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Scheme of work IGCSE environmental management PDF

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Scheme of work
Cambridge IGCSE®
Environmental Management
0680
For examination from 2014
Scheme of work – Cambridge IGCSE® Environmental Management (0680)
Contents
Overview ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Unit 1: Lithosphere .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Unit 2: Hydrosphere ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15
Unit 3: Atmosphere.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24
Unit 4: Biosphere ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
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Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
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Scheme of work – Cambridge IGCSE® Environmental Management (0680)
Overview
This scheme of work provides ideas about how to construct and deliver a course. The syllabus for Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) has been
broken down into teaching units with suggested teaching activities and learning resources to use in the classroom. This scheme of work, like any other, is meant to
be a guideline, offering advice, tips and ideas. It can never be complete but hopefully provides teachers with a basis to plan their lessons. It covers the minimum
required for the Cambridge IGCSE course but also adds enhancement and development ideas on topics. It does not take into account that different schools take
different amounts of time to cover the Cambridge IGCSE course.
Recommended prior knowledge
Learners beginning this course are not expected to have previously studied Environmental Management.
Outline
Whole class (W), group work (G) and individual activities (I) are indicated throughout this scheme of work. The activities in the scheme of work are only suggestions
and the syllabus should always be referred to. There are also many other useful activities to be found in the materials referred to in the learning resource column.
Opportunities for differentiation are indicated as basic (B) and challenging (C); there is the potential for differentiation by resource, grouping, expected level of
outcome, and degree of support by teacher, throughout the scheme of work. Timings for activities and feedback are left to the judgment of the teacher, according to
the level of the learners and size of the class. Length of time allocated to a task is another possible area for differentiation
The units within the scheme of work are:
Unit 1:
Unit 2:
Unit 3:
Unit 4:
Lithosphere: rocks and minerals, energy, tectonic activity, soils
Hydrosphere: water on the land, the oceans
Atmosphere: atmosphere and air pollution, climate and agriculture, climatic hazards
Biosphere: ecosystems, biomes and types of vegetation, human activities: impacts and strategies for conservation, population and economic development
Suggested teaching order
The syllabus does not prescribe a particular sequence of study and this scheme of work is just one suggested pathway.
V1 4Y05
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
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Teacher support
Cambridge Teacher Support is a secure online resource bank and community forum for Cambridge teachers. Go to http://teachers.cie.org.uk for access to specimen
and past question papers, mark schemes and other resources. We also offer online and face-to-face training; details of forthcoming training opportunities are posted
online.
An editable version of this scheme of work is available on Teacher Support. Go to http://teachers.cie.org.uk. The scheme of work is in Word doc format and will open
in most word processors in most operating systems. If your word processor or operating system cannot open it, you can download Open Office for free at
www.openoffice.org
Resource list
The up-to-date resource list for the Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (syllabus 0680) can be found on the Cambridge International Examinations
website www.cie.org.uk
Textbooks
Textbooks endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations for use with the Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management syllabus (0680) include:
Pallister, J
Environmental Management: A Core Text for O Level and IGCSE Oxford University Press (2005) ISBN: 9780199151318
Waugh, D
The New Wider World Nelson Thornes (2003) ISBN: 9781408505113
Websites
This scheme of work includes website links providing direct access to internet resources. Cambridge International Examinations is not responsible for the
accuracy or content of information contained in these sites. The inclusion of a link to an external website should not be understood to be an endorsement of that
website or the site's owners (or their products/services).
The particular website pages in the learning resource column of this scheme of work were selected when the scheme of work was produced. Other aspects of the
sites were not checked and only the particular resources are recommended.
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Scheme of work – Cambridge IGCSE® Environmental Management (0680)
Unit 1: Lithosphere
Recommended prior knowledge
Learners beginning this course are not expected to have previously studied Environmental Management. A good general knowledge, particularly of events in the
news such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, is recommended.
Context
This unit provides information about the structure of the Earth and the natural processes that operate on it. Knowledge of the Earth's natural resources is useful to a
full understanding of content in later units; for example, elements of knowledge of soils is useful to the agricultural parts of Unit 3, and managing the land sections in
Unit 4. Case studies, practical tasks and investigations are included where appropriate. Case studies can be particularly useful for the teaching of several aspects of
the syllabus through a specific environmental management example.
Outline
The Lithosphere unit is separated into four topic areas:
• Rocks and minerals
• Energy
• Tectonic activity
• Soils
Opportunities are provided for learners to develop practical skills, such as drawing graphs, diagrams, labelled sketches and sketch maps. These can be used again
and extended in later units. Learners are encouraged to keep up to date with topical events and to choose examples from the home region or home country
whenever possible.
Teaching time
Based on a total time allocation of approximately 130 contact hours for this Cambridge IGCSE course, it is recommended that this unit should take about 30 hours.
V1 4Y05
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
5
Rocks and minerals
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
1.1
The structure of the Earth.
•
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 12 Q 6(a)
Draw a labelled diagram to show the structure of the Earth. (I,B)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
page 2
Online:
www.discoveryeducation.com/lesso
nplans/programs/earthspast/#top
1.2
•
Types of rock.
Classify rocks into three types based on formation (igneous,
metamorphic and sedimentary), with examples of types of rock.
Encourage learners to use examples of rocks found in the home
region, whenever possible.(G,B)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 2 and 3
Online:
www.discoveryeducation.com/lesso
nplans/programs/earthspast/#top
1.3
The distribution, types and
reserves of major minerals.
•
•
•
3.1
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Methods of search and
extraction of rocks, minerals and
fossil fuels.
•
•
Classify mineral types, such as metallic and non-metallic, with
examples of each, in order to provide a framework for study. (G,B)
Provide learners with an outline world map to identify the world's
main mineral-rich regions. Learners, perhaps working in small
groups, to comment on the importance of minerals (whether high or
low) in the home region and to investigate geological reasons for it.
(G,C)
Learners to give a definition of 'reserves', followed by explanation
with reference to expected length of life for some widely used
minerals.(W,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2012 Paper 12 Q 1(a)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 4 and 5
Demonstrate to learners the difference between opencast and deep 0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 41 Q 1(c)
mining. (W,B)
Learners to draw labelled diagrams to illustrate differences between
the two methods. (I,B)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
6
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 6 and 7 for rocks and
minerals; pages 19 and 20 for fossil
fuels
3.2
The uses of rocks and minerals
in industrial processes.
•
•
3.8
How industrial development is
used to achieve social and
economic goals.
•
•
Learners to research the main industrial uses of a number of rocks
and minerals. (G,B)
Give learners an opportunity to investigate how rocks and minerals
produced in the home region are used and report back to the rest of
the class.(G,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 8 and 9
Increase awareness among learners of the importance of minerals to
the growth of manufacturing industry and related economic
development. (W,B)
Examine the home country's level of economic development in
relation to its mineral wealth. (W,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2012 Paper 12 Q 1(b)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 9 and 10
Online:
www.oresomeresources.com/
4.1
The impact of mineral
exploitation on the environment
and on human activity and
health.
•
•
•
•
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Introduce learners to the negative effects of mining on the
environment. (W,B)
Give learners the opportunity to study photographic images of
opencast mines and quarries in order to assess the damage done.
(G,C)
Make learners aware, despite the invariably negative impacts on
human health from mining, of the economic benefits of mining, both
for local people and the national economy. (W,B)
Organise learners in small groups to draw up lists of advantages and
disadvantages of mining for a particular country; then as a group to
make an overall assessment and decide upon whether advantages
outweigh disadvantages, or not. (G,C)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2012 Paper 22 Q 2(c)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 10 to 13
Online:
www.docbrown.info/page04/Mextra
cte.htm
7
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
3.5
The main supply and demand
constraints in exploiting mineral
resources.
•
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2012 Paper 23 Q 1(b)(ii)(c)
•
•
4.2
The global economic
consequences of the overexploitation and depletion of
mineral and fossil fuel reserves.
•
•
5.1
Conservation schemes for
damaged environments.
•
•
Lead learners into the study of a variety of factors which affect the
likelihood of exploiting a mineral source, including geological (ease
of exploitation), depletion rates (size of deposits), location in relation
to climate and transport (for ease of working and access) and price
fluctuations (high or low world prices). (W,C)
Offer guidance to learners about making a table to show high
chance factors of mineral exploitation, so that individually they are
then able to complete the table for low chance factors. (W,I,C)
Encourage learners to investigate world price movements for a
highly traded mineral, such as oil (petroleum), through internet
research. (G,B)
Following on from the earlier section on reserves of major minerals in
1.3, to switch the focus towards the economic consequences for
people and countries of the depletion of finite mineral resources.
