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Chemical-Safety

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Chemical Safety
Joe Nail
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Introduction

What is a Chemical Hazard?
– Answer: Any chemical that can cause illness,
injury, or an emergency.

Chemical Hazards
– Physical
– Health
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Chemical Hazards
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Chemical Hazards
Pyrophoric
 Flammable Chemicals
 Combustible Chemicals
 Oxidizers

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OHSA’s Haz-Com Standard
OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard is designed to protect
employees from hazardous chemicals used or stored in the work
setting.
Also referred to as the "Right-To-Know Law" Law, the Hazard
Communication Standard requires that information and
training (i.e., hazcom training) be provided to any employees
who have the potential of being exposed to a hazardous chemical
“under normal condition of use or in a foreseeable emergency.”
Such hazcom training requires the presence of hazardous
chemicals be communicated to employees in a variety of ways,
including:
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Purpose

The purpose of the
standard is to make sure
that the hazards of
chemicals are evaluated

That information
concerning their hazards is
communicated to
employers and employees
Who is covered
 OSHA’s
Hazard Communication
(HazCom) standard applies to general
industry, shipyard, marine terminals,
longshoring, and construction
employment and covers chemical
manufacturers, importers, employers,
and employees exposed to chemical
hazards.
Horizontal
HazCom Requirements
The hazardous chemical inventory
 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
 Labels, tags or signs
 The written Hazard Communication
program

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Background

The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)
is based on a simple concept--that employees
have both a need and a right to know the
hazards and identities of the chemicals they
are exposed to when working
Background
They also need to know what protective
measures are available to prevent adverse
effects from occurring
 The HCS is designed to provide employees
with the information they need

MSDS
Employers

Employers are required to provide information
to their employees about the hazardous
chemicals to which they are exposed using:
– A hazard communication program
– labels and other forms of warnings
– material safety data sheets (MSDS)
– information and training
Warehouse and Retail Operations

In work operations where employees only
handle chemicals in sealed containers, which
are not opened under normal conditions

Employers must only do the following:
– Ensure labels on incoming chemicals
are not defaced or removed
– Maintain copies of any material safety data sheets
that are received with incoming shipments
– Obtain MSDS a.s.a.p. for shipments received
w/out MSDS
Warehouse and Retail Operations

Provide employees with information and
training (no written program required) to the
extent necessary to protect them in the event
of a spill or leak of a hazardous chemical from
a sealed container
Labeling Exemptions

Other federal agencies control the labeling
requirements for the following substances:
– Pesticides
– Chemicals covered under the Toxic Substance
Control Act
– Foods or food additives
– Distilled Spirits, tobacco
– Consumer products, lumber, cosmetics
– Hazardous wastes
Employer RequirementsWritten Program

Employers must develop a written program
that covers at least:
– Labels and other forms of warnings
– Material Safety Data Sheets
– Employee Information and Training
Employer RequirementsWritten Program

Employers must develop a written program
that covers at least:
– A list of the hazardous chemicals known to be
present at the facility along with MSDS’s for each
chemical
– The methods the employer
will use to inform employees
of the hazards non-routine tasks
– The hazards of chemicals
in unlabeled pipes
Multi-Employer Workplaces

If employees of other employers could be
exposed to hazardous chemicals the program
must include:
– Methods to provide contractor employees with onsite access to MSDS for each chemical those
workers may be exposed to
– The methods used to inform other employers of
any precautionary measures to be taken for
normal and emergency situations
– The employers chemical labeling system
Consumer Products Exemption

Any consumer product as defined in the
Consumer Product Safety Act where the
employer can show that:
– It is used in the workplace for the purpose
intended
– The use results in a duration and frequency of
exposure which is not greater than the range of
exposures that could reasonably be experienced
by consumers when used for the purpose intended
Written Program Availability

The employer must make the written program
available, upon request, to:
– Employees and their designated representatives

Where work is carried out at more than one
location, the program may be kept at the main
location
Labels, Tags and Markings

The employer must ensure that each
container of hazardous chemicals in the
workplace is labeled, tagged or marked with
the following:
– Identity of the hazardous chemical
– Appropriate hazard warnings

This above labeling information is required of
the manufacturer so the employer must
ensure that the original labels from the
manufacturer are on all containers and
remain legible
Container Labeling Exemption for
Portable Containers

The employer is not required to label portable
containers into which hazardous chemicals are
transferred from labeled containers, and which
are intended only for the immediate use by
the employee who performs the transfer
The employer need not
affix new labels to comply
with the standard if
existing labels already covey
the required information
New Hazard Information

Manufacturers, importers,
distributors and employers
who become newly aware of
significant information
regarding chemical hazards
shall:
– Revise the labels for the
chemical within three months
– Revise the MSDS for the
chemical within three months
MSDS kept in other forms

