Uploaded by Information Iaeme

WASTE SOIL IMPROVEMENT USING EGG SHELL POWDER AND LIME AT OPEN DUMPING AREA

advertisement
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 268–277, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_028
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
WASTE SOIL IMPROVEMENT USING EGG
SHELL POWDER AND LIME AT OPEN
DUMPING AREA
Nur Irfah Mohd Pauzi
Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering,
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43009 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
Mior Amin Aimran Mior Abdul Aziz, Mohammad Syakirin Ismail
Students, Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering,
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43009, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
Husaini Omar
Professor, Faculty of Engineering,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
ABSTRACT
Soil stabilization method using the waste material as replacement to improve the
strength has been explored widely. In this research, the egg shell powder and lime are
added to the waste soil with the mixing portion of 2.5% lime and 2.5% egg shell
powder, 5% lime and 5% egg shell powder and 7.5% lime and 7.5% egg shell powder.
The compressive strength is conducted on the waste soil samples with different mixing
ratio. The optimum value of the compressive strength is simulated using Monte Carlo
simulation. In conclusion, there is potential for the waste soil to be improved in terms
of strength using lime and egg shell powder. The compressive strength of waste soil is
added with 2.5% lime and 2.5% ESP, 5% lime and 5% ESP, 7.5% lime and 7.5% ESP
gave the results of 36.39 kN/mm2, 70.66 kN/mm2 and 337.13 kN/mm2 respectively at
curing of 28 days, which satisfies the soil improvement requirement. The Monte Carlo
Simulation and optimization of the result using the mean value show that the
compressive strength is increase when the data is simulated into N= 12 to N= 16. It
has proved that the accuracy of the result has increased by using Monte Carlo
Simulation and optimization.
Key words: Waste soil improvement, open dumping area, egg shell powder, lime,
compressive strength
Cite this Article: Nur Irfah Mohd Pauzi, Mior Amin Aimran Mior Abdul Aziz,
Mohammad Syakirin Ismail, Husaini Omar, Waste Soil Improvement Using Egg Shell
Powder and Lime at Open Dumping Area, International Journal of Civil Engineering
and Technology 10(4), 2019, pp. 268–277.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=4
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
268
[email protected]
Waste Soil Improvement Using Egg Shell Powder and Lime at Open Dumping Area
1. INTRODUCTION
Egg shell powder generation does not involve generation of CO2 as in the case of lime where
heating is done up to 750o C. Hence use of egg shell powder in soil stabilization will make the
overall stabilization process economical, sustainable and eco-friendly. The reused of the waste
product such as egg shell powder will also help reduce the environment impact. Considering
millions of tons of waste produced annually across the country, which not only possess the
problem of disposal but also adds to environment contamination and health risks, utilization
of such refuse and industrial wastes and their subsidiary products as alternatives to
construction materials may effectively contribute to environmental preservation and
minimization of their adverse effects on the environment. Egg shell powder are used to
improve the soil stabilization at the dumping sites. The optimization of the mixing portion of
egg shell powder and lime are discussed in this paper.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Soil stabilization method has been used widely to improve the soil strength. Some of the soil
stabilization method are such as stone column method, vertical drain method, dynamic
compaction and vacuum consolidation can fasten the consolidation process in clay and waste
soil and improved the strength of the soil (Braja Das and Nagaratnam, 2015). Stabilization is
aimed at improving the engineering properties of soil which may involve increasing the soil
density, increase in cohesion, frictional resistance and reduction of plasticity index. Some of