(W,B)
Make use of the revised life expectancies for fossil fuels given
annually in the BP Review. (G,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 14 to 16
Online:
BP Statistical Review of World
Energy: annual publication,
www.bp.com/statisticalreview
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
page 17
Online:
BP Statistical Review of World
Energy: annual publication,
www.bp.com/statisticalreview
Lead learners into studies of landscaping, restoration and
reclamation, as measures to try to return damaged environments to
a state as close as possible to that before mining began. Where
possible, local case studies should be used. (W,G,I,B,C)
Increase learner awareness of the need for careful management to
avoid water pollution and land contamination in landfill sites used for
waste disposal, one of the most common uses of large surface holes
left by mining. The use of a case study is recommended.
(W,G,I,B,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 41 Q 1(b)
Learners to draw labelled diagrams to highlight similarities and
differences between the formations of coal and oil / natural gas. (I,B)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 11 Q 5(a)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 17 and 18
Energy
1.4
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The formation of fossil fuels.
•
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
8
Syllabus ref
3.3
Learning objectives
Types of energy production from
fossil and nuclear fuels.
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
•
•
Ensure that learners understand why all three are fossil fuels. (W,B)
Check that learners can explain how and why their different
formations affect methods and costs of extraction. (I,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 19 to 21
•
Provide learners with data for world energy production from an up to
date source and demonstrate how fossil fuels remain the dominant
sources of energy, in order of importance oil, coal and natural gas.
(G,B)
Ask learners to explore reasons for the use of fossil fuels, such as
their dual use as fuels (direct heat) and as energy sources for
generating electricity.(G,C)
Working in pairs, learners can investigate how electrical energy is
made from nuclear fuels and use an atlas, the internet or
encyclopaedia to discover the leading producers. (G,C)
Check learners findings and ensure that they recognise the great
importance of nuclear energy in some developed countries such as
France, even though nuclear energy makes only a comparatively
small contribution globally. (I,B)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2012 Paper 21 Q 2(a)
•
•
•
3.7
The implications of the patterns
of global trade in minerals and
energy.
•
•
•
4.3
The implications in social,
economic and environmental
terms of different types of
energy production.
•
•
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Suggest to learners that they focus on oil, a good example to use
because of the amount, importance and worldwide reach of the oil
trade. (W,B)
Recommend that they make use of data from an atlas, internet or
statistical review to identify the main world regions of oil production
and consumption, and the trade routes between them, on a
sequence of outline world maps. (I,B)
If the home country is a mineral exporter, to investigate export
destinations. (G,C)
Ask learners to begin by reviewing the environmental problems
caused by mining fossil fuels. Then to extend their study to include
pollution risks associated with oil and gas transportation by tanker
and pipeline, followed by those resulting from their use. (W,I,B)
Emphasise that only outline references to air pollution, acid rain,
carbon dioxide releases and possible effects of global warming are
needed at this point, since these are topics studied in greater depth
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 21 to 23
Online:
BP Statistical Review of World
Energy: annual publication
www.bp.com/statisticalreview
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 24 to 26
Online:
BP Statistical Review of World
Energy: annual publication,
www.bp.com/statisticalreview
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 41 Q 2(c)
Nov 2013 Paper 21 Q 2(a)(c)
9
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
•
•
5.2
The technologies and viability of
alternative energy sources.
•
•
•
•
•
5.3
The strategies for conservation
and management of mineral and
fossil fuel resources.
•
•
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Learning resources
later in the hydrosphere and atmosphere units. (W,I,B)
Advise learners of the need to study the implications of using
nuclear energy in more detail and to suggest to them that they use
two spider diagrams for summarising advantages and disadvantages
of its use. (G,C)
Encourage learners individually to make an overall assessment
comparing the effects of nuclear use with those of fossil fuels, and
then in a group discuss and debate the arguments for and against
an increase in nuclear power use. The use of a case study may be
useful. (W,G,I,B,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 27 and 28
Provide a definition of alternative energy sources, stressing
replacement for fossil fuels as well as being renewable and
sustainable. (W,B)
Concentrate on the six sources named in the syllabus (solar, wind,
wave, geothermal, hydro-electric and biomass), studying how the
natural source is harnessed for energy, where the best conditions for
its use exist, and present level of technological development. (W,B)
Provide learners with data to draw a graph of relative costs to show
viability.(I,C)
Ask learners to answer the question, 'Why has uptake of alternatives
been so slow?’ and report ideas back to the class. (G,C)
Encourage learners to undertake case studies for two alternatives
and to make them aware of any opportunities (should they exist) for
study of an alternative source used in the home region, which might
allow assessment and comment about its chances for increased
future use. (W,G,I,B,C)
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 11 Q 5(b)
Jun 2013 Paper 41 Q 2(a)(e)
Nov 2013 Paper 21 Q 2(d)
Study examples of energy efficiency (such as more fuel efficient
engines and lights), recycling (referring to examples such as glass,
paper, scrap metals and plastics), power from waste (incinerating
waste to generate electricity and insulation (isolating the insides of
buildings to maintain hotter or colder conditions according to
climate). (W,B)
Learners to undertake a survey of energy efficiency in their own
homes and to report back their findings. (I,B)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 41 Q 2(f)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
Online:
www.foe.co.uk/pdf/sustainable_dev
elopment/tworld/metals.pdf
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 29 to 33.
Online:
http://biogas.ifas.ufl.edu/
http://lessonplanpage.com/Science
MDPuffMobile-WindPower48.htm/
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 34 and 35
10
Syllabus ref
5.5
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Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
The strategies for industrial
materials, technologies and
approaches which can
contribute to solving
environmental problems.
•
The same can also be done for the nature and extent of recycling in
the home region. (I,B)
•
Discuss the importance of the need to keep abreast of changes and
new technologies to solve environmental problems from energy use,
from sources such as TV, radio, internet and newspapers. (W,B)
A possible case study is the increased future use of hydrogen for
powering cars and buses. (W,G,I,B,C)
•
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
Learning resources
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2012 Paper 11 Q 3(b)(ii)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and
IGCSE page 34
11
Tectonic activity
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
3.6
The economic aspects and
limitations of earthquake and
volcanic zones.
•
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 21 Q 2(c)(iii)(iv),
(d)(i)(ii)
•
Demonstrate to learners the economic advantages of volcanic zones
for farming, energy, minerals and tourism, and the disadvantages of
living in earthquake and volcanic zones. (W,B)
Ask learners individually to produce two spider diagrams to
summarise the advantages and disadvantages of living in volcanic
zones. Then, in small groups, discuss and comment on the relative
strengths of them. (G,I,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 40 and 41
Online:
http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/
4.4
The impact of earthquakes and
volcanic eruptions on human
communities.
•
•
•
•
Inform learners that the immediate, primary impacts of natural
hazards like these can be separated from the later, secondary
impacts. (W,B)
Suggest to learners that they analyse them in turn; direct impacts
include loss of life and damage to property and infrastructure, later
impacts include such as dangers to health and economic dislocation.
(G,B)
Encourage learners to use the internet to research recent
earthquakes and active volcanoes, and to choose one of each as
case studies. (W,G,I,B,C)
Provide learners with a framework for presenting their case study,
which might take the form of information in a fact file, including a
sketch map of the affected area, size/scale of the event, its causes
and effects. (I,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 21 Q 2(b)(ii),
(c)(i)(v)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 38 to 42
Online:
http://environment.nationalgeograp
hic.com/environment/naturaldisasters/
www.theguardian.com/world/2014/a
pr/18/mexico-city-rdamagemagnitude-72-earthquake
www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia26167897
5.4
V1 4Y05
Strategies for managing the
impacts of earthquakes and
volcanic activity.
•
•
In small groups, learners to identify strategies for reducing the
impact when an earthquake or volcanic eruption occurs. (G,B)
For earthquakes, these include building earthquake-resistant
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 21 Q 2(c)(ii)
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 1(b)(ii),(iii)
12
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
•
•
Learning resources
structures, planning settlements so that land uses are zoned and
emergency planning for disaster relief.
For volcanoes, monitoring physical changes to the volcano and
disaster preparation are important.
