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Stanford-FG11.1-Socratic-Method-PowerPoint-Slides (1)

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Socratic Method
A meaningful question is as good
as the right answer….
Actively engaging students in the
critical thinking process or ways
of thinking
ways
of
Dr. and
Noe Pablo
Lozano
knowing…
Outline
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Socratic Method
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Definition
Key Points
Advantages
Disadvantages
Using the Socratic Method
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General Guidelines
Forming Questions
“Techie” Classroom Settings
What is the Socratic Method?
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General: Foundation of Western Pedagogical Tradition.
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A controlled debate used as a method of inquiry for the examination of
conceptual, philosophical, and moral ideas.
Teaching: A shared dialogue between teacher and students,
where both are responsible for continuing the dialogue through
questioning
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Probing questions by Teachers lead the discussion
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Questions are asked, by an individual, by the other Students and by the
instructor to determine uncertainty, examine complexity and
understand difficulty;
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Teachers are equally participant and a guide or source of knowledge;
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Open-ended inquiry: lead with or without a lesson plan; the dialogue
of teacher/student leads to the new knowledge;
Socratic Questioning
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Fundamental part of the Method
Objectives:
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Examine the student's thoughts:
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Use to demonstrate complexity, difficulty and uncertainty
Learn what is known
Learn what is not known
Force evaluation of current beliefs
Know facts, yet what do students thinks about these facts
Strengthen Socratic ability
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Focus on what specific students thinks and avoid what the
World or others think;
Encourage questioning self and others
Teach how to construct deep, meaningful questions
You do not need to know all the knowledge
Key Differences
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Lecturer
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Students
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Does not lecture
Poses a question, but does not answer
Fosters the analysis through Socratic Questions
Must listen and actively engage
Focus on the underlying principles
Account for beliefs in class
Ask questions of Lecturer and fellow students
Environment of familiarity, yet “productive
discomfort” verses intimidation and panic
Key Differences
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Three Way Dialogue with equal status
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The Individual student contribution
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The other students’ perspectives
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The lecturer’s focus and emphasis
Effectiveness
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Advantages
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Fosters critical thought above memorization
Enforces the beliefs of students as ideas are subject to
examination
Teaches to question, understand, and extend
Reveals the complexity of seemingly simple statements
Focus students on articulating their values and on their ideas
holding up to scrutiny
Disadvantages
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Difficult to apply in certain classroom settings
Not as suited for imparting worldly facts and standard lecture
Not optimal for imparting logical facts, theorems, and
knowledge generated by conventional lectures.
Method in Practice
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Participate in the dialogue
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Professor and student must be willing to accept new
ideas
“I don't know” is an acceptable answer for anyone
Remove deference to authority
Silence is productive
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Be reasonable (10 seconds)
Do not answer questions, rephrase instead
Environment for the Method
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Create the proper environment
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Learn the names of each person
Short interventions, not speeches, when needed
Small groups for larger classes
Encouraging Thought
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Alternative positions are acceptable
Follow-up on responses
Emphasize active participation
Forming the Question
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Ask a single question
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Concise, clear questions
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“How are A and B the same, and why are they
different”? vs. “Why is A different from B?”
Eliminate unnecessary words
Easily understood, yet accurate language
Ask appropriate kind of question
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Analysis
Comparison
Observation
In “Techie” Environments
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Application Classes
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Seminars for theoretical understanding
Substitute for pure lecture may be undesirable
Possibility: Schedule “Socratic Seminar” periods with
standard lecture
Theoretical Classes
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Seminars can be used to advance the class
Teaches required critical thought with the concepts
involved
Possibility: Focus on extending concepts learned
In “Techie” Environments
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“The unexamined life is not worth living”
Equally True: “The unexamined problem set is not
worth doing.”
How many questions do you need to ask yourself
in order to optimize your learning for each class?
Focus is on content and principals and not personal
narratives…
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