the materials that have been used in soil stabilization include lime, cement, fly ash etc. They
have been used solely and in combination with other stabilizing materials to effect a chemical
change in the soil (Amu et al, 2005). Previous researches have revealed that soil could be
stabilized effectively using lime, cement, lime and cement, lime and fly ash combined
together in proportion by mass or by weight. Egg shell powder has not been used as
stabilizing material and it could be a good replacement for industrial lime.
The increase of waste product such as egg shell powder could affect the environment. Egg
shell powder which is high content in lime, calcium and protein so that it can be used as an
alternative to such soil stabilizers such as lime-like ingredients. The calcium in the egg shell
powder acts like a binder to the material to increase its strength. The calcination process in the
egg shell powder takes place when the egg shell powder was added to the waste soil. In Japan,
the egg shell powder was used for stabilization of a cohesionless soil. The study targeting at
identifying eggshell powder as an effective stabilizing agent by replacing certain percentage
of the lime in the stabilized soil with egg shell powder. The large area may not be covered
with the egg shell powder but it may suggested that the ESP be used as a supplement in lime
stabilization (Croft et al., 1999).
The research has been done by Muthu (2014), the effect of egg shell powder proportions
of 0.5% to 5.5% at 0.5% interval by dry weight was analyzed. The use of eggshell powder as
an additive improve the strength of soils, however using eggshell powder quantities in excess
of 3% may not yield ample results. The eggshell powder will also be tested for plastic limit
and liquid limit test as to get the plasticity of the soil after the egg shell powder has been
added to the soil. It has been found by (Arash Barazesh et. al., 2012) that different proportions
of soil-eggshell powder mixture reduced the plasticity index in the specimens so that the
largest decrease was noticed in the specimen with 16% eggshell powder addition. Adding
eggshell powder to expansive soil specimen such as clay reduced plasticity index in the
mixtures. This decrease entailed a relatively sharp slope in all specimens indicating the
significant effect of eggshell powder on clay soils plasticity index. As for the waste soil, it
also has the ability to absorb water and the addition of eggshell powder will help in increasing
the strength of the soil (Peurifoy and Ledbetter, 1985).
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
269
[email protected]
Nur Irfah Mohd Pauzi, Mior Amin Aimran Mior Abdul Aziz, Mohammad Syakirin Ismail,
Husaini Omar
Waste soil consists of waste material such as concrete debris, decayed wood, plastics and
others. The heterogeneous content of waste soil makes the geotechnical properties difficult to
categorized and analyzed. Waste soil are prone to settlement as mention by (Nur Irfah et al,
2011) and it need to be treated by stabilizing it with other materials in order to strengthen it.
Waste soil are subject to differential settlement and may subject to moisture content when
subjected to loading of a moving load. It is therefore usually necessary to stabilize the waste
soil to reduce the volume change due to moisture and strengthen the soil where it can carry
the imposed load. As studied by (Sivakumar Babu et al., 2010) (Park et al., 2007) and
(Simoes and Catapreta, 2012), the waste soil is subjected to long-term settlement, where there
is importance to be monitored and studied so that the landfill areas are well maintained and
stabilized.
Further analysis of the data is using Monte Carlo Simulation. Monte Carlo Simulation is a
simulation of the data to get the probability of the optimization value for the amount of egg
shell powder and lime to be added to the waste soil. These optimizations have not been done
in the previous research. Monte Carlo Simulation which has been used for predicting the
long-term settlement by (Nur Irfah, 2012). Monte Carlo methods or Monte Carlo experiments
are a class of computational algorithm that relies on repeated random sampling to compute
their results. Monte Carlo methods are used in simulating physical and mathematical systems.