Lead learners into an analysis of human and physical reasons why
some earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have greater impacts than
others. (G,I,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 42 to 46
Provide a definition of soil. (W,B)
Learners to draw a simple sketch to show the three horizons into
which many soils can be divided. (I,B)
Make learners aware that soils are composed of four constituents;
mineral matter (such as sand, clay and silt from rocks), organic
matter (from plant and animal remains), air and water. (W,B)
Learners to study examples of soils with different textures, such as
sandy, clayey and loam soils. If possible, actual soil samples should
be handled. (G,B)
Use pie graphs or divided bar graphs for showing the differing
percentages of sand, clay and silt for soils of different textures.(I,C)
Learners to investigate an exposed soil horizon in their home area,
to include drawing a labelled sketch of its main features. (G,I,C)
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 21 Q 2(d)(iii)
Jun 2013 Paper 11 Q 6(a)
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 4(a)
Demonstrate to learners the importance of soil texture for affecting
agricultural potential, paying particular attention to pore spaces,
aeration and drainage, as well as nutrients and pH. (W,B)
Examine the agricultural possibilities of loam, sandy and clayey
soils. (I,B)
For those based in rural areas, there is possibility of undertaking a
local investigation into the relationship between soil types and types
of farming. (G,I,C)
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 21 Q 2(d)(v),(e)(i)
Jun 2013 Paper 41 Q 1(e)
Provide a definition of salination and give the range of pH values for
saline soils. (W,B)
Learners to construct a flow diagram to show how cropland can be
affected by salination as a result of the over-use of irrigation water in
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 51 to 55
Online:
www.georesources.co.uk
Soils
2.1
The formation and composition
of soils.
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.2
Soil as a medium for growth and
land use potential.
•
•
•
4.6
The causes and consequences
of land pollution.
•
•
V1 4Y05
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 47 to 49
Online:
http://organiclifestyles.tamu.edu/soil
basics/generalcomposition.html
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 49 and 50
13
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
•
V1 4Y05
areas with a hot dry climate. (I,C)
For other types of land pollution named in the syllabus, suggest that
learners use a table to summarise an outline of the causes and
consequences for each pollution type. (I,B)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – from 2014–2017
Learning resources
Online:
www.columbia.edu/~tmt2120/enviro
nmental%20impacts.htm
14
Scheme of work – Cambridge IGCSE® Environmental Management (0680)
Unit 2: Hydrosphere
Recommended prior knowledge
Learners beginning this course are not expected to have studied Environmental Management previously. A good general knowledge, particularly of events in
the news, such as the importance of supplies of fresh water, the role of dirty water in spreading diseases and perpetuating poverty in the developing world and
an awareness of increasing concern about the over-exploitation of marine resources is recommended.
Context
This unit provides information about the water cycle, flooding, drought and ocean currents which link with the later atmosphere unit. A similar link exists
between water cycle and ecosystems, before the latter becomes a more specialised study in the biosphere unit. Case studies are suggested; these can be
replaced with examples which are more local to the Centre, or with those that are more topical at the time of study.
Outline
This unit is separated into two topic areas:
• Water on the land
• The oceans
Opportunities for learners to re-use and extend their practical skills will continue to be suggested. Learners should be encouraged to keep up to date with
topical events, such as floods, droughts, oil spills and continuing attempts to find a cure for malaria, a major killer of people living in the tropics.
Teaching time
Based on a total time allocation of approximately 130 contact hours for this Cambridge IGCSE course, it is recommended that this unit should take about 30 hours.
V1 4Y05
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
15
Water on the land
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
6.1
How the water cycle operates.
•
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 22 Q 2(a)(i)
Nov 2012 Paper 12 Q 4(a)
•
•
6.3
•
The role of the water cycle
within ecosystems.
•
6.2
How the natural availability of
water varies from place to place.
•
•
8.2
Competing demands for water.
•
•
•
V1 4Y05
Make learners aware that only 3 percent of water on Earth is fresh
water and, in terms of human availability, it is a scarce resource
since so much is locked up in ice and snow. (W,B)
Give learners the opportunity to draw a labelled diagram to show how
the water cycle works and understand how the main processes
operate. (I,B)
Investigate source(s) of domestic water supplies and their reliability in
the learners' home areas. (G,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 58 to 59
Introduce learners to the concept of ecosystems, emphasising
interdependence and the vital importance of fresh water for all life on
Earth. (W,C)
Learner investigations, such as how vegetation cover affects water
cycle processes and how natural vegetation changes from the
Equator to the tropics in response to reductions in rainfall. (I,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2012 Paper 13 Q 3(a)
Demonstrate to learners the wide variations in fresh water availability
using world maps in atlases or on the internet (e.g. annual
precipitation, world water resources per head). (W,I,B)
Learners to identify areas of high and low water supply, and
comment on the relative level of water availability (whether waterrich or water-poor by world standards) for their home country and
world region. (G,I,B)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 21 Q 1(e)
Make learners aware that competition operates at different levels,–
within a country (between water for domestic, industrial and
agricultural uses) and between countries (e.g. where large rivers
flow through several countries). (W,B)
Use water user percentages between sectors for the home country
and ask learners to display them in a bar graph. (I,C)
Suitable case studies about competing demands for water both
within one country and between countries. For example, Egypt and
the River Nile Basin or water use from the Rivers Tigris, Euphrates
and Jordan in the Middle East. (W,G,I,B,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 22 Q 2(d)(i)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 60 to 61
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 62 to 64
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
page 66
16
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
8.3
Mismatch between water supply
and demand.
•
Case study, focusing upon water-poor countries with rapidly
increasing water demands, such as those in the Middle East like
Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Kuwait. (W,I,B,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 65 to 66
8.1
Collection and control of water
for a variety of uses.
•
Learners to complete a spread sheet or compile a questionnaire
about the water used by them as individuals and as part of a family
(in a day or for a week). Class data can be collected and similarities
and differences commented on. (I,W,B)
Learners to consider whether (and why) their water use is increasing.
The scale of the work can then be changed, to ask them to give
reasons why world consumption of water is increasing. (I,C)
To provide them water use statistics for rich and poor
continents/countries. Learners to display them in divided bar or pie
graphs, and to suggest reasons for differences (i.e. why water use is
so much greater in rich countries). (I,B,C)
Introduce learners to the different types of natural water stores.
(W,B)
Learners to draw a labelled sketch of an aquifer and check
understanding of the importance of permeable rock. (I,B)
Case study of a large dam as an example of a human store (e.g.
Aswan High Dam, Three Gorges Dam, or one in the home country or
region), focusing on both costs and benefits. (W,B,C)
As a whole class discussion, to compare the advantages and
disadvantages of large and small dams. (W,B)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 22 Q 2(a)(iv)(b)(c)
•
•
•
•
•
•
10.2
Contrasts in availability of water
in terms of quality, quantity and
access.
•
•
•
•
V1 4Y05
Variations in water quality and access (between developed and
developing countries, and rural and urban areas within developing
countries). (W,B)
Learners to draw graphs to highlight differences in percentage
access to safe water and sanitation between countries and areas.
(I,C)
Case study of a rural region where lack of water access is a major
issue. (W,I,B,C)
Learners to draw a spider diagram summarising the reasons why
access to safe water is poorer in rural areas. (I,B)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 67 to 68 and pages 69 to 75
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 11 Q 4(b)
Jun 2013 Paper 11 Q 6(b)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 75 to 76
17
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
8.4
The ways in which processes
operating within the water cycle
affect development.
•
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 1(a)(ii)
•
•
•
•
•
10.1
The causes and consequences
of water pollution.
•
•
•
12.1
Ways of improving water
quantity, quality and access.
•
•
V1 4Y05
The causes and effects of flooding and drought, beginning with a
reminder of water cycle processes. (W,B)
Learners to identify which effect is the principal physical cause of
flooding and drought. (G,C)
Make learners aware that humans contribute to causing floods and
droughts as well, by activities which change land uses and alter how
some water cycle processes operate. (W,C)
Give learners a list of the effects of flooding and/or drought and ask
them to re-order them under particular headings e.g. immediate,
short- term and long term. (I,B)
Case study, such as for countries most at risk e.g. Bangladesh for
floods and African countries in the Sahel such as Niger for drought,
or use examples closer to home. (W,G,I,B,C)
Learner investigation; provide a framework of questions such as
'How regular are they?', 'When and why are they most likely to
happen?' and 'What kinds of damage do they cause?'. (I,B,C)
Discuss the three general human causes of water pollution, namely
agriculture, domestic and industry, and what they add to groundwater
and rivers that causes the pollution. (W,B)
Case study of water pollution in the home area – nature of the
pollution in two or three different locations, what has caused it, where
it is worst and why, whether the authorities have done anything to
prevent or reduce it. (W,G,I,B,C)
Introduce the process of eutrophication, beginning with a definition
and followed by how eutrophication affects natural water ecosystems.
