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formulas Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
Chapter 8
Therefore, the sine, cosine and tangent can also be defined as:
Opposite
Opposite
sin θ =
, cosθ =
, tan θ =
Hypotenuse
Hypotenuse
Trigonometry
It can be memorized by the mnemonic “oh, ah, oh-ah”, which represents, sin θ is opposite
over hypotenuse, cos θ is adjacent over hypotenuse, tan θ is opposite over adjacent.
Trigonometry (三角學

Definition of Angle
Trigonometry is a branch of geometry that studies the relationship of triangles. Take a
simplest triangle – a right-angled triangle as example:
In plane geometry, the range of angle is 0° to 360°. However, this is not enough for practical
use. For example, a clock rotates more than 360°. It is necessary for us to redefine what is
angle.
A
b
c
θ
B
a
C
If we fix point B and C (the value of a), and vary the size of ∠BCA (value of θ), the value
of b and c also changes. Actually, the value c/b is a function of θ. Trigonometry defined the
function “sine” (正弦) as followed:
c
sin θ =
b
Similarly, there are also five other functions – cosine (餘弦), tangent (正切), cotangent (餘

a
c
a
b
b
cosθ = , tan θ = , cot θ = , secθ = , cscθ =
b
a
c
a
c
For practical use, only sine, cosine and tangent are more useful.
In trigonometry, we interpret angle as rotation of rays (射線). When a ray OA rotates about O
to the position OB, the amount of rotation is defined as the angle AOB and is denoted by
∠AOB . The angle is positive if it is rotated anti-clockwise, and is negative if is rotated
clockwise.
B
420°
-75°
A
Hypotenuse
45°
Opposite
θ
O
B
C
Respecting to θ, the side opposite to it is called the “opposite” (對邊), the one which is
longest is called “hypotenuse” (斜邊), and the one next to θ is called “adjacent” (鄰邊).
A
Base on the “new” definition of angle, we also have a more generalized definition of
trigonometric functions.
46
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
The radian measure of an angle is the ratio of the arc, which subtends the angle at the center
of a circle, and the radius of the circle. Or in formula,
s
θ=
r
The following angle has a size of 1 radian.
In a coordinate plane, take a point P (x, y). Let r denotes the distance from this point (P) to
the origin O (0, 0). (So r = x + y .) Let θ be the angle from the x-axis to OP.
2
2
P (x, y)
r
r
θ
O
Then we define:
r
Usually the unit “rad.” is omitted, i.e., the size of the angle is 1.
y
x
cosθ =
r
r
y
x
tan θ =
cot θ =
x
y
r
r
secθ =
cscθ =
x
y
These are the definition of the trigonometric functions of general angles θ.
sin θ =
Note that:
π radians = 180°
s
r
In elementary mathematics, we measure angles in degrees (角度). Say, a right angle is 90°.
However, it is sometimes more convenient to use another measure: radians.
A
r
Area =
s
θ
r
θ
r
In a sector (扇形), if θ is measured in radian, then:
s = rθ