Monte Carlo simulations tools and excel spreadsheet has been developed by Au et al. (2010)
to determine the uncertainty in the slope stability analysis. The spreadsheet computational
framework for implementation an advanced Monte Carlo method called subset simulation are
used to determine the uncertainty propagation that can provide better resolution for low
failure probability level at the same time retaining some robustness features of direct Monte
Carlo. On the other hand, Wang et al (2010) have used Monte Carlo Simulation method to
analyze probabilistic of slope stability and it provides a robust and simple way to assess
failure probability. The egg shell powder optimization algorithm will be used together with
Monte Carlo Simulation method for optimizations.
In conclusion, the potential of egg shell powder and lime to be added to waste soil are
studied in this research. The optimization of the right amount of the egg shell powder and
lime to be added to the waste soil are the output from the research. This research will help
improving the waste soil at the dumping area so that the abandoned dumping area can be
reused again for new development.
3. METHODOLOGY
The methodology of the research is divided into the following stages:
3.1. Site selections and samples collections
The dumping sites are identified for samples collection, the site was investigated to know the
types of waste at the dumping sites and some samples will be collected at the sites. Sungai
Ramal Dalam dumping area is selected as the dumping area. The dumping area is not an
active dumping site. The area is about 5 meters height of waste on top of the dumping area
which consist of heterogeneous content such as concrete debris, paper, aluminum can, small
twigs, plastic waste and others. A total of about 10 kg of soil samples were collected with
different location at the open dumping area. The samples collected using the hand auger
method as to get samples at a deeper depth. The samples are put into plastic bags and sealed
for moisture content preservation. Figure 1 show the open dumping area at the Sungai Ramal
Dalam, Selangor.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
270
[email protected]
Waste Soil Improvement Using Egg Shell Powder and Lime at Open Dumping Area
Figure 1. Samples collection at Sungai Ramal Dalam Dumping Area
3.2. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Treated and Untreated Waste Soil
The samples collected will be treated with the eggshell powder and lime, and the other
samples is not treated, which is in its initial conditions. The egg shell powder is obtained
from the egg shell that was collected from waste of Pasar Malam, restaurant and small shops.
The egg shell was blend into powder and mixed with the waste soil. The treated waste soil
will be added with 2.5% lime and 2.5% eggshell powder, 5% lime and 5% eggshell powder
and 7.5% lime and 7.5% eggshell powder. The prepared samples were then tested with Liquid
limit, Plastic Limit, Consolidation Test and Unconfined Compressive Strength Test to get the
soil properties such as the plasticity of the soil and the strength of the soil. The results for
treated soil with eggshell powder plus lime and untreated soil are compared. Figure 2 shows
the unconfined compression test for waste soil samples.
Figure 2. The unconfined compression test for waste soil samples.
3.3. Analysis using Monte Carlo Simulation for Optimizations
The data for the treated eggshell powder and untreated eggshell powder will be correlated
using linear regression analysis. The algorithm from the linear regression will be simulated
using Monte Carlo Simulations. The simulations will be done for N = 50, 100, 500, 1000,
5000 number of iterations
3.4. Statistical Modeling of Waste Soil Improvement using STATISTICA
The statistical modeling using STATISTICA software to analyze the data and improved the
optimizations of the waste soil. The standard deviation, the mean value and variance are
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
271
[email protected]
Nur Irfah Mohd Pauzi, Mior Amin Aimran Mior Abdul Aziz, Mohammad Syakirin Ismail,
Husaini Omar
obtained from STATISTICA software. From the statistical modelling, the data will be tested
on the confidence level where usually the confidence level is 95%.