(W,C)
Case study of a river which has been improve and how this could be
achieved in streams which are still badly polluted. (W,G,I,B,C)
Case study of a village or region in the developing world where
access to a clean water has been provided. (W,G,I,B,C)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Online:
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 41 Q 1(e)
Jun 2013 Paper 12 Q 5(a)(ii)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 81 to 83
Online:
www.peacecorps.gov/wws/lessonplans/clean-water-and-quality-life/
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2012 Paper 42 Q 1(a)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 84 to 85
18
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
Online:
www.adb.org/publicatins/series/asia
n-development-review
www.peacecorps.gov/wws/lessonplans/bringing-water-villagelesotho/
10.3
The cycle of water-related
diseases and their impact on
human activities and
development.
•
•
•
•
12.2
•
Strategies to control and
eradicate water-related
diseases.
•
•
Discuss the difference between 'water-based', 'water-borne' and
'water-bred' diseases, using the examples named in the syllabus.
(W,C)
Learners to draw a circular flow diagram to show how disease
reduces the ability of people to work contributing to the cycle of
poverty and the poverty trap. (I,B)
Case study of one of these diseases, using headings such as
causes, symptoms and consequences for people and their activities.
Unless one of the named diseases is locally much more important,
the obvious choice is malaria given its virulence and widespread
distribution in developing countries. (W,G,I,B,C)
Research statistics for the main causes of death in the home
country, in order to assess the relative importance of water-related
diseases. Compare these statistics with a country with a different
level of economic development. (G,I,B,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2012 Paper 12 Q 1(b)
Discuss the difference between prevention and cure of diseases and
why strategies for prevention are preferable whenever possible.
(W,B)
Learners, working in small groups, to think about and discuss the
problems of controlling and eradicating water related diseases in
poor rural areas in developing countries.(G,C)
Learners to draw a spider diagram identifying problems in order to
summarise their findings. (G,I,B)
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 13 Q 6(b)
Jun 2012 Paper 42 Q 2(c)(iii
Introduction to the oceans, marine ecosystems, their resource
potential and why they may be vulnerable to over-exploitation. (W,B)
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 11 Q 2(a)(i)
Nov 2013 Paper 23 Q 2(e)(i)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 86 to 88 and pages 90 to 91
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 88 to 91
The oceans
7.1
V1 4Y05
The role of the ocean as an
environment for interdependent
ecosystems.
•
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
19
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
•
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 92 to 93
Learners to draw an example of a marine ecosystem from primary
producers (e.g. phytoplankton), to zooplankton, to larger sized
consumers such as fish, seals and whales and finally the top
carnivores (e.g. man and polar bears). (I,C)
Online:
http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCEA
N_PLANET/HTML/education_marin
e_life_factsheet.html
7.2
The resource potential of the
oceans.
•
•
•
•
9.2
Factors that limit full exploitation
of the ocean's potential
resources.
•
•
7.3
The distribution of ocean
currents and their effects.
•
•
•
•
V1 4Y05
Discuss the importance of the continental shelf, because it is the part
of the oceans with the greatest resource potential for humans. (W,B)
An atlas study to determine locations where continental shelves are
wide. (I,B)
Describe how continental shelves are physically different from the
rest of the ocean, and explain why they are rich in marine life. (W,B)
Learners to investigate where oil and gas are extracted offshore
from an atlas map or internet resource showing the world's oil fields.
(G,I,B)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 93 to 94
Online:
www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/
lesson060.shtml
Arrange learners into two groups, one to discuss reasons why
drilling for oil from the sea bed is more expensive and difficult than
on land, and the other to come up with reasons why fishing is a more
hazardous activity than farming.
Each group gives a summary of reasons, from which individual
learners make a list of factors why ocean resources are less easy to
exploit fully than those on land. (W,G,I,B,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2012 Paper 12 Q 6(b)
Study an atlas map of oceans showing the currents. (I,B)
Recognise the different directions of flow of warm and cold currents.
(W,I,B)
Note the effects of the continents and prevailing winds on their
distribution. (W,C)
Learners to mark and name on an outline map the currents in the
ocean(s) closest to their world region. (I,B)
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 2(a)(i)
Nov 2013 Paper 23 Q 2(a)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Online:
http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/student
s/fisheries/
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 94 to 96
20
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
•
•
7.4
Reversal of ocean currents e.g.
el Nino and its effects.
•
•
•
9.1
The environmental and human
factors in the distribution and
exploitation of the world's
ocean fisheries.
•
•
•
•
•
11.1
The implications of uncontrolled
exploitation of marine resources.
•
•
•
V1 4Y05
Learning resources
Discuss the strong relationship that exists between the presence of
ocean currents and the world’s richest fishing grounds and discover
reasons for this. (W,B,C)
Case study. A good choice would be the Peruvian current and
fishing grounds off the coast of Peru, since it links in with the study
of el Nino. (W,G,I,B,C)
Guide learners into drawing two sets of directly comparable maps
and diagrams to show surface currents and underwater features in
the Pacific Ocean, one for a normal year and the other for an el Nino
year. (I,C)
Explain the effects of this change for weather and human activities
both in Peru and the rest of the world. (W,C)
In an el Nino year, learners can keep a note of its effects from
sources such as newspapers, TV programmes and news based
internet sites. (G,I,B,C)
Learners to identify the world's major ocean fisheries from a world
map. (I,B)
Ask learners to identify close relationships between major ocean
fisheries and the presence of continental shelves and ocean
currents. (G,I,B)
Research data about total fish catches by country from official
websites and draw a graph to show the largest. (I,B)
Initiate a class discussion about the different diets of people around
the world – in which countries is fish consumption high, and why?
(W,G,C)
Case study of fishing in the home country or region to discover
whether or not fishing is important and why. (W,G,I,B,C)
Introduce learners to the problem of overfishing and why it has
become a major international issue. (W,B)
Concentrate on the improvements in technology which are leading to
rapid reductions in fish stocks. (W,B)
Make learners aware that fish stocks also go up and down due to
natural causes e.g. in el Nino years off the coast of Peru. (W,B)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 11 Q 2(a)(iii)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 97 to 98
Online:
www.bbc.co.uk/elNino
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 2(a)(ii)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 99 to 101
Online:
www.fao.org/home/en/ – the official
site of the United Nations Food and
Agricultural Organisation
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 2(b)(i)
Nov 2013 Paper 23 Q 2(b)(c)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
21
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 101 to 103
13.1
Strategies for the sustainable
harvesting of ocean fisheries.
•
•
•
•
11.2
Causes of marine pollution and
its impact on the marine
ecosystem and on coastal
zones.
•
•
13.2
Marine pollution controls and
remedial action.
•
•
V1 4Y05
Describe and explain the four strategies named in the syllabus,
namely net types and sizes, quotas, conservation laws and
territoriality (e.g. restricted fishing areas to allow breeding and fish
stocks recovery). (W,C)
Emphasise to learners that the use of more than one method
increases the chances of a better result. (W,C)
Suggest possible case studies for further individual investigation,
bearing in mind varying degrees of success (e.g. low success Grand
Banks off Newfoundland and EU, high success non-EU countries
such as Iceland and Norway), or choose a more local regional
example if available. (W,G,I,B,C)
Make suggestions about how fishing can be made more sustainable,
such as more international cooperation, better rule enforcement,
more campaigns from environmental groups, then
split the learners up into discussion groups asking for ideas.
(W,G,I,B,C)
Identify the main types of materials responsible for marine pollution
(nutrients, sediments, pathogenic organisms, plastics and other litter,
oil, toxic wastes and radioactive wastes), their main sources and
impacts.
Guide learners into an individual investigation of a major oil spill by
providing working headings related to syllabus need, such as
location, size of spill, causes, effects on wildlife, effects on people
and attempts made to reduce these effects. While a recent spill
widely covered by the international news media is always best, some
earlier incidents are well documented, such as the Exxon Valdez in
Alaska (1989) and during the Gulf War (1991). (W,G,I,B,C)
Stress the importance of international cooperation in preventing the
disaster from happening in the first place, and in providing
equipment and know-how to poor countries after the disaster has
occurred. (W,C)
Identify some of the methods used for prevention, such as tankers
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 2(b)(ii)
Nov 2013 Paper 23 Q 2(c)(iv)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 103 to 105
Online:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/6108414.
stm
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2012 Paper 23 Q 1(d)(e)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 106 to 108
Online:
http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/oil/
Exxon Valdez oil spill
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2012 Paper 23 Q 1(f)(g)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
22
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
•
V1 4Y05
with a double hull and for remedial action, such as booms, detergent
sprays and skimmers. (W,B)
Look for local, national or regional opportunities for a more detailed
case study of marine pollution coming from the land, such as from a
heavy industrial works next to the sea or from a river entering the
sea after passing through large urban/ industrial areas. (W,G,I,B,C)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Learning resources
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 109 to 110
23
Scheme of work – Cambridge IGCSE® Environmental Management (0680)
Unit 3: Atmosphere
Recommended prior knowledge
Learners beginning this course are not expected to have studied Environmental Management previously. A good general knowledge, particularly of events in the
news such as weather events, floods, drought and tropical cyclones, is recommended.
