# Energy transfer worksheet

```This diagram shows the energy that must be added to or removed from one gram of
water to move from one box to another. The energy unit is the calorie (cal). One
calorie is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one
gram of liquid water by 1° C. For comparison, this definition of the calorie is different
from a dietary Calorie, where one Calorie = 1000 calories. Note the tremendous
amount of latent energy involved in the phase changes between liquid water and
water vapor (gaseous form of water) compared to the other energy values in the
diagram.
When moving from left to right, energy must be added to the water. If this energy is
supplied by the surrounding environment, the surrounding environment loses energy
and cools. For example, when your body gets too hot, it reacts by sweating. This
works to cool the body when the sweat evaporates from the surface of your skin.
Evaporation removes energy from the surrounding environment, which in this case is
your body and the air near your body, and thus acts to cool you down.
When moving from right to left, energy must be removed from the water. If this
energy is taken up by the surrounding environment, the surrounding environment
gains energy and warms. As an example, clouds are composed of tiny droplets of
liquid water and form from condensation of the gas water vapor. During cloud
formation, the air within the developing cloud is the surrounding environment that
takes up the latent energy of condensation, so it warms.
A misleading aspect about the above diagram is that it appears that liquid water
must be heated to 100° C before evaporation takes place. This is not true.
Evaporation of liquid water happens all the time, even at temperatures much lower
than 100 C. For example, if you leave out a glass of water, it will eventually
evaporate as long as the relative humidity is less than 100%.
1. From your understanding of the text, define latent heat and sensible heat
2. Can water evaporate without temperature increasing?
3. How much energy is required for the evaporation of liquid?
4. Why must energy be removed from water for water to start freezing?
5. If energy is absorbed, what happens to the molecules in water?
```
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