O
r
B
In the figure, O is the center of a circle with radius r. A and B are two points on the
circumference. θ is the size of ∠AOB . s is the length of arc AB.
47
1 r 2θ
2
= 12 rs
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
30° (π/6)
1
2
Basic Trigonometric Relations
sin
Base on the definition of trigonometric functions, it is always true that:
1
cscθ =
sin θ
1
1. secθ =
(Reciprocal relations 倒數關係)
cos θ
1
cot θ =
tan θ
sin θ
tan θ =
cosθ
(Quotient relations 商數關係)
2.
cos θ
cot θ =
sin θ
2
sin θ + cos 2 θ = 1
3.
1 + tan 2 θ = sec 2 θ
cos
tan
3
2
or
3
3
0.75
45°
or
0.5
or
1
2
or
0.5
or
0.75
1
2
1
3
sin
0
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
cos
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
2
The followings should also be memorized:
0° (0) 90° (π/2) 180° (π) 270° (2π/3) 360° (2π)
1
0
-1
0
sin 0
0
-1
0
1
cos 1
/
0
/
0
tan 0
“/” means undefined.
Some special angles
1
or
3
2
0° (0) 30° (π/6) 45° (π/4) 60° (π/3) 90° (π/2)
The last relations can be proved by Pythagoras’ theorem.
2
3
60° (π/3)
1
2
Together with 0° and 90°, the value of sine and cosine shows an interesting pattern.
(Squares relations 平方關係)
2
2
2
1
3
or
1 + cot 2 θ = csc 2 θ
1
45° (π/4)
2
2
Extension: sin18° =
60°
1
For 30°, 45° and 60°, their corresponding trigonometric functions will give some special
results. They are thus called the special angles. The results should be memorized, and is
summarized in the following table:
48
1
1+ 5
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
Ranges of Trigonometric Functions
Transformation Formulae
The output ranges of some trigonometric functions are constrained:
−1 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1
−1 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1
secθ ≤ −1 or
secθ ≥ 1
Any angles can actually transformed into angles within range of 0° to 90° when dealing with
trigonometric functions.
Negative angles
cscθ ≤ −1 or
cscθ ≥ 1
But tangent and cotangent are not. Their output range is any real numbers.
When θ = nπ +
π
2
sin ( −θ ) = − sin θ
cos ( −θ ) = cosθ
tan ( −θ ) = − tan θ
, tangent and secant do not exist. When θ = nπ, cotangent and cosecant are
not defined.
Complementary angles
In addition, their signs are also arranged in a special pattern:
0° < θ < 90° 90° < θ < 180° 180° < θ < 270° 270° < θ < 360°
0 < θ < π /2 π/2 < θ < π
π < θ < 3π/2 3π/2 < θ < 2π
+
+
–
–
sin, csc
+
–
–
+
cos, sec
+
–
+
–
tan, cot
( π2 − θ ) = cosθ
cos ( π2 − θ ) = sin θ
tan ( π2 − θ ) = cot θ = tan1 θ
sin
(Recall: π/2 = 90°)
It can be simplified as:
90°
S
Multiple revolutions
f ( 2π n + θ ) = f (θ )
A
180°
Where f can be sin, cos, tan, cot, sec or csc. n can be any integers.
Moreover, tan(πn + θ) = tan θ, cot(πn + θ) = cot θ.
0° / 360°
T
C
Others
270°
90° - θ 90° + θ 180° - θ 180° + θ 270° - θ 270° + θ 360° - θ
π/2 - θ π/2 + θ
π-θ
π+θ
3π/2 - θ 3π/2 + θ 2π - θ
-s
-c
-c
-s
s
c
c
s
sin
-s
-c
-c
-s
s
c
c
s
cos
-k
-t
t
k
-k
t
t
k
tan
Here, “s” means “sin θ”, “c” means “cos θ”, “t” means “tan θ” and “k” means “cot θ”.
θ
“S” means “sine in positive”, “C” means “cosine is positive”, “T” means “tangent is
positive”, “A” means “all are positive”. This is known as the “CAST Diagram”.
Note: the part 0° to 90° is called quadrant I (第一象限), 90° to 180° is called quadrant II
(第二象限), and so on.
49
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
Double angle formulae (倍角公式

Compound Angle Formulae (複角公式

Replacing B with A, and use “+” for the “+” signs, we get the double angle formulae:
sin 2 A = 2sin A cos A
We often encounter expressions like sin(A + B) or cos(A – B). If A is a multiple of π/2, then
we can use the transformation formulae. But it’s not that easy. Fortunately, there are general
expressions of the trigonometric functions of sum or differences of angles.
sin ( A ± B ) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B
cos 2 A = cos 2 A − sin 2 A
tan 2 A =
cos ( A ± B ) = cos A cos B ∓ sin A sin B
cot 2 A − 1
2cot A
For cosine, if we replace either cos2 A by 1 – sin2 A or sin2 A by 1 – cos2 A, we get two other
forms of double angle formulae for cosine:
cos 2A = 1 – 2 sin2 A = 2 cos2 A – 1
cot 2 A =
tan A ± tan B
tan ( A ± B ) =
1 ∓ tan A tan B
cot A cot B ∓ 1
cot ( A ± B ) =
cot A ± cot B
These are called the “Compound Angle Formulae”. The first three formulae should be
memorized.
Triple angle formulae (三倍角公式

Example: Express tan 15° in surd form (根式) (with root signs)
Notice that tan 15° = tan (60° - 45°). Therefore,
tan15° = tan ( 60° − 45° )
Again, using compound angle formulae, we get the triple angle formulae:
sin 3 A = 3sin A − 4sin 3 A
cos3 A = 4cos3 A − 3cos A
The triple angle formulae can also be:
tan 60° − tan 45°
1 + tan 60° tan 45°
3 −1
=
3 +1
=
=
2 tan A
1 − tan 2 A
sin 3 A = 3cos 2 A sin A − sin 3 A
cos3 A = cos3 A − 3cos A sin 2 A
But these are not as important as the two formulae given above.
3 −1 3 −1
3 + 1 3 −1
Half angle formulae (半角公式