Context
This unit provides information about the atmospheric system, which controls opportunities for life on Earth. Learners often find the natural systems part of
atmosphere more challenging to understand than other natural systems. Case studies, practical tasks and investigations are included where appropriate.
Outline
This unit is separated into three topic areas:
• Atmosphere and air pollution
• Climate and agriculture
• Climatic hazards.
Opportunities are provided for learners to use and further develop their practical skills, such as drawing graphs, diagrams, labelled sketches and sketch
maps.
Teaching time
Based on a total time allocation of approximately 130 contact hours for this Cambridge IGCSE course, it is recommended that this unit should take about 30 hours.
V1 4Y05
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
24
Atmosphere and air pollution
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
14.3
The structure and composition
of the atmosphere.
•
•
Introduce the atmosphere system and how it works. (W,B)
Outline features of its structure (key terms are troposphere,
tropopause, stratosphere), including location of the ozone layer
and its importance. (W,B)
Learners to use the percentages by volume of the main
atmospheric gases for drawing a pie graph. (I,B)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 23 Q 1(a)
•
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 118 to119
14.4
The balances which maintain
the Earth's atmosphere as a
mixture of gases.
•
Discuss the importance of gases present in the atmosphere in very
small volumes, notably carbon dioxide and water vapour. (W,B)
Textbook:
Environmental Management,
Pallister, J, pages 119 to 120
14.1
The sun as an energy source;
varying rates of surface
insolation.
•
Explain the differences between short-wave and long-wave
radiation. (W,B)
Define insolation. (W,C)
Learners to draw a labelled diagram to explain why rates of
insolation decrease with latitude from Equator to Poles. (I,C)
Encourage learners to study climate graphs in atlases for four or five
cities in different latitudes and relate temperatures to latitude. (G,I,B)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 12 Q 1(a)
Explain the differences between radiation, absorption and reflection
of sun's rays. (W,B)
Learners to show how each one operates by drawing a section
through the atmosphere. (I,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2012 Paper 11 Q 1(a)(b)(i)
Link back to alternative energy sources in 5.2 (Unit 1) for general
advantages over fossil fuels and to large dams in 8.1 (Unit 2). (W,B)
Explain how power can be obtained from the three named
weather elements and why production from each one (and
potential for further use) varies greatly from country to country.
(W,B)
Learners to obtain statistics for energy production in the home
country and show percentages in a pie or divided bar graph. (I,B)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 122 to 124
•
•
•
14.2
15.1
The factors which contribute to
solar heat balance of earth and
atmosphere.
Water, solar and wind as power
sources.
•
•
•
•
•
V1 4Y05
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 121 to 122
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
page 120
25
Syllabus ref
15.2
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Use of the atmosphere as a
dispersal medium for waste
gases.
•
Learners to comment on the importance (now and in the future) of
these alternative sources. (I,C)
•
Study the human sources of smoke particles and other solid
particles released into the atmosphere and the reasons for their
increase from factories and motor vehicles. (W,B)
Learner investigation into what is released from vehicle exhausts
burning fossil fuels. (I,B)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
page 127
Case study. Give learners a choice of cities famous for smog (such
as Los Angeles, Mexico City, Santiago de Chile) for an investigation
into physical and other local factors which make the smog worse,
including temperature inversion. (W,G,I,B,C)
Study atmospheric pollution in general, to include other human
activities such as deforestation and fossil-fuel burning electricity
power stations, and what these release into the atmosphere. (W,B)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 127 to 128
Concentrate on the four main greenhouses gases and their relative
contributions to the greenhouse effect. (W,B)
Explain how the natural greenhouse effect works. (W,C)
Study statistics for average world temperatures for 100+ years which
show that global warming is taking place. (G,B)
Obtain data about total cumulative carbon emissions, which learners
can use to draw a line graph. (I,B)
Learners to investigate differences in amounts of carbon dioxide
emissions between countries and the reasons for them. (I,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 23 Q 1(b)(c)(d)(iiii), (e)(i)(ii)
Study how and why people damaged the high level ozone layer by
using CFCs. (W,C)
Case study of Antarctica, where the thinning of the ozone layer was
first discovered by scientists. (W,G,I,B,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 23 Q 1(d)(iv)(v)
•
16.1
Human activities which alter the
composition of the atmosphere
and climate.
•
•
16.2
Causes of atmospheric pollution.
•
•
•
•
•
16.3
Damage to the ozone layer and
links to atmospheric pollution.
•
•
V1 4Y05
Learning resources
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 134 to 135
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 132 to133 and page 136
26
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
Online:
www.epa.gov.ozone.science/misso
z/missoztx.html
16.4
•
The effects of pollution on
atmospheric conditions.
•
•
Study acid rain; identifying sources of nitrogen oxides and sulfur
dioxides (the main acid gases), and examining the effects (local,
national and international) on trees, soils, water based ecosystems
and people. (W,B)
Examine the possible present and future effects of global warming
on climate and people. (W,C)
Undertake an individual study of likely effects for the learners’
home country or world region. (I,B,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 129 to 131 and 136 to138
Online:
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesiz
e/geography/climate_change/
www.teachnology.com/teachers/lesson_plans/
science/environment
16.5
The implications of changes in
the atmosphere and climate.
•
•
•
18.1
V1 4Y05
Strategies to reduce
atmospheric pollution and
climatic change.
•
Learners to draw and complete a large table to summarise changes
and effects caused by humans. (I,C)
Learners can be guided into the use of suitable headings such as
'causes', 'direct effects on the atmosphere', and 'other effects' for
different pollution types – increasing smoke particles and exhaust
fumes, increasing proportion of carbon dioxide, decreasing proportion
of high level ozone. (I,C)
Use 'human health' and 'loss of natural resources/food production' as
headings, under which to study the combined effects of all the
different types of pollution (after having previously been studied
separately). (I,C)
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 23 Q 1(e)(iv)
Jun 2013 Paper 12 Q 1(b)(i)
Examine strategies for tackling pollution; reduction in pollutant
emissions from traffic in urban areas, reforestation instead of
deforestation, energy production with lower carbon dioxide, sulfur
and nitrogen emissions and replacements for CFCs. (W,G,I,B,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 128 to 129 (urban air
quality), 139 to140 (greenhouse
effect), 131(acid rain) and 133
(ozone layer damage)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
page 125
27
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
Online:
http://climate.nasa.gov/education/p
bs_modules
18.2
The need for international action
and changing attitudes to deal
with the causes and
consequences of the damage to
the atmosphere.
•
•
•
Learners to explain, based on work already done, why international
solutions are needed for some types of atmospheric pollution
(notably acid rain, damage to the ozone layer and global warming).
(G,I,C)
Examine the main recommendations of the Montreal Protocol (1987)
and the Kyoto Treaty (1997), and their relative success / failure.
(W,C)
Learners to research updates on tackling global warming (e.g. Bali
Conference in 2008). (G,I,B)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 23 Q (e)(iii)
Study the importance of accuracy when siting and reading
weather instruments. (W,B)
Ensure that learners understand how to take accurate
measurements from thermometers, rain gauge, barometer,
wind vane, anemometer and sunshine recorder. (W,G,B)
An opportunity might exist to visit to a local weather station to
give learners a practical experience. (W,G,B)
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 11 Q 1(a)
Jun 2013 Paper 11 Q 1(b)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 133 and 139
Climate and agriculture
14.5
How the elements of weather
are measured, recorded and
interpreted.
•
•
•
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 141 to 144
Online:
www.ecoca.ro/meteo/tutorial/englis
h.html
14.6
Location of major climatic types
and their main characteristics
through interpretation of climatic
graphs and maps.
•
•
V1 4Y05
Provide learners with an outline guide for identifying the key
elements of temperature and precipitation from a climate graph,
such as months with the highest and lowest temperatures, annual
range of temperature, months with highest and lowest recipitation,
precipitation distribution during the year (all year, or wet and dry
seasons). (I,C)
Use a climate graph for the home region. (I,B)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 13 Q 3(a)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 146 to150
28
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
•
•
15.3
The interaction between climate
and human activity.
•
•
15.4
The different types and systems
of farming.
•
•
15.5
15.7
V1 4Y05
The environmental,
technological, economic and
social factors which influence
the distribution of different types
and systems of farming.
