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MEASURING AND DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF SLUMS USING INDICATOR OF LIVING STANDARD

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 309–320, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_032
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
MEASURING AND DEVELOPING
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF SLUMS USING
INDICATOR OF LIVING STANDARD
Dr. Hussein D.Mohammed
Assistant Professor, Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Abdullah Ali Ibrahim
Assistant Lecturer, University of Garmian
Dr. Muhsin A. Ali Alfurajy
Professor, Advisor/Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research of Iraq
ABSTRACT
The challenge which is faced in the slums development is not only in the executive
works but in interaction between the various development elements to create a
community (population) that is distinguished in a suitable level of living. The
objectives of development come through planning, implementation, and management.
If these preliminaries don't achieve the standard living results, then the development is
unable to attain its aims, therefore; the spending on this development are wasted the
resources. One of the most popular expressions of urban poverty in developing
countries is the increase of slums and informal settlements. These settlements have the
most deplorable living and environmental conditions within the city. They are
characterized by inadequate water supply, squalid conditions of environmental
sanitation, overcrowded and dilapidated habitation, hazardous location, insecure
tenure and vulnerability to serious health risks among many others. So the objectives
of this research are the ensuring of a durable improvement of housing conditions and
housing environment of poor people living through standard of living indicators. The
standard of living includes six domains, education, health, infrastructure, and house,
housing environmental and household economic status. Therefore, each domain
contains a group (pack) of indicators. The total number is (37) indicators. The
research aims to analyze and understand the level of Living Index, also to notice and
observe the range of the improvement in slums towards achieving there's goals and
reach the suitable level of living. It focuses on the indicators and their roles in
development. The research also emphasizes on the effective role in evaluation of
building (construction), developing; i.e. the community converts from consumer
beneficiary community to a producer and effective community that makes decision in
all stages of developing. Such as: economy, building (construction), society, and
environment.
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Dr. Hussein D.Mohammed, Abdullah Ali Ibrahim and Dr. Muhsin A. Ali Alfurajy
Index terms: (Slum, level of living index, living standard)
Cite this Article: Dr. Hussein D.Mohammed, Abdullah Ali Ibrahim and Dr. Muhsin
A. Ali Alfurajy, Measuring and Developing Management System of Slums Using
Indicator of Living Standard, International Journal of Civil Engineering and
Technology 10(4), 2019, pp. 309–320.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=4
1. INTRODUCTION
The first report from United Nations about Human Development Index (HDI) has been issued
in 1990 by adopting three substrates; education, life expectancy and per capita income, the
progress of human development of slums is not at the required rate in most countries of the
world, and did not achieve its goals because it did not improve the standard of living, with its
conception in economic, social, environmental and urban (constructional). Most of the slums
have been built in old ways and did not rely in many cases on the basis of urban and urban
planning. Nowadays, this has become a reality that should be dealt with. As a result of the
scientific and technical development in different life patterns, and increase a population, these
neighborhoods may need multiple services and infrastructure which was not planned at the
time of construction, also the expansion and lack of control cause a lot of problems and
difficulties that require a proper scientific decision with less possible cost or damages on the
citizens and the country .The correlation between planning and development has become an
obvious thing to achieve the development in community. The goal of planning process is to
achieve harmonization between the humanitarian needs and the required available resources
to find solutions to the problem of the scarcity and need.
2. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANT
This study is important because of its connection with the lives of the population measures the
reality of many social, economic and political problems. It has a relation with projects and
development plans because the institutions depend on it to improve their services according to
their specialization with connection to indicators.
3. RESEARCH AIMS
This research aims to analyze and understand the level of living index and its importance in
noticing and observation the range of the improvement in slums towards achieving its goals
and reach the suitable level of living. It focuses on the indicators and their roles in
development. The research emphasizes on the indicators and their effective role in building
(construction), and developing of the community.
4. THE CONCEPT AND DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD OF LIVING
Level of living or sometimes called the quality of life, as an area for applied human
geographic interest, has not happened by accident, human geographers, just like the other
academics contemporary, respond well to cultural, social and political climate that prevails in
the community in which they live. Since the beginning of the seventies writings about social
problems - and then called the social welfare – expanded rapidly, these writings have been
raised at that time, and then came the geographical attention towards social welfare. The
attention focused on the issue of social justice in the Spatial Context (Smith D.M,1977:1112). About the standard of living, Ireland [Insolvency Service of Ireland-ISL] has launched
principles and guidelines to live in an acceptable life under the title: [Guidelines on a
reasonable standard of living and reasonable living expenses]. Whereby the standard of living
should be available to everyone in the community, this does not mean that a person must live
