Uploaded by FRANCESCA YSABELLE DE GUZMAN

Circulatory

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THE
CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM
AGUILAR, DE GUZMAN, DELA CRUZ, MARASIGAN, TAN
2
INTRODUCTION
Main Function:
Deliver oxygen and glucose to cells around the body
During this process:
▹
▹
▹
▹
▹
Brings nutrients to cells and removes wastes
Picks up carbon dioxide
Distributes hormones to cells
Maintains body temperature by transporting heat
Transports cells to fight infection.
3
FUNCTIONS IN DIFFERENT ORGANISMS
Single-celled
Organisms
- No circulatory
system
- Obtain nutrients
and oxygen and
release waste
directly across
cell surface
- Diffusion
Simple Multicellular
Forms
- No circulatory
system
- Gastrovascular
cavity distributes
substances
throughout the
body.
Complex
Multicellular
Organisms
- Specialized
circulatory
system required
4
William Harvey
- English physician
- First to give an accurate scheme of blood
circulation by experimenting on a variety
of animals.
- Tied ligatures on arteries and veins
Physiology and
Organs
The circulatory system consists of several organs.
5
6
INTERNAL FLUID MOVEMENT
▹ Single-celled organisms
▸ Cellular cytoplasm
▹ Multicellular animals
1. Intracellular compartment/fluid
⬩ Collective fluid inside all the
cells
2. Extracellular compartment/fluid
⬩ Fluid surrounding the cells
⬩ Bathes and buffers
⬩ Closed circulatory system
a. Blood plasma
b. Interstitial fluid
7
HEART
▹
▹
▹
▹
▹
Pumps fluid, providing the body with oxygen and
nutrients
Composed of cardiac muscle that function through
electrical activity of pacemaker cells
▸ Sinoatrial node (SA node)
2 pumps
▸ Atrium
▸ Ventricle
Double-Circuit System in mammals
▸ Systemic circuit
▸ Pulmonary circuit (lungs)
Systole vs. Diastole
8
HEART: MAMMALS
▹
▹
Protected by pericardium
Right atrioventricular valve
(Tricuspid valve)
▸ Connects right atrium and right
ventricle
▹ Left atrioventricular valve (Mitral
valve)
▸ Connects left atrium and left
ventricle
▹ Pulmonary semilunar valve
▸ Connects right ventricle to
pulmonary artery
▹ Aortic semilunar valve
▸ Connects left ventricle to aorta
9
BLOOD
▹ Hemolymph
▸ Invertebrates with open circulatory systems
▸ Clear watery tissue fluid containing
phagocytic cells, proten, and a mixture of salt
▹ Blood
▸ Liquid tissue
▸ 55% plasma, 45% formed elements (red
blood cells, white blood cells, fragments)
⬩ RBC: “erythrocytes”, hemoglobin
⬩ WBC: “leukocytes”, counteract foreign
substances and disease
⬩ Platelets: cell fragments, blood clotting
10
LUNGS
▹
▹
▹
Pulmonary circuit
Provide oxygen to the blood
Pulmonary arteries
▸ Deoxygenated blood
▹ Pulmonary veins
▸ Oxygenated blood
11
BLOOD VESSELS
▹
▹
Tunnels in which blood circulates
Endothelium
▸ Thin layer of cells that lines the inner
surface
▸ Controls passage of substances
▹ Arteries: carry blood away from the heart
▹ Veins: carry blood towards the heart
▹ Capillaries: network that connects arteries and
veins
MECHANISM
12
13
OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM VS CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
14
OPEN CIRCULATION
▹
▹
Invertebrates
Pumps hemolymph through open-ended
vessels into the hemocoel where it directly
bathes cells
▹ Circulatory system fluid is not kept separate
from interstitial fluid
15
CLOSED CIRCULATION
▹
Network of vessels that transport and prevent
blood from direct contact with the body’s cells
1. Excitation and Control of the Heart
a. Atrioventricular node (AV node)
b. Purkinje fibers
c. Cardiac center found in the medulla
2. Blood Flow (in mammals)
a. With the continuous flow powered by
pressure, the 4 valves prevent backflow by
opening and closing depending on
pressure difference
16
CLOSED CIRCULATION:
OXYGENATED BLOOD FLOW
Left atrium
Lungs
Pulmonary
vein
Aorta
Left ventricle
Systemic
Circulation
(body organs)
17
CLOSED CIRCULATION:
DEOXYGENATED BLOOD FLOW
Inferior and
superior vena cava
Right atrium
Right ventricle
Lungs
Pulmonary
artery
BODILY REGULATION
AND SIGNIFICANCE
18
19
HOMEOSTASIS
▹
Ability of ecological systems to maintain stable system properties despite
perturbations or changes → SURVIVAL
▹ Circulatory system maintains homeostasis by simply working with other
bodily organ systems by supplying blood
▹ Parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system coordinate with
circulatory system for controlled heart rate
▹ Ex. Exercising
20
UNHEALTHY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
▹
▹
▹
▹
▹
▹
Atherosclerosis
Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
Angina pectoris
Arrhythmia and dysrhythmia
Hypertension
Stroke
21
PREVENTION OF DISEASES