The factors which influence the
patterns of agricultural output
and trade.
•
•
•
•
•
Learning resources
Use and understand the main characteristics of a climate graph for
the six climatic types named in the syllabus from an atlas. (I,C)
Study the main locations for each type on an atlas map, noting down
one or two examples of areas for each type. (I.C)
Brainstorm session on how weather and climate affect people and
work.
Encourage learners to think first about ways in which they and their
families are affected by weather and climate. Secondly, to identify
types of work for which weather and climate are important factors
and to explain how. (W,G,B,C)
Undertake a local / home region investigation of types of farming and
how they are influenced by the region's climate. (G,I,B,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
page 151
Introduce the key terms used in the description of farming types and
systems, to understand differences between crop and pastoral
farming, intensive and extensive farming, and subsistence and
commercial farming. (W,B)
Provide a grid of different farming types for learners to identify
whether the farming system is crop or pasture, intensive or
extensive, subsistence or commercial. (I,B)
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 13 Q 1(a)(i)
Jun 2013 Paper 12 Q 2(a)
Identify the different factors which influence farming systems,
including environmental (climate, soils and relief), technological
(investment in machinery and other inputs) and social (traditional
way of life or paid workers). (W,C)
Study examples of two or three different farming systems to show
relative importance of these factors. (I,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 42 Q 2(d)
Identify the traditional pattern of world trade in agricultural products
between developing and developed countries. (W,B)
Explain why world trade favours rich developed countries. (W,B)
Provide learners with opportunities for practical tasks, such as
drawing a line graph for world market price fluctuations in
commodities such as coffee or cocoa. (I,B)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 22 Q 1(c)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
page 152
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 152 to 155
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
29
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
pages 159 to 160
Online:
www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0106sp.
htm
15.6
New agricultural techniques
which increase yields.
•
•
Discuss why more agricultural output is needed. (G,B)
Outline how use of each of the five techniques named in the syllabus
can increase agricultural yields. (W,B)
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 13 Q 1(a)(ii),(b)
Jun 2013 Paper 42Q 2(c)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 156 to 157
17.2
The advantages and
disadvantages of the 'Green
Revolution'.
•
•
Define the Green Revolution, emphasising the development of high
yielding varieties of seeds (HYVs). (W,B)
Examine its successes and benefits at different levels; for individual
farmers, for the economies of countries. (W,I,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 158 to 159
Online:
www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/higher/geo
graphy/human/rural/revision/2/
17.1
The impact of indiscriminate
agricultural practices.
•
•
•
•
V1 4Y05
Focus separately on environmental and human impacts from the
use of modern agricultural practices. (W,B)
Review environmental impacts studied in earlier units, such as
eutrophication in rivers and lakes, salinisation, and the negative
consequences of dam building. (W,G,B)
Discuss impacts such as soil erosion, studied in more detail in the
next unit. (W,B)
Give learners the opportunity to draw two comparative flow
diagrams, one for rich farmers becoming richer after adopting new
techniques, and a second for poor farmers, stuck in the poverty trap,
and getting poorer. (I,C)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 13 Q 1(a)(iii)
Jun 2012 Paper 11 Q 3(b)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 160 to 162
30
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
19.1
Strategies for sustainable
agriculture.
•
Check that learners can apply the idea of sustainable
development to agriculture. (I,B)
Introduce the concept of appropriate technology for small
farmers in developing countries. (W,B)
Demonstrate how each of the strategies named in the syllabus
can be used to achieve this. (W,B)
Learners to carry out investigation for one or more of these
strategies, such as how trickle drip irrigation can conserve
irrigation water and decrease the risk of salinisation. (I,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 42 Q 2(b)
Discuss biomass as a long established power source; what it
included, where it is much used and why is it important. (W,B)
Reinforce the links with energy studies in previous units. Learners
can be asked to draw a chart divided into four to summarise the
economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages of
using biomass compared with using a fossil fuel such as oil. (I,B)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 165 to 166
Define 'natural hazard' and 'climatic hazard'. (W,B)
Link back to other hazards already studied in the lithosphere and
hydrosphere units and to review earlier studies of floods and
drought, updating in the light of new events (where necessary).
(W,B)
Discuss the causes and occurrence of tropical cyclones. (W,B)
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 13 Q 5(a)
Jun 2013 Paper 22 Q 2(a)
•
•
•
19.2
Harvesting energy from living
resources to provide power.
•
•
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 163 to 164
Online:
www.nrdc.org/energy/renewables/bi
omass.asp
Climatic hazards
14.7
Climatic hazards; extremes of
weather: causes and
occurrence.
•
•
•
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 167 to 169
Online:
www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/tropi
calcyclone
http://environment.nationalgeograp
hic.com/environment/naturaldisasters/
V1 4Y05
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
31
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
16.6
The impact of climatic hazards
on human communities.
•
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 13 Q 5(b)(i)
Jun 2013 Paper 22 Q 2(b)(i)(iii)(iv)
Jun 2013 Paper 42 Q 1(h)
Give learners advice on how to organise their study of impacts, by
separating out immediate effects (loss of life and physical damage),
from short-term effects (dangers to health) and longer-term effects
(loss of production). (G,I,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 169 to 172
Online:
http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/so
urcebook/
18.3
Strategies to reduce the
negative impact of climatic
hazards.
•
•
•
V1 4Y05
Outline general strategies for reducing the impacts of hazards using
the two headings: prevention before the event, and relief after it.
(W,B)
Learners to apply the general strategies to the individual climatic
hazards. (I,C)
There is the opportunity for learners to undertake individual
investigations of climate hazards that affect their home country or
world region.
Guide their work by suggesting headings such as 'where' (areas
most at risk), 'when' (at what time of year), 'causes', 'negative
impacts in the past' and 'strategies in place to reduce effects on
people from future hazards'. (I,C)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 13 Q 5(b)(ii)
Jun 2013 Paper 22 Q 2(b)(ii)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 169 to 171
Online:
www.ready.gov/kids
32
Scheme of work – Cambridge IGCSE® Environmental Management (0680)
Unit 4: Biosphere
Recommended prior knowledge
Learners beginning this course are not expected to have studied Environmental Management previously. A good general knowledge, particularly of events in the
news such as deforestation and habitat loss, reduced biodiversity and land degradation, the use of genetically modified crops, the widening development gap
between rich and poor and rapid urbanisation, is recommended.
Context
This unit provides information about ecosystems, biomes, population and human activities. It is the largest of the four units, with considerable variety in content.
Case studies and practical tasks are included where appropriate. Opportunities for local investigations of plant and animal habitats are also given, for an ecosystem,
vegetation succession, food chain and food web,
Outline
This unit is separated into three topic areas:
• Ecosystems, biomes and types of vegetation
• Human activities: impacts and strategies for conservation
• Population and economic development
Opportunities are provided for learners to use and further develop their practical skills, such as drawing graphs, diagrams and labelled sketches.
Teaching time
Based on a total time allocation of approximately 130 contact hours for this Cambridge IGCSE course, it is recommended that this unit should take about 40 hours.
V1 4Y05
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
33
Ecosystems, biomes and types of vegetation
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
20.1
The concept of an ecosystem.
•
Review and extend the introductory work on ecosystems in the
hydrosphere unit. (W,B)
Demonstrate the importance of both biotic and abiotic elements to the
system. (W,C)
Learners to draw a systems diagram to show energy flows. (I,C)
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 21 Q 1(a)(iii)(b)
Jun 2013 Paper 13 Q 1(a)(i)
Learners can be taken to observe a nearby ecosystem and asked to
draw a labelled field sketch to describe its main features. (W,G,I,B,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 21 Q 1(a)(ii)
•
•
20.2
20.3
Organisation within an
ecosystem. To ensure that
learners understand the key
syllabus terms, namely
population, community, habitat
and niche, and how they are
organised in well ordered,
integrated and competitive
communities.
•
Physical factors.
•
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
page 177
Online:
http://sln.fi.edu/tfi/units/life/habitat/
habitat.html
•
•
•
V1 4Y05
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
page 176
Introduce learners to the physical factors which most affect life on
Earth; sunlight, weather and climate (temperature, rainfall, wind),
water supply and soils (characteristics, nutrients, pH). (W,B)
Emphasise how physical factors vary greatly from place to place.
(W,B)
Give examples of plant characteristics for survival in different
environments. (W,G,B)
Learners could then be asked to investigate contrasts in plant and
animal adaptations between two contrasting physical environments;
for example, hot deserts (great heat but shortage of water) and hot
wet tropics (heat and plentiful water all year) or for any two other
contrasting environments, at any scale. (G,I,B,C)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 178 to 180
Online:
www.pbs.org/edens/etosha/cr_les
son_poppin.htm
34
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
20.4
Relationships of living
organisms.