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Measuring and Developing Management System of Slums Using Indicator of Living Standard
in the level of well-being, also it does not mean to live in vulnerable level (Nordenanlcur,
2009: 8).The improvement of the standards of living was adopted independently by the Social
Committee at the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and
others, in 1952. It was approved in collaboration with the International Labour Organization
by a group of the experts to prepare a report on methods for measuring living standards,
which occur in different countries taking into account the possibilities of international
comparisons. Although the work of this committee does not focus on cash income or
distributing, but it includes a lot of information that came in later to be called social
indicators. The report issued by the International Labour Organization, UNESCO, the United
Nations and the World Health Organization recommended specific series for all countries
including topics addressed health and food consumption and nutrition, education, employment
and working conditions, housing, social security and other (LSMS, 1980: 1-16). The World
Bank has adopted program for the purpose of studying the measurement of living standards
(LSMS) in 1980 for the purpose of exploring ways to improve the quality of life (Oscar
Altimir, Jaun Sourrille, 1980: 6) depending on Konus indicators. And the Scientist Konus
suggested set of indicators in 1939 and that from what he called [Coast-of-Living] (G.S, 1979:
325-353), and built by its spatial theory of the cost of living.
4.1. Standard of living index
It is a numeral scale to measure the extent of satisfaction of fundamental needs of the
individual household level. The benefit of this index is to measure the standard of living for
every family in calibrating the percentages of the population living within the various levels
including the rate of people who are suffering from deprivation and poverty. To measure the
standard of living index first we to have to determine their fields, which consist of six fields;
(education, health, infrastructure, housing, housing environment, as well as, the evidence of
the household economic status). Then a number of indicators are chosen to represent each
field or domain. There are (37) indicator which can be increased or decreased according to the
country situation. Each indicator is given a mark between (zero to two). Zero (0) is given for
state of extreme deprivation of the fundamental need meanwhile one (1) indicates the state of
being close to deprivation from fundamental needs. Individuals and households who obtained
less than (1 mark) are deprived from the satisfaction of their fundamental needs. Table (1)
shows the number of indicators for each domain.
Table 1 The Number of Indicators for Each Domain
Domain
Infrastructure
Housing
Education
Housing environment
Health
Household economic status
Living Standard Index Living Standerd Index
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Number of
Indicators
6
5
5
9
6
6
37
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Dr. Hussein D.Mohammed, Abdullah Ali Ibrahim and Dr. Muhsin A. Ali Alfurajy
5. IMPROVING LIVING STANDARD IN URBAN SLUMS THROUGH
DOMAINS
5.1. Infrastructure Domain
The Infrastructure domain determines the extent of success of the industrial and agricultural
activities. The Investments in water and sanitation, energy, housing and transport areas also
work to improve living conditions, and help to reduce poverty. And the new technology
operates to encourage growth in the field of information and communication, Also it leads to
improve the delivery of health care service, other services, expand education, support social,
and cultural progress. Generally it can be defined as a set of interconnected structural
elements that provides supporting framework of the overall structure for the development. It
represents an important term to judge the development of the country or region (Steven.
Shieffrin, 2003: 474). The infrastructure refers mostly to the technical structures which are
supporting the community, such as roads, bridges, water resources, sanitation and electricity
networks and telecommunications… etc. This can be defined as "the physical components of
the related systems that supplies essential goods and necessary services to enable the
sustainability, or to improve the conditions of community life (Fulmer Jeffrey, 2009: 30-32).
The guide of this domain, as shown below (table 2), has been built on six indicators (And
several other indicators can be added according to the status of the country, the city, or
community). They are water, electricity, sanitation and wastes, and all are considered as one
domain, As are all related to services that are supposed to be available essentially in public
networks by their nature as a companion provided by the government or play an essential role
in providing and pricing. Therefore, infrastructure efficiency is one of the important evidences
on the level of progress of any society.
Table 2 Indicators of Infrastructure and their Conditions of Deprivation
Indicators
Conditions of Deprivation
The main source of drinking water: Well, river or Spring of water ,
a public network, network with cut from time to time, a public
network with a continuous cut, a public network without cut
The level of satisfaction on the quality of water: Very satisfied, to
some extent satisfied, acceptable, and not satisfied.
Provide electricity source: Electricity from public network only,
from general network and generator, from the public network and a
number of other sources, no electricity
The stability of electric power: Electricity for a few hours,
Electricity with daily outages, Electricity with outages from time to
time
A means of getting rid of waste : Discarded out of the house, burnt,
be placed in a container and collected by the municipality from time
to time, placed in a container and collected by the municipality
regularly
Sanitation means: Open watercourse, septic tub, watercourse
covered, and public network.
River + network with a
continuous cut
Not satisfied
No electricity
Electricity for a few hours,
electricity with daily outages
Discarded out of the house,
and burns.
Open watercourse
Sources: The table is constructed by the researcher depending on the UN Reports and the
National Reports:
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Measuring and Developing Management System of Slums Using Indicator of Living Standard

