51% or more calculating
capability of all users, intentionally generate two branches, and set the targeted branch as the
legitimate blockchain. To solve the problem, an intermediate verification process must be
provided to prevent such tampering. In a bitcoin environment, a 51% attack consists of five steps.
1. Publish mining software with a higher EV (Expected Value). (1) Mine on new headers (but
validate it as soon as possible) (2) More “flexible” 2-h rule (3) Decide on fork with own block
version number (4) Make miner aware of the “Goldfinger” reward (5) “Members only” functionality.
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6.4 Security of Transaction
Since the script used in inputs and outputs is a programming language with flexibility, different
transaction forms can be created using such. A bitcoin contract [11] is a method of applying bitcoin
for the existing authentication and financial service. A widely used method involves creating the
contract using the script that includes a multiple-signature technique called multisig. Although the
scripts are used to solve a wide range of bitcoin problems, the possibility of an improperly
configured transaction has also increased as the complexity of the script increases. A bitcoin
using an improperly configured locking script is discarded since nobody can use it as the unlocking
script cannot be generated. To this end, there are studies that suggest models of bitcoin contracttype transactions to verify the accuracy of a script used in a transaction [24].
6.5 Security of Wallet
The bitcoin address is the hash value of a public key encoded with a pair of public and personal
keys. Therefore, the locking script of a bitcoin transaction with an address as output can be
unlocked with an unlocking script that has the value signed with the public key of the address and
the personal key. The bitcoin wallet stores information such as the personal key of the address to
be used for the generation of the unlocking script. It means that loss of information in the wallet
leads to a loss of bitcoin since the information is essential for using the bitcoin. Therefore, the
bitcoin wallet has become the main subject of bitcoin attack through hacking.
7. Summary
GIS is important for business because most business problems include significant spatial
components and GIS enables decision makers to leverage their spatial data resources more
effectively. GIS is useful for managing databases, even extremely large applications such as data
warehouses, because it provides an enhanced data structure that is based on the natural
organization that geography provides. Today, GIS-based data sources vary from satellite imagery
used to validate the number of new houses in a retail market to the individual people-point data
of the consumers living in those houses. Data such as these can add significant value to an
organization's database by helping to validate and extend their own proprietary resources.
blockchain has done away with the server to exclude the involvement of the central authority and
has facilitated transactions through the participants who jointly store the transaction records and,
finally, approve the transactions using P2P network technology. The blockchain has a distributed
structure and utilizes the peer network and the computing resources of peers. Technical
measures such as proof of work and proof of stack have been implemented to improve the
security of blockchain.
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