▹
▹
▹
▹
▹
▹
▹
▹
Maintain healthy weight
Follow nutritious diet
Avoid smoking
Exercise regularly
Limit salt and alcohol intake
Reduce stress
Regular medical checkups
Inform doctor about family history of heart problems
SYSTEMS OF VARIOUS
ANIMAL GROUPS
22
23
PHYLUM NEMATODA
▹ No circulatory system
▹ Rely on diffusion for the exchange of oxygen and
nutrients across the wall of the gut
24
PHYLUM ANNELIDA
▹
▹
▹
Closed circulatory system
Blood flows through the microscopic capillaries
Their internal tissues need not be close to its digestive and respiratory
organs
▸ Lets animals grow much larger than possible
25
PHYLUM MOLLUSCA
▹ Open circulatory system
▹ Composed of a series of blood sinuses or cavities
▹ The heart is usually three chambered
26
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
▹
▹
Open circulatory system
Vessels carry blood from the heart into the body cavity, blood returns into
the heart through small pores
▹ Usually have a dorsal contractile heart, arteries, and hemocoel
▹ Hemolymph leaves the heart through arteries, circulates through the
hemocoel, and returns to venous sinuses, instead of veins before it enters
the heart.
27
PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA
▹
▹
▹
Do not have a true circulatory system
The peritoneal cilia facilitates the main circulation of coelomic fluids
The blood-vascular system plays little or no role in circulation. It is also
surrounded by extensions of coelom known as perihaemal sinuses.
28
PHYLUM CHORDATA
(SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA)
▹
▹
▹
▹
▹
▹
▹
Closed circulatory system
Consists of a ventral heart, closed blood vessel system, blood, paired aortic arches
▸ For aquatic vertebrates, aortic arches branches to gills
▸ For terrestrial vertebrates, aortic arches are modified into pulmonary and systemic
circuits
Heart is separated into two pumps: atrium and ventricle
Vertebrate hearts are myogenic which means “muscle origin”
Invertebrate hearts are neurogenic which means “nerve origin”
For fishes, they have single-circuit system
For amphibians, the atrium is separated into left and right parts and the ventricle is whole
29
PHYLUM CHORDATA
(SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA)
30
References
Campbell, N. & Reece, J. (2008). Circulation and Gas Exchange. Retrieved from https://en.ppt-online.org/200079
Chordata. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://thecircleofblood.weebly.com/chordata.html
Haythe,
J.H.
(n.d.).
Why
must
the
heart
beat
faster
during
exercise?
Retrieved
from
https://www.sharecare.com/health/types-exercise/heart-beat-faster-during-exercise
Healthline
(n.d.).
Circulatory
System
Diseases:
What
You
Should
Know.
Retrieved
from
https://www.healthline.com/health/circulatory-system-diseases#high-blood-pressure
Hickman, C. P., Keen, S. L., Eisenhour, D. J., Larson, A., & IAnson, H. (2017). Integrated principles of zoology. Singapore:
McGraw-Hill Education.
Hirsch, L. (n.d.). Heart and Circulatory System. Retrieved from https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/heart.html
Homeostasis
(2008).
In
Encyclopedia
of
Ecology.
Retrieved
from
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/homeostasis
How
Does
the
Circulatory
System
Maintain
Homeostasis
(n.d.).
https://biologydictionary.net/how-does-the-circulatory-system-maintain-homeostasis/
Retrieved
from
31
References
Pearsons
Education
Inc.
(n.d.)
Trends
in
chordate
evolution.
Retrieved
from
http://www.bio.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/Bio213/chordates.html
Sinauer
Associations
(2001).
Mollusca
circulatory
system.
Retrieved
from
http://circulatoryswag.weebly.com/uploads/2/9/7/8/29789277/9652371.jpg?363
Sinauer
Associations
(2011).
Echinodermata
circulatory
system.
Retrieved
from
https://humananatomylogy.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/echinodermata-circulato
ry-system-echinodermata-circulatory-system-echinoderm-circulatory-system.jpg
The
Editors
of
Encyclopedia
Britannica
(2019,
February
20).
Blood
vessel.
Retrieved
from
https://www.britannica.com/science/blood-vessel
University of Hawaii. (n.d.). Exploring Our Fluid EarthWorms: Phyla Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, and Annelida. Retrieved
from https://manoa.hawaii.edu/
Wiring Chart Education. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://wirindiagrampedia.com/
Wirkner C.S., Tögel M., Pass G. (2013) The Arthropod Circulatory System. In: Minelli A., Boxshall G., Fusco G. (eds) Arthropod
Biology and Evolution. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
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