Report by the commission on the" measurement of Economic performance and social
Progress" Professor Joseph E. STIGLITZ, Chair Columbia University; Amarta SEN, Chair
Adviser, Hazard University, Professor Jean- Paul FITOUSSI, Coordinator of the Commission,
IEP, 2008.

Rethinking poverty: Report on the World Social Situation, 2010, UNDESA, 2010.

Combating poverty and Inequality: Structural change Social policy and politics; UNRISD
2010.

Multidimensional poverty index, or MPI, was developed and applied by Oxford poverty and
Human Development Initiative (OPHI) with UNDP; support; 2010.
5.2. Housing Domain
In the Holly Quran " Allah has made for you from your homes a place of rest and made for
you " Researcher Elizabeth Wood emphasizes that adequate housing provides households a
full stability and prosperity (Elizabeth, 1978: 78 ). The concept of housing, which human is
looking forward to live in comfort and stability, is one of the elements of the standard of
living just like food and all the requirements of life (Nevitt , 1975: 3-4). Housing is an
expensive investment at the same time, it is a durable commodity, and also it is an expensive
investment because of its high coast to be accomplished on one hand, and the importance of
investment in housing from the economic and social view point on the other hand (Jean, 1991:
3-4). There are researchers who talked about the topic of housing by research and study, for
example, Pierre George, Jacquelline Palmed, and Robert Leroux. Through the study of human
ecology, they concluded that, housing requires three functions: preventative services security
and maintaining the domestic privacy.[ Abdulhameed ]
Moreover the studies conducted by international financial organizations as well as the
International Monetary Fund and the World Bank for Reconstruction discuss the projects for
the construction of housing units, they referred to the close relationship between the housing
sector and other sectors through the economic integration between them. This would lead to
provision of job opportunities in wide fields and works to develop the capability and efficient
of the workforce. On the other hand, the housing sector compete other sectors in employing
economic and human resources) [Ismael Alsheak,1988]
So housing for humans, prevents the environmental risks and at the same time ensures life
continually. This would bring minimum necessary requirements for life. It's one of the main
objectives which man is seeking to obtain after Food and the good housing offers a healthy
environment for its residents and protects them from a lot of negative effects on their health.
Generally the housing quality, space, number of rooms, components integration, construction
materials, available services, and the surroundings are important indicators to the social
welfare of the household indicators. Many of the studies depend on the characteristics of the
housing indicators to assess the state of poverty, as alternative or supplementary indicators of
low income poverty due to the strong relationship between poverty and the characteristics of
the housing unit. Thus, the living conditions for the household can be evaluated accurately
basing on the reality of the housing units Therefore population censuses and statistics give
importance to the subject of housing and slums, because it is not necessary that all who live in
Slums are the poorest people (Gulyani, 2010: 2201-2219). So, providing adequate housing for
every household and individual in the community is a legitimate right and a fundamental need
endorsed by international conventions and national constitutions [Marin, 1968: 33-116]. As
for the fields and indicators which, used in the Domains of housing, as shown below (table 3),
are five indicators. (It is possible to add or change some of them). They are ceiling building
material overcrowding the energy used in the house, the extent of satisfaction with housing,
and finally the number of environmental dislike (ugly) in the house.
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Table 3 Indicators of Housing and their Conditions of Deprivation
Indicators
Conditions of Deprivation
Ceiling building materials : Iron sheet , cane / clay,
iron, and concrete
Iron sheet , cane / clay
Number of rooms in the house (overcrowding ):
Number of rooms / household size
The type of energy used to heat water: Solar cells,
electricity, oil, gas, non-available
Extent of satisfaction with housing: Very satisfied,
to some extent satisfied, acceptable, and not
satisfied.
Abominations that found in the house: Animal
feces, stagnant water at home or its courtyard,
sewage in the yard of the house ,and the yard of
the house
The per capita is less than 0.5
room
Oil + non-available
Not satisfied
Yes, if available
Sources: The table is constructed by the researcher depending on the UN Reports and the
National Reports:

Report by the commission on the" measurement of Economic performance and social
Progress" Professor Joseph E. STIGLITZ, Chair Columbia University; Amarta SEN, Chair
Adviser, Hazard University, Professor Jean- Paul FITOUSSI, Coordinator of the Commission,
IEP, 2008.