=2− 3
Finally, the half angle formulae states that:
1 − cos A
 A
sin   = ±
2
2
1 + cos A
 A
cos   = ±
2
2
The sign is determined by which quadrant does A/2 lie.
50
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
Subsidiary angle form
Product and Sum of Sine and Cosine
Product-to-sum and sum-to-product mainly deal with sum or difference of two sines or
cosines. The subsidiary angle form is much difference. It changes expression in form of
a sin θ + b cosθ to r cos(θ – α).
Suppose r cos (θ − α ) = a sin θ + b cosθ . By expanding the left-hand-side, comparing
When solving trigonometric equations, we often come across with products or sums of sine
and cosine, which we may not be able to do easily. The product-to-sum formulae,
sum-to-product formulae and subsidiary angle form help us to tackle them.
coefficients, we get:
Product-to-sum formulae (積化和差公式

a = r sin α

 b = r cos α
( sin ( A + B ) + sin ( A − B ) )
cos A sin B = ( sin ( A + B ) − sin ( A − B ) )
cos A cos B = ( cos ( A + B ) + cos ( A − B ) )
sin A sin B = − 12 ( cos ( A + B ) − cos ( A − B ) )
sin A cos B =
1
2
1
2
1
2
And therefore:
r = a2 + b2
tan α =
Example: If sin θ + 3 cosθ = r cos (θ − α ) , find r and α.
Sum-to-product formulae (和差化積公式

r = 12 +
( ) cos ( )
sin A − sin B = 2cos ( A+2 B ) sin ( A−2 B )
cos A + cos B = 2cos ( A+2 B ) cos ( A−2 B )
cos A − cos B = −2sin ( A+2 B ) sin ( A−2 B )
sin A + sin B = 2sin
A+ B
2
A− B
2
tan α =
A+ B
2
s
c
c
s
c
s
c
s
A− B
2
=
=
=
=
s
s
c
c
+
−
+
−
s
s
c
c
A B
Here, “s” means “sin”, “c” means “cos”.
51
( 3)
2
=2
1
3
∴ α = π6
The product-to-sum and sum-to-product formulae can be summarized as:
A B A+B A–B
2
2
2
−2
a
b
( = 30° )
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
y
Graphs of Trigonometric Functions (三角函數的圖像

2
y = cot x
y
1
x
y = sin x
−π
0
π
2π
x
−π
0
π
-2
2π
y
-1
2
y = sec x
y
1
x
y = cos x
−π
0
π
2π
x
−π
0
π
-2
2π
y
-1
2
y = csc x
y
x
2
−π
y = tan x
0
x
−π
0
π
-2
2π
-2
52
π
2π
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
The previous page shows the graphs of the six trigonometric functions. In their graphs, we
see that they have repeating patterns. They are then called “periodic functions” (週期函數).
y
1
A function f(x) is periodic if and only if, there exists a real constant T > 0 such that:
f(x + T) = f(x)
for all real values of x.
The smallest possible value of T is called the “period” (週期) of that function.
x
0
π
2π
3π
4π
For sine, cosine, secant and cosecant, their periods are 2π.
For tangent and cotangent, their periods are π.
Sine curve (正弦曲線

-1
(Blue curve: y = sin x. Green curve: y = sin 2x . Purple curve: y = sin 2x)
The graph of y = sin(x) is exactly the same as the shape of waves. By this, we will go depth in
this type of curve.
y
1
x−d 
The sine curve can be generalized as y = a sin 
 + c . In this expression, a is called the
 T 
“amplitude” (振幅) of the wave, T is the period, c presents the horizontal translation (橫

x
0
π
2π
Note: The reciprocal (倒數) of T, 1/T, is sometimes called “frequency” (頻率)
-1
The following graphs show how these four variables control the outlook of the curve.
(
)
(
)
(Blue curve: y = sin x. Green curve: y = sin x − π4 . Yellow curve: y = sin x + π5 .)
y
y
2
2
x
x
−π
0
π
2π
0
π
2π
-2
-2
(Green curve: y = sin x. Red curve: y = 2 sin x. Pink curve: y = − 12 sin x )
(Blue curve: y = sin x. Green curve: y = sin x – 1. Purple curve: y = sin x + 32 .)
53
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
Properties of inverse trigonometric function
Inverse Trigonometric Functions (反三角函數