•
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 181 to 185
•
•
•
•
20.5
Energy flow.
•
•
•
20.6
Nutrient cycling.
•
•
•
V1 4Y05
Discuss how living organisms depend on each other for survival.
Illustrate this by referring to pollination, dispersal of fruits and seeds,
and vegetation succession. (W,B)
Study a plant succession (possibly in the local area), and ask learners
to draw a labelled sketch or a section diagram from pioneer
community to climax vegetation. (I,C)
Study food chains and food webs, distinguishing producers from
consumers. (W,C)
Explain why there is a pyramid of numbers from many producers to
only a few tertiary consumers. (W,B)
Learners to draw pyramids and food web flow diagrams for examples.
(I,C)
Online:
www.slideshare.net/fozzie/plantsuccession
Discuss the importance of photosynthesis for life on land and explain
how the process operates. (W, B)
Illustrate by means of examples how and why energy losses occur
higher up the food chain. (W,I,C)
Learners to research a food chain and food web in their home and
draw a diagram to show it. (I,C)
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 21 Q 1(a)(i)
Nov 2013 Paper 21 Q 1(a)(iv)
Learners to draw a flow diagram to show how nutrients are recycled in
an ecosystem. (I,C)
Explain why the fastest and largest nutrient cycling occurs in tropical
rainforests. (W,B)
Carry out special studies of the carbon and nitrogen cycles named in
the syllabus. (G,I,B,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 187 to 189
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 185 to 6
Online:
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesi
ze/geography/ecosystems/tropical
_rainforestes_rev2.shtml
35
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
20.7
Resource potential.
•
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 21 Q 1(c)
•
•
Provide a brief introduction to biomass and variations in productivity
between different ecosystems / biomes. (W,B)
Define biodiversity. (W,B)
Explain why biodiversity is greatest in tropical rainforests and its
importance as a genetic resource (for crop seeds and drugs against
human disease). (W,B)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 190 to 191
Online:
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/tribal
energy/guide/m/biomass_biopowe
r.html
21.1
The distribution and main
characteristics of natural
vegetation zones (biomes) and
relationship to climatic zones.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Study a world map to identify the major natural vegetation zones in an
atlas. (G,B)
Note the location and extent of the six biomes named in the syllabus.
(G,B)
Compare their distribution with a map of world climate regions (all
except monsoon were studied in the earlier Atmosphere unit) and to
note the similarities between them. (G,B)
Learners to draw a sketch map to show the distribution of biomes in
their home continent. (I,C)
Learners to prepare outline climatic information for each of the biomes
(as previously advised in the atmosphere unit) before studying the
main vegetation characteristics of each of the six biomes and how they
are related to climate. (I,C)
Recognise and describe characteristic features of biomes from
photographs of natural vegetation cover. (I,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 213 to 219
Online:
http://school.discoveryeducation.c
om/lessonplans/programs/yosemit
e/
Human activities: impacts and strategies for conservation
22.1
How different types of human
society use and value their
natural environment.
•
•
V1 4Y05
0680 past examination papers:
Provide learners with background information about the range of
Jun 2013 Paper 21 Q 1(c)
human activities; the syllabus names examples from the primary,
secondary and tertiary sectors. (W,B)
Jun 2013 Paper 13 Q 1(a)(ii)
Illustrate reduced dependence on the natural environment from huntergatherer (total dependence) to industry and tourism (much lower
dependence), in line with greater economic development. (W,B)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
36
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
•
Study differences in employment patterns between developed and
developing countries. (W,B)
Learners to research data about percentage employment in primary,
secondary and tertiary in the home country and display them in a pie
graph. (I,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 192 to 194
Learners to look back and review the new agricultural techniques
which increase yields previously studied in the atmosphere unit. (I,C)
Continue with the main theme of increasing human impact for greater
and more assured food supplies by examining past developments
which allowed this to happen like domestication of plants and animals
to replace hunter-gatherers, as well as ongoing modern technological
change with genetic engineering and GM crops. (W,B)
Make learners aware of differences between earlier HYVs and new
GM crops. (W,C)
Initiate learner investigation about GM crops from web sites by
giving guidance about what to search for, such as main countries
of growth, main types of crops, how and why they increase output,
objections to their growth and use for food in Europe. (W,G,I,B,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 194 to 197
•
22.2
The increasing ability of people
to create artificial environments
as a result of economic and
technological development and
social and cultural change.
•
•
•
•
24.1
Factors influencing the
clearance of natural vegetation
over time.
•
•
•
•
25.1
V1 4Y05
Habitat destruction, loss of
biodiversity and genetic
depletion.
•
•
Organise learners into groups to discuss: Different reasons why
people clear forests and natural vegetation. (G,B)
Groups to make a visual presentation based on a summary of reasons
shown on a spider diagram. (G,C)
Provide learners with data by continent for world forest or tropical
rainforest clearances, which can be plotted in graphs. (I,B)
Learners to make a case study investigation of the causes of forest
clearances in a country where deforestation is an issue, such as Brazil
or Indonesia. (W,G,I,B,C)
Link back first to the earlier work on biodiversity and its great
importance. (W,B)
Make learners aware of how species loss is being speeded up by
humans, linking it to habitat destruction from forest clearance and
other activities such as dam building. (W,B)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Online:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl
/hi/pop_ups/04/sci_nat_gm_food/
html/1.stm
www.edenproject.com/whats-itall-about
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 219–223
Online:
www.raintree.com/schoolreports.htm
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 1(b)(ii)
Nov 2013 Paper 21 Q 1(d)
Nov 2013 Paper 41 Q 1(d)(e)
37
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 190 to 191
25.2
The effect of loss of habitat on
wildlife and on the food chain.
•
•
25.3
•
The impact of tourism.
•
Learners to draw up a list of reasons why forests, wetlands and other
natural habitats are worth preserving. (I,B)
Learners to investigate a natural habitat under threat in their home
region or own country. (G,I,B,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 13 Q 1(b)
Organise learners into small groups with the task of making full lists of
the advantages and disadvantages of tourism. (G,B)
Learners to individually to reorganise the lists under headings such as
environmental and economic. (I,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 22 Q 1(e)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 198 to 200
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 200 to 203
27.1
Causes and consequences of
rapid and progressive
deforestation.
•
Link causes back to 24.1 and extend the work to include general
consequences of deforestation, linking into work on air pollution and
climate change in atmosphere (unit 3), and soil erosion and
desertification in 27.2. (W,B)
Online:
www.fao.org/sd/wpdirect/wpan00
50.htm
27.2
Causes and consequences of
soil erosion and desertification.
•
Discuss that soil erosion is a natural process which is speeded up by
humans. (W,B)
Advise learners to separate physical causes (dry climate, lack of
natural vegetation cover, steep slopes) from human causes
(vegetation clearances, overgrazing, overcultivation, poor farming
techniques and population pressure) and consequences into
environmental and economic. (W,C)
Show learners photographs of several different rural areas (for relief
and land uses) and ask them to estimate how high are the risks of
soil erosion. (G,I,C)
Visit a rural area in the home region. (W,G,I,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 4(b)
•
•
•
V1 4Y05
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 226 to 228
38
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
28.1
Strategies for conservation of
biodiversity and the genetic
resource.
•
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 203 to 206
•
Introduce learners to strategies for the sustainable harvesting of wild
plants and animal species, and gene banks.
Learners to investigate world biosphere reserves from the MAB (Man
and Biosphere) programme part of the UNESCO web site and write an
account, using suggested headings such as reasons for their creation,
locations and conservation benefits. (I,B,C)
Online:
www.unesco.org/new/en/naturalsciences/environment/ecologicalsciences/man-and-biosphereprogramme
www.amazonteam.org
28.2
World conservation strategies
and legislation.
•
•
•
29.4
•
•
Managing tourism.
•
•
Provide background information about the types of conservation work
undertaken by international agencies. (W,C)
Make learners aware of the diverse nature of the four agencies named
in the syllabus as well as their areas main areas of interest. (W,B)
Learners research the interests and activities of one international
organisation, either from those named in the syllabus, or for one that
is active in the home country. (G,I,B,C)
Define national park and eco-tourism. (W,B)
Describe how national parks and eco-tourism can be used to
conserve species and
environments and to study an example of each. (W,G,B,C)
Learner investigation: nature reserves and/or national parks in the
home country or region. (W,G,I,B,C)
Learners show locations on a map and describe the environments and
habitats which are being protected. (I,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 211 to 212
Online:
http://worldwildlife.org/science/wil
dfinder/
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 41 Q 2(e)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 207 to 210
Online:
www.ecotourism.org.
www.prm.nau.edu/prm346/mod_9
_lesson_planning.htm
30.1
V1 4Y05
Strategies for soil conservation.