MSDS may be kept in any form including
operating procedures

It may be more appropriate to address the
hazards of a process rather than individual
hazardous chemicals
Employee Information and
Training

Employers must provide employees
information and training on hazardous
chemicals in their work area:
– At the time of their initial assignment
– Whenever a new physical or health hazard
the employees have not previously been
trained about is introduced into their work
area

Training may cover categories of hazards
Employee Information

Employers must inform employees:
– Of the training requirements of this section
(1910.1200 (h) Employee information and
training.);
– Any operations in their work area where
hazardous chemicals are present;
– The location and availability of the written hazard
communication program
Employee Training

Employee training shall include at least:
– The means to detect the presence or release of a
hazardous chemical in the work area
– The physical and health hazards of chemicals in
the work area
– Measures employees can take to protect
themselves
– Details of the employers specific program
Health Hazards
Category A-Biological Agents
 Category B-Physical Agents
 Category C-Chemical Agents


Chemical Agents-This Discussion
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Chemical Health Effects






Irritants: Inflame skin tissue on contact.
Corrosives: Destroy skin tissue at point of
contact.
Sensitizers: Cause allergic reactions.
Target-Organ Chemicals: Damage specific
body organs and systems.
Reproductive Hazards: Change genetic
information in egg or sperm cells and/or
damage fetus after conception.
Carcinogens: Cause cancer.
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Health Hazards
Sensitizers
 Target-Organ Chemicals
 Reproductive Hazards
 Carcinogens

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Health Hazards
Irritants
 Corrosives

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Corrosive

Visible destruction, or irreversible damage to
body tissue

Acids

Caustics (or bases)
Acids
1
pH Scale
7
Caustics
(or bases)
14
Hepatotoxins

Chemicals which produce liver damage

Signs and Symptoms: Jaundice, liver
enlargement

Chemicals: Carbon Tetrachloride,
nitrosamines
Nephrotoxins

Chemicals which
produce kidney damage

Signs and Symptoms:
Edema

Chemicals: Halogenated
Hydrocarbons, uranium
Neurotoxins

Chemicals which
produce their primary
toxic effects on the
nervous system

Signs and Symptoms:
Narcosis, behavioral
changes, decreased
motor function

Chemicals: Mercury,
Agents which act on the blood

Decrease hemoglobin
function, deprive the
body tissues of oxygen

Signs and Symptoms:
Cyanosis, loss of
consciousness

Chemicals: Carbon
monoxide, cyanides
Agents which damage the lungs

Chemicals which
damage pulmonary
tissue

Signs and Symptoms:
Cough, tightness in
the chest, loss of
breath

Chemicals: Asbestos,
Reproductive toxins

Chemicals which damage
reproductive capabilities

Includes chromosomal
damage (mutations) and
damage to fetuses
(teratogenesis)

Signs and Symptoms:
Birth defects, sterility

Chemicals: Lead
Cutaneous hazards

Chemicals which effect
the dermal layer of the
body

Signs and Symptoms:
Defatting of the skin,
rashes, irritation

Chemicals: Ketones,
chlorinated compounds
Eye hazards

Chemicals which affect the eye or visual
capacity

Signs and symptoms: Conjunctivitis,
corneal damage, blurred vision, burning or
irritation

Chemicals: Solvents, corrosives
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
are one of the most important tools
available to employers
for providing information, and protection
to workers from hazardous chemicals
which are used in the workplace.
1910.1200 (g)(2) MSDS,
required information

Identity of the chemical

Physical and chemical
characteristics

Physical hazards

Chemical hazards

Primary routes of entry

PEL’s or other
exposure limits

Control measures

Emergency procedures

Whether the hazardous
chemical is listed in the
National Toxicology
Program (NTP) Annual
Report on Carcinogens

