Uploaded by Allen Chaland Monyomb

Ch 04- Oral Presentation

advertisement
Lecture Four (4)
Chapter Four (4)
ORAL PRESENTATION
The
Ultimate Art
of
Business Communication
6/5/2019
1
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Learning Objectives
 To recognize the importance of oral presentations for the individual, the
organization and society as a whole.
 To identify those characteristics of an audience that should influence your
approach when communicating to that audience
 To lean a variety of ways of organizing your oral presentation in order to
accomplish your purpose
 To recognize the reasons for the occurrence of stress (or stage fright) in order
to adopt a mode of presentation appropriate to the situation
6/5/2019
2
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Introduction
 Oral presentation is the ultimate
art of business communication. This
means that the audience should view
the speakers to be;
o Knowledgeable and
o Likeable.
 Speakers
through;
may
achieve
this
o Understanding and knowing
their presentation/material &
o Rehearsing consistently before
delivering the talk.
6/5/2019
3
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Good Speakers-Analyze Self & Audience
Three things to aim for in public speaking;
1. To get into your subject
2. To get the subject into yourself
The Most notable speaker is Former
Apple Computer Inc. CEO, late Steve Jobs
3. To get the subject into the heart of
your audience.
Everyone have different ways of presenting,
however, there are mainly three types of
presenters;
1. The Powerful Presenter
Characteristics
-
Confidence
Stage presence
Open gestures & body languages
Ability to adapt quickly to audience
signs
6/5/2019
-
Range of voice tone & speed
Ability to use different aids
Eye contact
They look like its effortless, unplanned
and organized (it isn’t)
4
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Good Speakers-Analyze Self & Audience cont’d…
2. The Nails-Down The Blackboard
Characteristics
- Gripping onto the stand as if their life depends
on it (They think it does)
- The look of a condemned man/woman
- Wobbly, quite hesitant speech
- Limited or no audience eye contact
- Unaware of how the audience is responding
- Reading word for word from notes (or over
cluttered slides)
- Slides and other visual aids that make the
audience work
- Over or under timing
- Hesitant Q & A session ( or non at all)
6/5/2019
5
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Good Speakers-Analyze Self & Audience cont’d…
3. The Look-At-Me Presenter
Characteristics
-
Unconcerned about the audience needs
-
A desire to be the center of attention
-
A larger than life ‘stage presence’
Though this presenter can be entertaining,
the audience won’t always understand their
message.
So…
WHICH ONE OF THE THREE ARE YOU?
6/5/2019
6
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
The Importance of Oral Presentation
Two common certainties in this world;
1.
2.
However, it is also certain that as a business
student;
“the need to be able to communicate effectively by
speech to groups of people (superiors,
subordinates, general public or other members of
your profession), i.e. Oral Presentation”
It is also crucial to note that;
- One day you will be in a position to prepare and
give oral presentations
- OP will be part of your daily routines.
6/5/2019
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
7
The Importance of Oral Presentation Cont’d…
 This means your audience/publics;
o Has personal needs and agendas
 Hence, presenting in ways that;
o Delivers your message &
o Simultaneously, evokes understanding from
your audience is crucial.
 The key to this, is simply;
o Be yourself &
o Communicate personally to your audience.
The simple secret is:
“doing more
practice as practice
makes perfect”.
 Widespread Fear of Speaking
The idea of just speaking in public may seem;
• may seem scary
• makes you nervous &
• at times makes your legs wobble.
Well education and established speakers were once in the same state before becoming one.
6/5/2019
8
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Types of Oral Presentations
 Several different approaches to oral presentations are available. The type you
use will depend entirely on the occasion & purpose of your presentation. Given are
eight different types of OP;
1. Prepared speech – is a planned & organized before the time of presentation.
2. Impromptu speeches – is unexpected & delivered without time for
presentation.
3. Manuscript speeches – researched & structured. Suitable for long difficult
presentations
4. Memorized speeches – memories ideas and concepts to be used mostly for
short talk.
5. Oral briefings – is a short, accurate summary of the details of a plan or an
operation
6. Team briefings – short presentation but to various teams or groups
7. Podcasts – replaces/supplements conference calls via phone, video, trainings,
briefings etc.
8. Seminars and webinars – occasions for presentation of one/more papers with
6/5/2019
9
subsequent discussion, questions and answers.