•
Organise the strategies listed in the syllabus under three headings for
study: mechanical methods which change the land surface and
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 21 Q 1(d)
39
Syllabus ref
30.2
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Sustainable forest management
techniques.
farming landscape (terracing, contour ploughing, windbreaks),
changes in farming practices (dry land farming, tree planting), and
community solutions (integrated rural development programmes, land
reform, community participation). (W,I,C)
Jun 2013 Paper 42 Q 2(b)
Demonstrate how and why it is easier to replant and mange softwood
temperate coniferous forests than hardwood tropical forests. (W,B)
Examine ways for more sustainable use and management of tropical
rainforests such as methods of sustainable logging, agro-forestry and
community forestry. (W,B)
Learners to make a summary check list of sustainable methods. (I,B)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 21 Q 1(e)
•
•
Class activity: How can people save the world's forests? ( W , B , C )
Design posters and displays promoting methods of conservation
including reuse and recycling, alternative sources to timber for building
and construction and for fuel wood. (G,I,B,C)
Online:
www.globaled.org/issues/152/
•
Provide learners with world population totals at key dates from 1800
for drawing a line graph, to identify different rates of growth before and
after about 1950. (W,I,B)
Introduce the four population terms for population growth (birth rate,
fertility rate, death rate and infant mortality rate). W,B)
Explain how the rate of natural increase can be calculated. (W,C)
Learners to calculate rates of natural increase for a selection of
developed and developing countries, including their own country for
comparison. (I,C)
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 11 Q 3(a)
Jun 2013 Paper 13 Q 2(a)
Introduce learners to the five stages of the model, emphasising where
it shows the largest natural increases, but also pointing out the more
recent natural decrease in stage 5. (W,C)
Give learners the opportunity to draw the diagram and make a table
below it to give an outline summary for each stage. (I,C)
Online:
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesi
ze/geography/population/populati
on_change_structure_rev4.shtml
•
•
•
30.3
Alternatives to deforestation.
Learning resources
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 231 to 232
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 224 to 226
Population and economic development
23.1
Population growth.
•
•
•
23.4
The model of demographic
transition and its limitations.
•
•
V1 4Y05
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 233 to 235
40
Syllabus ref
23.2
Learning objectives
Population structure.
Suggested teaching activities
•
•
Identify the stage in the model for their own country. (I,C)
Conclude with the model's advantages and disadvantages.(I,B)
•
Guide learners into the best technique for interpreting population
pyramids i.e. look first at the base (decide whether it is narrow or
wide), look next at the top (decide whether it is high with some width,
or low and narrow), before looking at the overall shape (whether
triangular or straight up and down). (W,I,C)
Give learners two contrasting pyramids for study:
one for a developing country with a young and rapidly growing
population and the other for a developed country with an ageing
population. (W,I,C)
Obtain population data by age groups for the home country.
Learners to draw population pyramid and analyse the home country's
main population characteristics. (I,C)
•
•
23.3
•
Migration.
•
•
•
26.4
Urbanisation.
•
•
•
•
V1 4Y05
Provide learners with a list of factors for migration, for them to
separate out into push and pull factors. (W,I,B)
Carry out a special study of factors for rural to urban migration, the
main type of migration in developing countries. (W,G,I,B,C)
Organise learners into small groups, with the task of examining the
relative strength of push and pull factors for different types of
migration. (G,B,C)
Learners to investigate push and pull factors for the main type of
migration in their country.(I,B)
Provide learners with a definition of urbanisation. ( W , B )
Learners to find the top 10 (or 20) cities in the world by size, then plot
them on an outline world map before commenting about their
distribution between the developing and developed worlds. (I,C)
Review previous work on the big difference in service provision
between rural and urban areas, such as for water supply and
sanitation (hydrosphere 10.2), to help explain the scale of rural to
urban migration. (W,B)
Concentrate on the urban problems listed in the syllabus and use a big
city in the home country or world region as a specific example or case
study. (W,G,I,B,C)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Learning resources
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 3(b)
Jun 2013 Paper 13 Q 2(b)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 237 to 239
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 239 to 241
Online:
www.prb.org/Publications/Reports
/2013/global-migration.aspx
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 42 Q 1
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 241 to 243
41
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
26.1
Social, economic and
environmental implications of
population growth rates and
structures.
•
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 3(a)(ii)
Jun 2013 Paper 11 Q 3(b)
•
Learners to summarise in a table the environmental problems
(already covered) either caused or made worse by population growth.
Headings can be suggested for guidance such as loss of natural
vegetation, pressure on water sources and supplies, water and air
pollution and soil damage from over-farming in rural areas. (I,C)
Show learners a population pyramid of an urban area for them to
identify differences in population structure, especially the bulge in
numbers of working age from rural to urban migration, and the
implications.(W,I,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 244 to 245
Online:
www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0106sp
.htm
29.1
•
Strategies for managing
population growth.
•
•
29.2
Strategies for managing the
urban and rural environments.
•
•
V1 4Y05
Introduce learners to the range of ways for reducing population
growth, in general terms. (W,B)
Study in more detail population policy in two countries to bring out
differences in strength of policy and its success. (W,G,I,B,C)
Learners to study a population policy in the home country and how
successful it has been. (G,I,C)
0680 past examination papers:
Nov 2013 Paper 11 Q 3(b)
Jun 2013 Paper 41 Q 2(e)
Identify strategies for managing urban problems, with special study of
housing which allows the three named ways in the syllabus to be
developed i.e. planning (planned new housing zones inside cities, new
towns outside), environmental improvement (authorities providing
essential services to slum areas) and community participation (selfhelp schemes with help from the authorities/organisations/ charities).
(W,B)
Learners to choose the nearest city or one of the world's big cities as a
case study.
Brainstorm in small groups: Ways to improve standards of living and
quality of life in rural areas.
Name the ways, discuss them and arrange them in order of
importance for people in rural areas, to reduce the strength of push
factors for continuing rural to urban migration. (G,I,B,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Nov 2013 Paper 41 Q 2(a)–(d)
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 246 to 248
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 248 to 253
42
Syllabus ref
Learning objectives
Suggested teaching activities
Learning resources
26.2
Measures of world poverty and
the North-South divide.
•
Learners to study the course of the dividing line between North and
South on a world map and to note which continents make up the
developed and developing worlds. (I,B)
Introduce learners to examples of measures of development to include
economic (e.g. GDP per head) and socio-economic measures (e.g.
housing, health and nutrition). (W,C)
Obtain data for the home country such as GDP per head, percentage
access to safe water, infant mortality rate. (W,C)
Learners to analyse what the data shows and suggest the relative
wealth of the home country in world terms. (I,B,C)
0680 past examination papers:
Jun 2013 Paper 21 Q 1(d)(iv)
Jun 2013 Paper 22 Q 1(a)(b)
•
•
•
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 254 to 257
26.3
The implications of the cycle of
poverty, as it affects individuals
and communities, for the
environment.
•
Learners to study and draw examples of poverty cycles leading to
family poverty (e.g. from lack of access to safe water leading to
disease and inability to work, or from malnourished babies, high infant
mortality and high birth rates) and environmental damage (e.g.
overuse of farmland leading to soil erosion, desertification and
salinisation). (I,B,C)
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
page 257
29.3
Strategies for
overcoming world
inequalities.
•
Revise previous work about why world trade favours developed at the
expense of developing countries (15.7). (W,B)
Make learners aware of the aims and objectives of the Fair Trade
movement. (W,B)
Concentrate on the topic of aid to countries, distinguishing between
short-term (relief, emergency, food) aid and long-term (development)
aid, as well as distinguishing between aid from government and nongovernment sources. (W,C)
Learners to investigate the work of one NGO (non-governmental
organisation) / charity, working under guided headings such as
'countries of operation', 'sources of funds', 'types of work' and 'special
study of one project' – perhaps for one which operates in the home
country. (I,B,C)
0680 past examination paper:
Jun 2013 Paper 22 Q 1(c)(d)
•
•
•
Textbook:
Environmental Management: A
Core Text for O Level and IGCSE,
pages 258 to 261
Online:
www.fairtrade.org.uk/
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/busines
s/the_economy/253705.stm
® IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.
© Cambridge International Examinations 2014
V1 4Y05
Cambridge IGCSE Environmental Management (0680) – 2014–2017
43
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