By the principle of inverse function, there must be:
( )
cos ( cos x ) = x
tan ( tan x ) = x
Inverse function (反函數

For any function f(x), if y = f(x), there is a corresponding “inverse function” F(x) such that
x = F(y).
y+6
For example, if f(x) = 5x – 6, then its inverse function is F ( y ) =
.
5
-1
An inverse function of f(x) is usually denoted as f (x). In the above example,
x+6
.
f −1 ( x ) =
5
sin sin −1 x = x
sin −1 ( sin x ) = x
−1
cos −1 ( cos x ) = x
−1
tan −1 ( tan x ) = x
Deriving from the relation #3 (Squares relations), we get:
(
) ( )
sec ( tan −1 x ) = csc ( cot −1 x ) =
tan ( sec−1 x ) = cot ( csc −1 x ) =
sin cos −1 x = cos sin −1 x = 1 − x 2
Inverse trigonometric function
Being functions, trigonometric functions also have their inverse functions. They are denoted
as sin-1 x, cos-1 x, etc. However, since trigonometric functions are all periodic, if y = f(x) (f is
a trigonometric function), there are multiple solutions of x. For example, if 12 = sin x , then
Or summarizing:
x
sin-1
x = − 53π , − 56π , − 23π , π6 , π3 , 76π , 43π , 136π ,… . But recall that a function can have one and only one
corresponding value of dependant variable. So we must take only one value out of so many
values. Which should we take? First, we define the principle value intervals (主值區間) of
these inverse functions.
− π2 ≤ sin −1 x ≤ π2
cos-1
tan-1
0 ≤ cos −1 x ≤ π
− π2 < tan −1 x < π2
cot-1
As π/6 is the only value inside range –π/2 to π/2, so sin −1 12 = π6 .
sec-1
sin
cos
1 − x2
x
1 − x2
x
x
1
1+ x
2
1
1+ x
1+ x
x2 − 1
x
1+ x
1
x
2
cot
1− x
2
1− x
x
2
1− x
x
x
2
x2 − 1
sec
1
1− x
1 − x2
1
x
csc
2
1
x
1
1 − x2
2
x
1
x
1 + x2
1 + x2
x
2
1
x
x
1 + x2
x
1 + x2
x
2
tan
x
1 + x2
x2 − 1
1
1
2
x −1
x
x
x
2
x −1
x −1
x
x2 − 1
x2 − 1
x2 − 1
x
(The order of reading is first function, then inverse function, then “x”, and finally the cell)
csc-1
54
1
x
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
General Solutions of Trigonometric Functions (三角函數通解