precautions for safe
handling and use

Date of preparation

Name, address and
telephone of the
manufacturer
Material Safety Data Sheet
U.S. Department of Labor
May be used to comply with Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard,
(Non-Mandatory Form)
29 CFR 1910.1200. Standard must be consulted for specific requirements.
Form Approved
OMB No. 1218-0072
IDENTITY (As Used on Label and List)
Note: Blank spaces are not permitted. If
any item is not applicable, or no information is available, the space must be marked to
indicate that.
Section I
Manufacturer's Name
Emergency Telephone Number
Address (Number, Street, City, State, and ZIP Code)
Information
Date Prepared
Signature of Preparer (optional)
Telephone Number for
Section II - Hazard Ingredients/Identity Information
Hazardous Components (Specific Chemical Identity;
Common Name(s))
OSHA PEL
Limits
Recommended%(optional)
ACGIH TLV Other
Section III - Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Boiling Point
Specific Gravity (H2O = 1)
Vapor Pressure (mm Hg.)
Melting Point
Vapor Density (AIR = 1)
(Butyl Acetate = 1)
Evaporation Rate
Solubility in Water
Appearance and Odor
Section IV - Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
Flash Point (Method Used)
UEL
Flammable Limits
Extinguishing Media
Special Fire Fighting Procedures
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards
LEL
Section V - Reactivity Data
Stability
Unstable
Conditions to Avoid
Stable
Incompatibility (Materials to Avoid)
Hazardous Decomposition or Byproducts
Hazardous
Polymerization
May Occur
Will Not Occur
Conditions to Avoid
Section VI - Health Hazard Data
Route(s) of Entry:
Inhalation?
Skin? Ingestion?
Health Hazards (Acute and Chronic)
Carcinogenicity:
Regulated?
NTP? IARC Monographs? OSHA
Signs and Symptoms of Exposure
Medical Conditions
Generally Aggravated by Exposure
Emergency and First Aid Procedures
Section VII - Precautions for Safe Handling and Use
Steps to Be Taken in Case Material is Released or Spilled
Waste Disposal Method
Precautions to Be taken in Handling and Storing
Other Precautions
Section VIII - Control Measures
Respiratory Protection (Specify Type)
Ventilation
Local Exhaust Special
Mechanical (General) Other
Protective Gloves
Eye Protection
Other Protective Clothing or Equipment
Work/Hygienic Practices
Setting up a program

The HCS covers both:
– Physical hazards (such as flammability),
and
– Health hazards (such as irritation, lung damage,
and cancer)

Most chemicals used in the workplace have
some hazard potential, and thus will be
covered by the rule
Setting up a program

One difference between this rule and many
others adopted by OSHA is that this one is
performance-oriented

That means that you have the flexibility to
adapt the rule to the needs of your workplace,
rather than having to follow specific, rigid
requirements
Setting up a program
Make a list of all chemicals in the workplace
that are potentially hazardous
 The best way to prepare a comprehensive
list is to survey the workplace
 Identify chemicals in containers, including
pipes
 Establish purchasing procedures so that
MSDSs are being received before a
material is used in the workplace

Identify hazardous
chemicals in the workplace.
Compile a complete list of the potentially
hazardous chemicals in the workplace
 Determine if you have received material
safety data sheets for all of them
 If any are missing, contact your supplier
and request one
 You should not allow employees to use
any chemicals for which you have not
received an MSDS

Preparing and implementing a hazard
communication program

All workplaces where employees
are exposed to hazardous
chemicals must have a written
plan

The plan does not have to be
lengthy or complicated
Employee training

If there are only a few chemicals in the
workplace, then you may want to discuss each
one individually

Where there are large numbers of chemicals,
or the chemicals change frequently, you will
probably want to train generally based on the
hazard categories (e.g., flammable liquids,
corrosive materials, carcinogens)
Documentation


The rule does not require
employers to maintain
records of employee
training, but many
employers choose to do so
This may help you monitor
your own program to
ensure that all employees
are appropriately trained
Hazard
Communication
Recognizing Chemical Health
Effects-What to Look for.
Symptoms appear while you are at
work.
 Symptoms get worse during the work
week but go away when you are off.
 Fellow employees have reported similar
symptoms.

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Forms of Chemical Hazards
Solids, Liquids, Gases, Vapors, Mists,
Dusts, and Fumes.
 Exposure Routes

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Control of Chemical Hazards
and Exposures
Engineering and Mechanical Controls
 Personal Protective Equipment
 Administrative and Procedural Controls

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Chemical Spill Response

Requires Special Training

What can I do?
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Chemical Spill Response
CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Response Standard
(HAZWOPER)

Option #1-Evacuate employees and call in
professional emergency response
personnel. (EAP) 29 CFR1010.38(a)

Option #2-Respond internally. (EAP) 29 CFR
1010.120
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Emergency Action Plan (EAP)
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Emergency Response Plan
(ERP)
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First Aid for Chemical Exposure
Ingestion
 Inhalation
 Skin Contact
 Eye Contact
 Burns

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Review












1. Give the names of the two chemical hazards.
2. What name is given to a chemical which will burst into
flame when contacted by air?
3. What term is given to chemicals which can cause and
/or support fire in other materials?
4. What is a health hazard?
5. Which kind of health hazard destroys skin on contact?
6. Chemicals that cause sterility, fetal death, and birth
defects are called ____________.
7. What is a carcinogen?
8. Give the three states in which a chemical can exist.
9. Give the three ways employees can be exposed to
health hazards.
10.What are the most common skin contact hazards?
11.What is an MSDS?
12.What kind of information is found on the MSDS?
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