Rethinking poverty: Report on the World Social Situation, 2010, UNDESA, 2010.

Combating poverty and Inequality: Structural change Social policy and politics; UNRISD
2010.

Multidimensional poverty index, or MPI, was developed and applied by Oxford poverty and
Human Development Initiative (OPHI) with UNDP; support; 2010.
5.3. Housing Environment Domain
Housing Environment is one of the most contemporary significant problems which interact
with many variables. It is distinguished from other problem that all sections of society have an
active role, and participation in the presence of this problem which is influenced by their
negatives more prominent than other problems. The pollution, which surrounds the house,
interacts with all community sectors (social ecological, economic, political and cultural).
There are several studies about housing environment, or a surrounding of housing
environment. For example, a study by Anna Radamejr, under the title "Slums ecology" (Anne
2009: 516), and a study by Cullen Bramley, and Christine Browning, about the relationship
between poverty and housing, the surrounding environment, and its effects on living standards
(Glen, Besemer, 2010: 9). As shown below (table 4), they are indicators for Housing
Environment measuring index. They are (Roads and Transport, provide the markets,
cleanliness and the non-pollution outside the housing, Abominations environmental around
the housing, spam sites near the house and finally personal safety).
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Table 4 Indicators of Housing Environment and their Conditions of Deprivation
Extent of satisfaction with transportation
and traffic: Very satisfied, to some extent
satisfied, acceptable, and not satisfied.
Not satisfied
The quality of path leading to the house:
Unpaved road - gravel road – paved road paved partially - stone path
Gravel road+ stone path + unpaved
road
The possibility of the accessibility the
ambulance and a fire engine: Either , only
one , neither
Neither, only one
The extent of satisfaction about the
availability of shops - (markets): Very
satisfied, to some extent satisfied,
acceptable, not satisfied
Not satisfied
The extent of satisfaction about the
cleanliness and non-pollution outside
housing: Very satisfied, to some extent
satisfied, acceptable, not satisfied
Not satisfied
The
existence
of
Abominations
environmental around the house : Garbage,
stagnant water, sewage, smoke, the stores
The existence of undesirable sites near the
of destructive weapons and vehicles stores
housing, total (8): River, rail, highway,
industrial zone, high-pressure, collect
garbage, slope, the beginning of the valley
Yes, if it finds
Yes, if it finds
Extent of satisfaction with safety for
children outside housing: Very satisfied, to
some extent satisfied, acceptable, not
satisfied
Not satisfied
The noise and chaos: Daily, several times a
week, few, never heard.
Daily + few, several times a week
Sources: The table is constructed by the researcher depending on the UN Reports and the
National Reports:

Report by the commission on the" measurement of Economic performance and social
Progress" Professor Joseph E. STIGLITZ, Chair Columbia University; Amarta SEN, Chair
Adviser, Hazard University, Professor Jean- Paul FITOUSSI, Coordinator of the Commission,
IEP, 2008.

Rethinking poverty: Report on the World Social Situation, 2010, UNDESA, 2010.

Combating poverty and Inequality: Structural change Social policy and politics; UNRISD
2010.