Slope and Trigonometry
= sin x , there are infinitely many solutions for x. Sometimes we are
Recall the definition of slope of a line:
We have learnt that if
1
2
m=
told to find all of the solutions of the equation. Of course, we can’t list out that infinitely
many solutions. We can use an expression with a free variable to represent it. The expression
is called the general solution of a trigonometric function.
C (x1, y1)
If s = sin x, then
−1
x = nπ + ( −1) sin s
( In radian measure )
x = 180°n + ( −1) sin −1 s
n
( In degree measure )
x = 2nπ ± cos −1 c
( In radian measure )
( In degree measure )
n
If c = cos x, then
−1
x = 360°n ± cos c
A (x2, 0)
B (x1, 0)
If the second point lies on the x-axis (y2 = 0), the equation is reduced to m =
x = nπ + tan −1 t
( In radian measure )
( In degree measure )
−1
x = 180°n + tan t
= sin x , then x = nπ + ( −1)
nπ
6
y1
.
x1 − x2
In the figure,
AB = x1 − x2
BC = y1
In the above expressions, n is any integer.
1
2
θ
x
If t = tan x, then
Example:
y1 − y2
x1 − x2
Therefore, in ∆ABC,
BC
y1
tan θ =
=
=m
AB x1 − x2
That means,
, where n is any integer.
In addition, if a range 0 < x < 2π (i.e., 0° < x < 360°) is specified, then
x = sin −1 s or π − sin −1 s
x = cos −1 c or 2π − cos −1 c
x = tan −1 t or π + tan −1 t
m = tan θ
Where θ is the angle between the line and the x-axis, called the inclination (傾角)
(180° − sin 1 s )
( 360° − cos 1 c )
(180° + tan 1 t )
−
−
Example: If slope of a line is 1, its inclination is 45°.
−
55
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
Angle between two lines
Revision
Consider two lines L1 and L2 having slopes m1 and m2 and inclination θ1 and θ2. We are
interested in the angle between them.
In this chapter, we’ve learnt:
1. What are trigonometric functions
2. Definition of general angles
3. Radian measure of angles
4. Basic trigonometric relations
5. Trigonometric functions of some special angles
6. Ranges of trigonometric functions
7. Transformation formulae
8. Compound angle formulae
9. Product-to-sum and sum-to-product formulae, subsidiary angle form
10. Graphs of trigonometric functions
11. Inverse trigonometric functions
12. General solutions of trigonometric functions
13. Relationships between slope and tangent
14. Angle between two lines on coordinates plane
φ
L1
L2
θ1
∵
φ = θ1 − θ 2
θ2
( ext. ∠ of △ )
∴ tan φ = tan (θ1 − θ 2 )
=
tan θ1 − tan θ 2
1 + tan θ1 tan θ 2
=
m1 − m2
1 + m1m2
Where φ is the angle between L1 and L2. Thus we got the formula:
tan φ =
m1 − m2
1 + m1m2
The absolute sign is there to ensure that an acute angle is selected.
Example: Find the angle between two lines with slope = -2 and 3 respectively.
tan φ =
−2 − 3
1 + ( −2 )( 3)
=1
∴ φ = 45°
56
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
89
tan k °
∑ 1 + tan k °
Exercise
9. (PCMSIMC 2001) Evaluate
In the followings, if not specified, x is the variable. Give answer in radians unless otherwise
stated. If general solution is required, use “n” for the free integral variable.
10. (HKCEE 1995 Partial) Answer the following questions.
a) Show that cos2 A – cos2 B = sin(A + B) sin(A – B)
b) Show that cos2 x – sin2 y = cos(x + y) cos(x – y)
k =1
c) Find the general solutions of cos 2 2 x + cos x sin 5 x − sin 2 3 x = 0
11. Prove that (sin x + cos x)2 = 1 + sin 2x
[Note: This identity worth memorizing]
n −1
2kπ 

12. Prove that ∑ cos  x +
=0.
n 

k =0
1. Express sin 75° the followings in surd form.
2. Find the general solutions of x in the following equations:
a) sin x + cos x = 1
b) 3 – cos2 x – 3 sin x = 0
(
)
c) sin 4 x − π3 = cos
( π −312 x )
n −1
3. Identify the amplitude, period, horizontal and vertical shift of the following sine curve:
13. Prove that
∑ sin  x +
k =0
2
x
−2π
−π
0
π
2π
-2
4. Given θ = 54°.
a) Prove that cos 2θ + sin 3θ = 0.
b) Prove the sin 3β = 3 sin β – 4 sin3 β.
c) Show that sin 54° is a root of the equation 4x3 + 2x2 – 3x – 1 = 0.
d) Find the exact value of sin 54°.
[Hint: Consider the sign of sin 54°]
5. (HKMO 2000 Heat) How many roots of θ are there in (cos2 θ – 1) (2 cos2 θ – 1) = 0,
where 0° < θ < 360°?
6. (HKMO 1998 Heat) The circumference of a circle is 14π cm. Let X cm be the length of
an arc of the circle, which subtends an angle of 1/7 radian at the center. Find X.
7. (HKMO 2002 Heat) Given that ∠A is a right angle in ∆ABC, sin 2 C − cos 2 C =
1
4
and
AB = 40 . Find the length of BC.
8. (PCMSIMC 2001) If sin x° = cos x°, where 0 < x < 360, find the sum of all possible
values of x.
57

2kπ
n

=0

14. If tan a and tan b are roots of x2 + 2x + 3 = 0, find tan (a + b).
15. The vertices of ∆ABC are A (2, -1), B (7, 1) and C (-1, 5). Find tan A + tan B + tan C.
16. (IMO Prelim HK 2003) Find (cos 42° + cos 102° + cos 114° + cos 174°)2.
y
4
Advanced Mathematics Training Class Notes
Chapter 8: Trigonometry
Suggested Solutions for the Exercise
1)
2+ 6
4
2a) 2π n + π2
b) nπ + ( −1)
c)
or 2π n
nπ
2
1
7π 
π n +

4
12 
3) a = 3, T = 1/2, c = π/2, d = 1.
5 +1
4d)
4
5) 5
6) 1
7) 8
8) 270
9) 44.5
π
10c) 2nπ ± π2 or n5π − 20
14) 1
15) 111/8
16) 3/4
58