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Key to Effective Oral Presentations
The key to an effective presentation, like most other business
activities is:
CAREFUL PLANNING AND PREPARATION
This
include;

 Purpose
Simply, what’s the reason why you are presenting. Is it “to inform,
to persuade or to entertain”. Every piece of presentation, either it
be short or long, has its purpose.
 Audience analysis
“Its not just about how strongly you feel about your topic, its how
strongly the audience feels about it after you speak”… Tom
Salliday.. For each and every presentation you must place your
audience at its center.
 Organization of materials
If you organize your presentation logically, you will be able to stay on track
move rapidly through your key ideas and thereby maintain the attention and
interest of your audience.
6/5/2019
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
10
Key to Effective Oral Presentations
 Aids to effective presentations
Your audience will absorb your presentation in
varying degrees based in some part on their
learning style. Using a mixture of presentation
aids such as visual aids, auditory and
kinesthetic can ensure your message is
delivered effectively.
6/5/2019
11
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
The Specific Purpose
 It is important to define your specific purpose and know your audience in order
to achieve a desired outcome; There are about three purpose of OP as given in
the table below;
Purposes
1. TO INFORM
2. TO PERSUADE
3. TO ENTERTAIN
Strategies / Outcome
An informative speech conveys factual Information, using clear examples
& supporting material. It aims to develop ideas, pass on information or
show how something works or can be done. Balance the content &
discussion to achieve an unbiased, objective presentation.
A persuasive speech establishes a need in the audience & explains the
action required to satisfy the need. A persuasive speech aims to influence
the audience, change their attitude or bring them round to a particular
point of view.
An entertaining speech uses a variety of techniques-such as humor,
anecdotes, examples and quotations around a common theme-so that
the audience enjoys the presentation. As a speaker, you may decide to
combine informative or persuasive elements with entertainment.
6/5/2019
12
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Audience Analysis
The audience’s experience, age,
interests and reasons for listening
greatly influence the meaning they
receive from the message.
Therefore, analyzing audience is
crucial and there are two types;
1. Specific Audience Analysis
o What is their knowledge level
on the subject?
o What are their opinions about
the subject and/or the
speaker/organization?
o What are their reasons for
attending this presentation?
o What are the advantages &
disadvantages of your
objectives to individuals
respectively?
6/5/2019
13
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Audience Analysis Cont’d…
Presentation Strategies for this audience:
2. General Audience Analysis
- What information & techniques are most likely to gain
o
the attention of this audience
- What information or techniques will be likely to get
negative reactions from the audience
These are just some ways to find out about an
audience by yourself or asking around.
What is their occupational
relationship to the speaker or
organization?
o What is the speakers length of
relationship with the
audience?
o What is the audience’s level of
understanding of vocabulary?
o What its his likely attitude to
the ideas to be presented?
6/5/2019
14
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Preparing the Speech
Preparing an effective speech is no different to that carried out to write a
written report or a similar paper at college. Information both from primary &
secondary sources must be used. Steps include;
Organizing the speech
Once completing your
research and speech write
up, you have yet to get
organized before you
speak. This means that
you should know your
stuff by being able to take
the most relevant
information and give the
audience plenty of
opportunity to absorb the
message. The organization
can be;
Sequence/Order
6/5/2019
1. Chronological: three common ones include historical
development, step-by-step pattern and past-presentfuture patterns of development.
2. Spatial Order: Geographical location is the most
common use of this pattern. For example, a spatial
order pattern for the topic ‘Growth in employment’Employment rates in Port Moresby, Lae & Mt Hagen.
3. Cause-effect Order: This pattern is suited to
persuasive presentation that propose a new policy or a
specific course of action. For example, a problemsolution pattern for the topic “financial dental health “
4. Topical: Different topics require different structures,
but one that applies to almost any topic is the inductive
sequence. For example, an inductive pattern or the topic
‘City council cuts to community services.
15
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Preparing the Speech cont’d…
S
P
I
C
E
S
1. Quotation (or Testimony)
Will the person being quoted be recognized, has an
authority and/ has credibility with/to the audience?
2. Analogies (or Comparison)
Is the analogy appropriate and relevant to the
subject being considered for the audience to grasp
it?
3. Examples
Is this example both understandable and supportive
to the main idea?