Multidimensional poverty index, or MPI, was developed and applied by Oxford poverty and
Human Development Initiative (OPHI) with UNDP; support; 2010.
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Dr. Hussein D.Mohammed, Abdullah Ali Ibrahim and Dr. Muhsin A. Ali Alfurajy
6. THE ROLE OF DOMAIN OF SOCIAL DIMENSION IN IMPROVING
THE STANDARD OF LIVING OF SLUMS
6. 1. Education Domain
There are clear hostility between poverty and education, where there is poverty manifestations
of illiteracy and dropping out of school, are found. Meaning that; there is an inverse relation
between the level of income and the level of leaving school. Whenever income decreased the
possibility of students to leave school increases. The Education came within a second goal
after the goal of poverty eradicating in the Millennium Development Goals series. The
education is the basic right of human beings which helps in satisfying, their needs, and enable
them to exercise their different roles effectively. Moreover, the education is can considered an
important factor for combating and eradication poverty by giving people, skills more than
their ability to gain and get better jobs. In addition to that, the education provides the human
beings with the ability to communicate effectively belong to the community and to resist
marginalization and isolation. The indicators that measure the educational domain are many
and varied. Some indicators give a picture of the reality educational in the state and some of
them measure the extent of educational services provided by the State to its citizens. The
index of educational deprivation in this study includes five indicators: (Follow-up study and
the educational level of adults, 16 years and over), the distance to the nearest elementary
school, the distance to high school, and finally the extent of satisfaction with school. As
shown in table (5).
Table 5 Indicators of Education and their Conditions of Deprivation
Indicators
Conditions of deprivation
Level of the education (6-15 years
The level of education for adults (15
and
above)
The distance
from
the housing to
school (the distance calculated in
meters)
The distance from
the housing to the
Illiterate and Had not finish the primary
Illiterate and atschool
the primary school
More than 500 m
More than 1 km
secondary
school
(the
distance
Extent of satisfaction with school:
Not satisfied
calculated
in kilometers)
very satisfied,
to some
extent
Sources:satisfied
The table
is constructed by the researcher depending on the UN Reports and the
,acceptable ,not satisfied
National Reports:

Report by the commission on the" measurement of Economic performance and social
Progress" Professor Joseph E. STIGLITZ, Chair Columbia University; Amarta SEN, Chair
Adviser, Hazard University, Professor Jean- Paul FITOUSSI, Coordinator of the Commission,
IEP, 2008.

Rethinking poverty: Report on the World Social Situation, 2010, UNDESA, 2010.

Combating poverty and Inequalit: Structural change Social policy and politics; UNRISD 2010.

Multidimensional poverty index, or MPI, was developed and applied by Oxford poverty and
Human Development Initiative (OPHI) with UNDP; support; 2010.
6. 2. Health Domain
Health constitutes one of essential cornerstones of human development, and an essential of
element of human security, because the survival and protection from the disease are two
various concepts of human well-being. The good health helps a person increasing
susceptibility of choice and enjoy the freedom and makes progress. The healthy citizens are
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more benefit from available opportunities which enhances the economic and social security of
the country, On the contrary, the deterioration of health such as illness, injury, and disability
deprive individuals of these basic options. The index of health domain measured in six
indicators. Three of them are about of the household and three on individuals. The indicators
represent five fields of health domain. Which are (Chronic diseases, health problems,
nutritional status of children, health care during pregnancy, access to the health institutions,
and finally the qualitative level of health services), as shown in table (6).
Table 6 Indicators of health and their Conditions of Deprivation
Conditions of
deprivation
Indicators
Number of household members suffering from chronic
physical illness or disability.
Malnourished children (6-5 years).
Health care during pregnancy? Are from: Doctor, nurse,
authorized midwife, other people, there is no (no one) .
The distance from the housing to the General Hospital (the
distance is calculated in kilometers).
The distance from the housing to a health center or a doctor
(calculated distance in meters)
The extent of satisfaction with the health services: very
satisfied, to some extent satisfied, acceptable, and not
satisfied
If there are situations
If there are situations
other people and
there is no (no one)
If the distance is
more than 3km
(Depending on the
size of the city and
transport)
If it is more than
1000m (Depending
on the size of the
city and transport)
Not satisfied
Sources: The table is constructed by the researcher depending on the UN Reports and the
National Reports:

Report by the commission on the" measurement of Economic performance and social
Progress" Professor Joseph E. STIGLITZ, Chair Columbia University; Amarta SEN, Chair
Adviser, Hazard University, Professor Jean- Paul FITOUSSI, Coordinator of the Commission,
IEP, 2008.

Rethinking poverty: Report on the World Social Situation, 2010, UNDESA, 2010.

