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poetics

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By: Aristotle
Prepared by: Mehak Ali
1
 Ancient Greek Philosopher.
 Student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the
Great.
 Dante called him “master of those who know”.
 Plato called him “the mind”.
 Founder of Literary Criticism.
2
 Poetics was the objection to dramatic poetry
expressed by his teacher Plato in his “Republic”.
 Plato considered imitation merely mimicry or copy
of nature.
 Plato compared poetry to painting.
 Poetry presents a copy of nature. Poetry twice
removed from reality, it’s a shadow of shadow.
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 Outline






Introductory remarks on poetry and its
classification.
Tragedy
Poetic Diction
Narrative poetry
Epic is compared with tragedy
Objections were answered
4
Three ways of imitation:
1. Means or medium of imitation (serious action)
color, sound, form.
2. Objects of imitation (man in action).
3. Manner of imitation (verse in dialogue).
 Narrative
 Dramatic
5
“Tragedy is the imitation of an action that is serious,
complete, and of a certain magnitude in a language
embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, each
kind bought separately in separate parts of the work, in
the form of action not the narration, with incidents
arousing fear and pity and to accomplish the catharsis
of such emotions”.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Plot
Characters
Diction
Reasoning or Thought
Spectacle
song
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Plot is the ordering of incidents.
 Simple
Plot is simple when the change in the fortune of hero takes
place without perpeteia and discovery.
 Complex
The plot is complex when it involves one or the both.
Perpeteia is the reversal of fortune and discovery is a
change from ignorance to knowledge.
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 Plot should be whole
 It should have a magnitude
 Organic unity
 Probability and Necessity
 Willing suspension of disbelieve
9
 Peripetia; reversal of fortune
 Anagnorisis; recognition or discovery of truth
 Suffering; destructive or painful actions
10
Characters are agents for moving according to the plot.
Essential features of characterization;
 Characters should be good.
 Characters should be appropriate.
 Characters should be true to life.
 Characters should be consistent.
11
Thought is intellectual ability of dramatist. It the
ability of dramatist to say what is possible and
appropriate.
 Proof and reputation
 Production of emotional effect
 Introduction of importance or significance of
anything.
12
Diction is the choice and arrangement of words and
images in the literary composition.
Six types of words;
1. Current or ordinary words
2. Foreign term or borrowed words/ dialects
3. Metaphors
4. Ornamental periphrasis
5. Invented words
6. Not invented but made new lengthening or
shortening
13
In a tragedy song is provided by chorus.
 Prologue
 Choric song
 Episode
 Exode
14
Spectacle is a mood of imitation by which the story is
presented on a stage before an audience. Aristotle calls
this can raise fear and pity in spectator.
Types of spectacles;
 Plot
 Character
 Anagnorisis
 Hamartia
15
 Poetry is divided into eipc or narrative poetry and
dramatic poetry on the basis of manner of
imitation. Epic is narration of an action in verse
and tragedy is dramatic representation of an action.
16
 Use of refined diction
 In both the poet should know the art of telling lies
in the right way.
 Both should have the ability of artistic imitation.
17
Epic
Tragedy
Narrative
Dramatic
Long
Must be confined to the single
revolution of the sun.
Unity of action
Three unities
Use of one metre heroic couplet
Use various metres
All elements of tragedy except song
and spectacle
Six elements of tragedy
18
 Its is imitation of an action.
 The poet should imaginatively visualize the action.
 He should workout the emotions with the very
gestures of his dramatic personages.
 He should begin with the universal form of the
plot, adding the names and episodes later.
19
 Complex tragedy
It consists of reversal and recognition of truth.
 Tragedy of Suffering
It depicts sufferings.
 Tragedy of character
Character more involve than plot.
 Tragedy of spectacle
It depends upon the thrilling effects produced by
actors, the costume designers and other mechanical
and artificial devices.
20
Discovery or recognition of truth
 Sign or objects, symbols
 Author tells himself
 Discovery from memory
 Process of reasoning
 Discovery arises from the false reasoning
21
 It has all the elements of epic including song and
spectacle which the epic lacks.
 Unity of action
 Simply reading it without performing, already very
potent.
 tragedy is shorter, that’s why it is more powerful.
22
 He should not perfectly good not utterly bad.
 He must be an intermediary person.
 He must possesses both qualities and weaknesses.
 He must be a human being.
 Hamartia (Tragic flaw).
23
Any
Question
24
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