3.5. Conclusions and Recommendations
The recommendations of the optimized value of the eggshell powder and lime to be added to
waste soil will be discussed in this research. The waste soil can be treated with the eggshell
powder for the abandoned open dumping area and area can be further used for the new
development such as housing area, golf course, park and other.
The flowchart of the research methodology as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Methodology of the research
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Particle Size Distribution
The soil samples collected were analyzed using the sieve analysis test. The samples were oven
dried for 24 hours so that the samples can be sieve using dry sieve method. The samples
collected from three different location show that the sample consist of waste soil for 24.82%
for sample 1, 20.78% for sample 2 and 0% for sample 3. The detail distribution of the soil
composition as shown in Table 1. Figure 4 show the particle size distribution for waste soil.
Table 1 Type of soil for waste soil sample 1, 2 and 3
Waste
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Type of soil
Soil sample 1
24.82
35.23
39.90
0.05
gravelly SAND
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
Soil sample 2
20.78
47.20
32.03
0
sandy GRAVEL
272
Soil sample 3
0
46.52
53.40
0.08
gravelly SAND
[email protected]
Waste Soil Improvement Using Egg Shell Powder and Lime at Open Dumping Area
60.00
Waste soil
sample 1
Percenage Finer (%)
50.00
40.00
Waste soil
sample 2
30.00
20.00
Controlled
soil sample
3
10.00
0.00
0.010
0.100 Sieve Size (mm) 1.000
10.000
Figure 4. Particles Size Distributions for Waste Soil
4.2. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Waste Soil
The characteristics of the waste soil are complex because it mainly composed of organic and
inorganic substances. Organic mainly include food waste, decayed wood, plastic and rubber.
While inorganic include metal, glass, tiles and ash, etc. Table 2 show the result for plastic
limit, liquid limit and plasticity index of waste soil, and the shear strength parameters. The
plasticity index for sample 1, sample 2 and sample 3 of the waste soil are 33.96%, 34.04%
and 28.17% respectively. It shows that the sample has high plasticity and would need to be
treated using the additives in order to improve the strength of the waste soil. Table 2 show the
physical and mechanical properties of waste soil from Sungai Ramal open dumping area. The
cohesion and friction angle of waste soil is 33.8 kPa and 32 degree respectively.
Table 2 The physical and mechanical properties of waste soil
Sample No.
Liquid Limit Plastic Limit Plasticity
(%)
(%)
Index (%)
Direct
Shear Test
S1
47.46
13.50
33.96
c = 33.8 kPa
S2
46.15
12.11
34.04
ɸ = 320
S3
39.17
11.00
28.17
4.3. Compression Test
The waste soil was tested for the settlement by using consolidation test. The loading of 1kg, 2
kg and 4 kg normal load were used for each sample. When the normal load is applied to the
samples 1, the soil tends to compress for 0.796 mm. The normal soil without additives has the
settlement 0.97 mm and 1.44 mm for 2 kg and 4 kg normal load respectively. When we added
2.5% of egg shell powder and 2.5% of lime ash, the settlement for 1 kg, 2 kg and 4 kg loading
is 1.27 mm, 1.72 mm and 4.02 mm respectively. The further adding another 5% of egg shell
powder and 5% of lime giving the settlement value of 1.174 mm, 1.712mm and 4.262 mm for
normal load of 1 kg, 2kg and 4 kg respectively. Finally, with the adding of 7.5% of egg shell
powder and 7.5% of lime, the compression is 1.08 mm, 1.224 mm and 4.71 mm for normal
loading of 1 kg, 2 kg and 4 kg respectively.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
273
[email protected]
Nur Irfah Mohd Pauzi, Mior Amin Aimran Mior Abdul Aziz, Mohammad Syakirin Ismail,
Husaini Omar
Figure 5. Compression result for
normal sample without additives
Figure 6. Compression result for
normal sample with 2.5% lime and
2.5% egg shell powder
Figure 7. Compression result for
normal sample with 5% lime and 5%
egg shell powder
Figure 8. Compression result for
normal sample with 7.5% lime and
7.5% egg shell powder
The settlement for the waste soil has increase as we increase the load. The settlement will
be stabilized after certain time. The stabilization of the waste soil varies between the samples.