4. Statistics
Are the statistics recent, reliable and
understandable to the audience?
Sequence of Main
Points
Once the central idea,
the main points and the
supporting material
have been decided, the
speaker must work out a
way of organizing this
content into some
pattern i.e.
chronological, spatial
and logical.
Introduction and Conclusion
It may not be as qualitative as the content, but is crucial to the presentation as it ensures
connection with the audience, and ultimately establishes the stage for your presentation .i.e.
whether you are relaxed or nervous.
6/5/2019
16
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Aids to Effectiveness
Presentation techniques include;
1. Visual aids
2. Storytelling and use of humor
3. Animation & transitions
4. Hyperlinks and multimedia such as live action, sound
effects and incorporation of slogans & logotypes etc.
Projectors &
PowerPoints
Charts
Notepads
Animations
6/5/2019
17
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Aids to Effectiveness cont’d…
Note Cards (Stick-On
Pads)
Even experience speakers prepare notes which they
can refer to during their speech. Using note cards is
the easiest way to write down key words and phrases
rather than complete sentences.
Media Choices
o Flip charts which are effective, readily available &
require minimal materials.
o Overhead projectors are the most common.
o They can be used anyway and everywhere as long
as there is electricity.
o Slide projectors are favored by some when a
series of visuals of good quality is required.
Uses for Visual Aids
6/5/2019
o
o
o
o
o
To outline a talk
To reinforce or emphasis an important idea
To give impact to statistics(by graphs & charts)
To show examples
To vary the rhythm of the oral presentation,
thereby maintaining audience interests
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
18
Aids to Effectiveness cont’d…
• Design Basics
 Use horizontal format for slide and
overhead transparencies
 Limit the amount of material on each
visual
 Visuals should be larges enough for
audience viewing
 Use simple fonts and block lettering
style
 Use diagrams, graphs and charts
instead of words whenever possible
6/5/2019
19
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Delivering The Speech
These seven steps/skills in
speech making are crucial for
effective delivery of a speech,
presentation etc.
6/5/2019
20
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Delivering The Speech cont’d…
Since, most people are afraid to speak in front, here are few techniques to reduce
stage fright:
1.
o
o
o
Relaxing Techniques (Textbook Pages 69-70)
Sit quietly in comfortable position
Close your eyes
Deeply relax all your muscles, from feet to
face
o Breath via the nose
o Continue breathing for another 10-15 mins.
o Permit relaxation to occur at its own pace.
2. Vocal Factors
While primary message is obviously the
verbal/oral one, you also communicate
though other aspects of your presentation.
Volume, rate and pitch of speech contribute
just as much to the overall impression you
will make.
6/5/2019
21
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Team Presentations
Although individuals presentation are much more frequent,
presentation by team of individuals are not unusual.
The presentation
should:
1.
2.
Appear as a unified whole,
Not as series of individual presentations.
The following are the guidelines for more effective team presentation;
o Plan the presentation as a group
o Anticipate the questions which are likely to be
stage by audience
o Unless you are the first speaker, begin your speech
by referring to the previous speaker and hence
sustain the rhythm and continuity of the
presentation
o Direct your speech at your listeners rather than at
the other speakers
o Stay within your time limit
o Listen to the other speakers and make reference to
them where appropriate
6/5/2019
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
22
Additional Tips on Delivering Your Presentation…
Delivery Guide
Please refer to the delivery skills under “Delivering the
speech”. It also involves the following steps;
o Record your speech at least once and evaluate and try
correct it
o Vary your rate, pitch and volume so that you emphasis
main points
o Avoid vocalized pauses
o Maintain eye contact with your listeners/audiences
o Develop an urge to communicate by picking the topic
carefully
o Position yourself as physically close to your audience.
Modes of Delivery
6/5/2019
Public speaking uses eight modes/types of models of
delivery. Please refer To “Types of Oral Presentation” in
slide 6.
23
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
So what’s The Big Deal?
The Secret
Simply is
Practice Makes
Perfect!!!
6/5/2019
Don’t forget hey..!!!
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
24
Any Questions…?
6/5/2019
25
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Review Questions & Practical Exercises
Review Questions
1-3
_________
Practical
Exercises 1-2
6/5/2019
26
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017
Thanks everyone….
6/5/2019
27
Prepared by Allen C. Monyomb©ITI_Alotau_2017