Combating poverty and Inequality: Structural change Social policy and politics; UNRISD
2010.4- Multidimensional poverty index, or MPI, was developed and applied by Oxford
poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) with UNDP; support; 2010.
6.3. Household Economic Status Domain
After the Second World War, poverty and underdevelopment emerged in many countries
more pronounced and widespread way than the previous problems then the development
economy appeared, to study, and care the development economics problems which related
with underdevelopment, and deficient development in those countries [Midhut
Alqurayshy,200]
It is known that human development is measured accordance with three pillars which are
(income, health and education), that requires a focus on the life economic system, because the
well-being development and redistribute it, handle by the entire economic system and any
economic policy, away from the objectives cannot be drafting unless after theoretical
characterization of mechanisms of the economic system's work, the removal of deprivation
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Dr. Hussein D.Mohammed, Abdullah Ali Ibrahim and Dr. Muhsin A. Ali Alfurajy
are expression of the total disappearance of the manifestations of unemployment, low
incomes, poor housing situation, the lack of opportunities to benefit from the family home of
contemporary techniques, and the deterioration of city services. Although the Human
Development Index (HDI) adopted by the United Nations Development Program since 1990
for describe the level of welfare of the people, and expanding their choices gives equal
weights to three domains (income, health and education), but the constant over the years of
the guide measurement was the great disparity in the income level for direct expression to the
standard of living that requires be given proper attention (Al-Alak,1994 :34-35). Were
identified six indicators represent, the domain of Household economic status: namely,
(financial situation it means the average per capita income, access to certain amount of money
in a week, work, and ownership), as shown in table (7).
Table 7 Indicators of household economic Status &their Conditions of Deprivation
Indicators
Conditions of deprivation
Average per capita income (GP)
The possibility of obtaining Certain amount in the
week
No, I cannot
The level of satisfaction about the availability of
work and job opportunities: very satisfied, to some
extent satisfied, acceptable, and not satisfied.
Not satisfied
The status of work for members (sustenance rate)
If the sustenance rate more
than 4
Number of durable goods in the household of the 16
commodity: Refrigerator, gas or electric oven,
heater, fan, washing machine, vacuum cleaner,
electric mixer, TV, radio and recorder, video
camera, a PC air conditioner, refrigerated.
If the household has less than
7
Asset ownership: Housing only, only cars, cars and
housing, and non- available.
Not- available
Sources: The table is constructed by the researcher depending on the UN Reports and the
National Reports:

Report by the commission on the" measurement of Economic performance and social
Progress" Professor Joseph E. STIGLITZ, Chair Columbia University; Amarta SEN, Chair
Adviser, Hazard University, Professor Jean- Paul FITOUSSI, Coordinator of the Commission,
IEP, 2008.

Rethinking poverty: Report on the World Social Situation, 2010, UNDESA, 2010.

Combating poverty and Inequality: Structural change Social policy and politics; UNRISD
2010.

Multidimensional poverty index, or MPI, was developed and applied by Oxford poverty and
Human Development Initiative (OPHI) with UNDP; support; 2010.
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Measuring and Developing Management System of Slums Using Indicator of Living Standard
7. CONCLUSIONS

Reducing the spatial variations of the life indicators which constituent the domains of standard
of living.

Planning spatial development policies take the priorities of deprivation spatial and have
sectorial basis.

Addressing imbalance in the planning, and implementation project management at the level of
local authorities or the central government.

Adopting the principle of deprivation mainly in interest of areas.

Reconsider construction of industrial and agricultural projects in the region, their impact in
spatial and social development.

Improve the income-earning opportunities, job creation income-generating.

Building schools in residential neighborhoods and in line with the size of the population and
the renovating dilapidated schools.

The establishment of paved to Infrastructure projects
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‫‪Dr. Hussein D.Mohammed, Abdullah Ali Ibrahim and Dr. Muhsin A. Ali Alfurajy‬‬
‫‪ . Holly Quran‬القرآن الكريم ‪ ،‬سىرة الىحل ‪ ،‬االيت ‪08‬‬
‫عبذالحميذ دليميه‪ ،‬دراست في العمران‪ ،‬السكه واالسكان‪ ،‬مخبر االوسان والمذيىت‪ ،‬دار الهذي ‪Abdul hammed‬‬
‫للطباعت والىشر‪،.6882،‬‬
‫اسماعيل ابراهيم شيخ درة‪ ،‬إقتصادياث االسكان‪ ،‬سلسلت عالم المعرفت ‪،‬الكىيج ‪Ismael Alsheak . .8800،‬‬
‫مذحج القريشي‪ ،‬التىميت القتصاديت‪ -‬وظرياث وسياساث ومىضىعاث‪،‬دار المسيرة ‪Midhut Alqurayshy,‬‬
‫‪،‬عمان‪6882،‬‬
‫‪[email protected]‬‬
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