The egg shell powder which acts like a binder to lime and waste soil help the stabilization
process of the waste soil. As compared with the samples with no additives, the soil tends to
settle more than the soil with additives. The calcium carbonate in the egg shell react as
cementitious material that could also increase the strength of the waste soil.
4.4. Unconfined Compressive Strength
The waste soil is tested using unconfined compressive strength. The waste soil is added with
2.5% lime and 2.5% Egg Shell Powder (ESP) for first batch, added with 5% of lime and 5 %
of ESP for second batch, and added with 7.5% of lime and 7.5% of ESP for third batch. The
addition of the egg shell powder and lime is based on the weight of the soil sample and added
the percentage of additives based on the weight. The results as shown in Figure 9. The
compressive strength is increase with the increase of the ESP and lime. At the 28 days, the
compressive strength is at the highest because the curing of the lime has completed at 28 days.
The compressive strength for normal sample is 29.61 kN/m2. The normal soil is added with
2.5% lime and 2.5% ESP, added with 5% lime and 5% ESP, added with 7.5% lime and 7.5%
ESP, the compressive at 7 days of curing is 47.34 kN/mm2, 76.61 kN/mm2 and 108.01
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
274
[email protected]
Waste Soil Improvement Using Egg Shell Powder and Lime at Open Dumping Area
kN/mm2 respectively. The details of the results are shown in Table 3, Table 4, Table 5 and
Table 6.
Figure 9. Unconfined compressive strength for waste soil with different percentage of lime and egg
shell powder
4.5. Optimization of the Unconfined Compressive Strength
The optimization of the result is done using Statistica Method. The number of simulation of
data are run for the compressive strength data for N= 12 for 7 days of curing, N= 16 for 14
days, 21 days and 28 days of curing. The mean value from the simulation run by Statistica
software gave the mean compressive strength of 50.08 kN/mm2 for normal soil, 84.60
kN/mm2 for 2.5% lime and 2.5% ESP, 135.23 kN/mm2 for 5% lime and 5% ESP and 184.75
kN/mm2 for 7.5% lime and 7.5% ESP. The details of the results are shown in Table 3, Table
4, Table 5 and Table 6. As the curing time is increase to 28 days, the compressive strength
has increase to 337.13 kN/mm2.
Table 3 The Unconfined Compressive Strength for 7 days of curing
Unconfined Compression
Test for 7 days of curing
Normal Sample
2.5 % Lime and 2.5% Egg
Shell Powder
5% Lime and 5% Egg
Shell Powder
7.5% Lime and 7.5% Egg
Shell Powder
Number of
Iterations
Mean Compressive
Strength (kN/mm2)
Compressive
Strength (kN/mm2)
12
50.08
29.61
12
84.60
47.34
12
135.23
76.61
12
184.75
108.01
Table 4 The Unconfined Compressive Strength for 14 days of curing
Unconfined Compression
Test for 14 days of curing
Normal Sample
2.5 % Lime and 2.5% Egg
Shell Powder
5% Lime and 5% Egg Shell
Powder
7.5% Lime and 7.5% Egg
Shell Powder
Number of
Iterations
16
16
Mean Compressive
Strength (kN/mm2)
45.73
64.11
Compressive
Strength (kN/mm2)
19.15
40.16
16
87.69
35.33
16
406.42
391.67
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
275
[email protected]
Nur Irfah Mohd Pauzi, Mior Amin Aimran Mior Abdul Aziz, Mohammad Syakirin Ismail,
Husaini Omar
Table 5 The Unconfined Compressive Strength for 21 days of curing
Unconfined
Compression Test for 21
days of curing
Normal Sample
2.5 % Lime and 2.5%
Egg Shell Powder
5% Lime and 5% Egg
Shell Powder
7.5% Lime and 7.5%
Egg Shell Powder
Number of
Iterations
Mean Compressive
Strength (kN/mm2)
Compressive
Strength (kN/mm2)
16
16
69.46
67.07
39.61
47.68
16
87.11
59.60
16
728.36
591.39
Table 6 The Unconfined Compressive Strength for 28 days of curing
Unconfined Compression
Test for 28 days of curing
Number of
Iterations
Mean Compressive
Strength (kN/mm2)
Normal Sample
2.5 % Lime and 2.5%
Egg Shell Powder
5% Lime and 5% Egg
Shell Powder
7.5% Lime and 7.5% Egg
Shell Powder
16
16
48.73
57.55
Compressive
Strength
(kN/mm2)
17.19
36.39
16
87.32
70.66
16
540.54
337.13
5. CONCLUSION
In general, the egg shell powder and lime have potential to increase the compressive strength
of the waste soil. Base on this investigation, the following conclusions were being drawn:

The compressive strength of waste soil is added with 2.5% lime and 2.5% ESP, 5% lime and
5% ESP, 7.5% lime and 7.5% ESP gave the results of 36.39 kN/mm2, 70.66 kN/mm2 and
337.13 kN/mm2 respectively at curing of 28 days, which satisfies the soil improvement
requirement.

The Monte Carlo Simulation and optimization of the result using the mean value show that the
compressive strength is increase when the data is simulated into N= 12 to N= 16. It has proved
that the accuracy of the result has increased by using Monte Carlo Simulation and
optimization.
6. RECOMMENDATIONS
From the result obtained, egg shell powder and lime are recommended to be used for
improving the strength of waste soil. The recommended percentage with the optimized value
is 7.5% lime and 75% ESP to be added to waste soil for soil improvement. Further increase of
lime and ESP will reduced the strength of the waste soil.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author would like to acknowledge the Universiti Tenaga Nasional for supporting the
research under UNIIG grant with code number J510050844. The Civil Engineering
Department, UNITEN for providing the facilities for experimental work.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
276
[email protected]
Waste Soil Improvement Using Egg Shell Powder and Lime at Open Dumping Area
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
Al-Joulani N., (2012), Effect of Stone Powder and Lime on the Properties of Fine Soils,
Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol (6), pp 350-366
Amu O.O, Fajobi A.B. and Oke B.O., (2005), Effect of Eggshell Powder on the
Stabilizing Potential of Lime on an Expansive Clay Soil, Journal of Applied Sciences 5
(8), 1474-1478, 2005
Anu Paul, Anumol V.S., Fathima M., Jiksymol K.J. and Alka A., (2014), Studies on
Improvement of Clayey Soil using Egg Shell Powder and Quarry Dust, International
Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol 4, Issue 4, Version 4, pp 55-63
Arash Barazesh, Hamidreza Saba, Mehdi Gharib and Moustafa Yousefi Rad, (2012),
Laboratory Investigation of the Effect of Eggshell powder on Plasticity Index in Clay and
Expansive soil, European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2(6): 2378-2384
Au S.K., Cao Z.J., and Wang Y., (2010), Implementing advanced Monte Carlo simulation
under spreadsheet environmental, Journal of Structural Safety 32, 2010, 281-292
Braja M.D. and Nagaratnam S., (2015), Fundamental of Geotechnical Engineering, 5th
Edition, Cengage Lerning, United States of America
Croft C.P., Mc Geory D. and Carlson D.H., (1999), Physical Geology, 8 th Edition,
McGraw Hill Companies Inc New York, pp 48-56
Lea, F.M., (1990), Investigation on pozzolans, Pozzolans and lime pozzolan mixed,
Building Research Technical Paper 27, 20-25
Muthu Kumar M, Tamilarasan V S, (2014), “Effect of eggshell powder in the index and
engineering properties of soil.” International Journal of Engineering Trends and
Technology, Vol.11, No.7, pp 319-323
Nur Irfah M.P., Husaini O., and Zainuddin M.Y., (2011), Geotechnical Properties of
Waste Soil from Open Dumping Area in Malaysia, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical
Engineering, Volume 16, Bundle K, p 1205 - 1220
Nur Irfah M.P., 2012, Monte Carlo Simulation Model for Waste Soil Settlement Based on
soil Mechanics, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Volume 17, Bundle L, pp
1793-1805
Park H.I., Park B., Lee S.R. and Hwang D., (2007), Parameter evaluation and performance
comparison of MSW settlement prediction model in various landfill types, Journal of
Environmental Engineering, ASCE 133 (1)
Peurifoy L. and Ledbetter W.B., (1985), Construction Planning, Equipment and Methods,
5th Edition, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, pp 25-30
Simoes G.F. and Catapreta C.A.A., (2012), Monitoring and modeling of long-term
settlement of an experimental landfill in Brazil, Waste Management, Article in Press
Sivak0umar Babu G.L., Krishna R.R. and Sandeep K.C., (2010), Constitutive model for
municipal solid waste incorporating mechanical creep and biodegradation compression,
Journal of Waste Management 30, 2010, 11-22
Wang Y., Cao Z. and Au S.K., 2010, Efficient Monte Carlo Simulation of parameter
sensitivity in probabilistic slope stability analysis, Journal of Computers and Geotechnics
37, 2010, 1015 -1022
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
277
[email protected]
Download
Random flashcards
State Flags

50 Cards Education

Countries of Europe

44 Cards Education

Art History

20 Cards StudyJedi

Sign language alphabet

26 Cards StudyJedi

Create flashcards