Uploaded by Information Iaeme


International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 44-53, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_006
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy
Professor, KSOM, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Dr. B.C.M. Patnaik
Associate Professor, KSOM, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Devesh Rath
Research Scholar, KSOM, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
A deep detailed study enumerates on different aspects of entrepreneurial traits
based on challenges like role conflict and motivational factors among womenpreneurs
/ women entrepreneurs in civil, construction and real estate sector spread across the
globe different countries. This articles enlightens the different dependency and
independency factors like mental and physical stress, agony, financial inclusion,
societal hindrances, gender bias etc as negative traits of role conflict along with
highlights the positive aspects of motivation, entrepreneurial skill sets, training, support
etc incorporated which compels women of today’s generation to pursue
entrepreneurship as career alternative rather than getting into jobs. The numerous
elements which urges ladies to enter in this field of entrepreneurship uniquely to gain
cash, monetary help to family, freedom and so forth yet at the same time there are
numerous obstacles before them like continuing in market, capital, gender biasness, and
role conflict, work life balance. Moreover, womenpreneurs is also player in multiple
roles like existing scenario of venture, personal life, professional life, family life, child
parenting life. This leads to psychological stress and different health hazards. However,
the different motivating factors of independent life style, own identity, extra financial
benefit, ecosystem creation, self motivation leads her to pursue womenpreneurship.
Moreover, it also describes the less efficiency of womenpreneurs in the civil,
construction, real estate and architecture sectors thereby building a societal ideology
of the sectors to be a male dominated sector. So, alternative solutions should be
formulated so as to encourage and enhance womenpreneurs in the field of civil,
construction, real estate and architecture sectors thereby narrowing the gap with
respect to male entrepreneurs.
[email protected]
Challenges and Motivational Factors among Womenpreneurs in Construction and Architecture
Sectors – An Empirical Study
Key words: Womenpreneur, Women Entrepreneurs, Role Conflict, Work Life
Balance, Entrepreneurship, Motivation, Financial Inclusion, Stress, Business
Visionaries, Performance, Entrepreneurial Skills Gender Bias, Training, Psychological
Factors, Civil, Construction, Real Estate, Architecture.
Cite this Article: Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy, Dr. B.C.M. Patnaik, Devesh Rath, Challenges
and Motivational Factors among Womenpreneurs in Construction and Architecture
Sectors – An Empirical Study, International Journal of Civil Engineering and
Technology 10(4), 2019, pp. 44-53.
Is Entrepreneurship a choice or a compulsion? This query has raised serious attention among
entrepreneurship researchers. In the previous two decades, female business people have pulled
in a lot of consideration because of the tremendous effect they have on the economy of each
nation, particularly in their capacity to make employments for themselves as well as other
people, mitigate neediness, and being major drivers of financial development and improvement
(Mari, Poggesi and De Vita, 2016; Kimanzi, 2016). Likewise, the 2015 Global
Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, 2015) on womenpreneurs set up that ladies business
visionaries had limited the gender gap (proportion of female to men taking an interest in
enterprise) by 6% since 2012 and Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurship Activity (TEA) rates had
expanded by 7%. These insights delineate that there has been an expansion in the quantity of
female wandering into business enterprise.
Worldwide around one-third of the total entrepreneurs population square measure Women
Entrepreneurs. An associate businessperson may be a one who organizes associated manages
an enterprise, particularly a business, typically with wide initiative and risk. The quantity of
freelance ladies has steady augmented over the past 3 decades. Entrepreneurship as a profession
helps people to strengthen the positive impact by dedicating psychological, social control and
money independence to entrepreneurs. The results enumerates that through continuous growth
and upsurge in understanding the role that psychological method of humans’ plays in action of
a goal/ deciding are often solved . Within the context of entrepreneurial behavior, intention of
people helps to demonstrate the longer term projections of human behavior which might predict
the attainable course of action. Entrepreneurship as a technique to push enterprise may well be
prosperous given that an equivalent is punctually imparted and carefully iatrogenic or
instigated. Role conflict and motivation are like the two sides of a coin in the daily life of
womenpreneurs / women entrepreneurs. Role conflict happens once there square measure
incompatible demands placed upon someone specified compliance with each would be tough.
Persons expertise role conflict after they notice themselves force in numerous directions as they
struggle to reply to the numerous statuses they hold. Interpersonal relations can cause conflict
because they are by definition "having an association between two or more people that may
range from fleeting to enduring, which can cause that conflict." “Motivation as defined by Fred
Luthans, is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that
activates behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.” The definition of motivation
by Stephen P. Robbins (2010) is “the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward
organizational goals, conditioned by the effort and ability to satisfy some individual need.”
“Motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to the individual that arouses
enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action as defined by Gray and Starke.”
Inferred from the definitions, currently motivation is also outlined as one’s disposition to exert
high level of efforts towards the accomplishment of goal or fulfillment of would like. This
[email protected]
Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy, Dr. B.C.M. Patnaik, Devesh Rath
article highlights the different aspects of Role Conflict and Motivational factors in
Womenpreneurs / Women Entrepreneurs which intends towards an imbalance work life balance
between professional and personal life owing to prospects and the future challenges. The paper
is sorted out as pursues: a refreshed writing audit is first introduced; the technique of the exact
investigation and the outcomes are then represented; at long last, the ramifications of the
discoveries just as the restrictions of the examination are talked about and headings for further
research are recommended.
To examine the challenges and motivating factors among civil, construction, real estate,
architect womenpreneurs.
To examine the factors impacting role conflict and work life balance in womenpreneurs.
To examine the performance and motivational factors in womenpreneurs.
The study is predicated on the secondary information. During this regard numerous libraries
visited and a few on-line journals were conjointly reviewed during this direction.
3.1. Literature Related to Challenges and Motivating Factors in Civil,
Construction, Real Estate, Architect Womenpreneurs
Ignasi Brunet Icart and Alejandro Pizzi et al (2013) in their study on Spain has inferred
about the gender differences based on social imagination owing to natural and biological
conditions. Moreover, they have also emphasized on the multiple role sand role conflicts among
women which reduces their chances to enter into construction and real estate sectors as women
entrepreneurs and in return this sector dominates as a male oriented sector. The four intangible
resources of a women entrepreneur in any field like construction, real estate, chemical etc which
leads to business success among them were studied by Crystal X. Jiang, Monica A.
Zimmerman, Grace Chun Guo et al (2012). The parameters are human, social competence,
reputational factor. Souha R. Ezzedeen and Jelena Zikic (2012) concentrates found female
business folks / women entrepreneurs tough multi-layered tested, starting from a couple of
sources in their Entrepreneurial girls in high innovation condition, and coming back from
verifiable personal identity affiliations that compare enterprise and innovation with men and
manfulness. At the hierarchal dimension, females’ tough restriction from male subordinates and
also faces hindrances with male and feminine colleagues. At the business level, girls were tested
by differentials in male-female execution measures, an absence of feminine smart examples,
and solid challenge with male-possessed organizations. They to boot tough obstruction with
relevancy totally different trade partners as well as customers, money lenders, and companions.
The social dimension is battled by them with weights to regulate to their personal identity
character and to commit themselves to either work or family. The same issues are encountered
in the real estate, construction and civil engineering field by Canadian women entrepreneurs.
Prof. Dr. S.W.J. Lamberts (2005) investigation is non randomized empirical study which
utilizes a few example in Dutch real estate association. The investigation does anyway point at
the presence of gender contrasts, specifically concerning the inspiration for startup, experience,
the utilization of a guide, way to enterprise, development introduction and initiative. An
intriguing finding between male and female depicts male business people every now and again
were associated with the overtaking of the land business they recently worked for, feminine
business visionaries were guaranteed to go in business. It seems that male enterprise within the
land business is opportunity-driven, as they do not become severally utilized at their terribly
[email protected]
Challenges and Motivational Factors among Womenpreneurs in Construction and Architecture
Sectors – An Empirical Study
own drive, whereas feminine commerce is a lot of want driven as girls don't seem to be offered
the prospect to assume management over a group up business and go in business. The expansion
system of male land operators may likewise be (incompletely) clarified by the bigger normal
size of their organizations. While female business visionaries appear to concentrate more on
coherence than on development, male business visionaries appear to be progressively proactive
concerning development, concentrating on (future) chances of development. The motivation
behind the exploratory examination by Leslie Patricia Roberts (1998) was to research the
affiliation between six mentalities toward enterprise: 1) accomplishment in business, 2) seen
individual control of business results, 3) confidence in business, 4) inclination for development
in business, 5) inclination for business development in work and 6) inclination for business
development in income; and four sorts of pioneering conduct I) full-time locally established
business enterprise, ii) low maintenance locally situated business, iii) non-locally situated
(business) business enterprise, and iv) non-business (clerical, non-the board work). Golshan
Javadian and Robert P. Singh (2012) analyzed the impact of sexual orientations
generalizations, social conventions, self-efficacy and hazard taking area unit among the usually
looked into subjects in ladies' business / girls entrepreneurs. It gives the idea that negative
generalizations and social obstructions negatively affect effective Iranian business people. In
any case, individual inward factors, with hazard adverseness and low self-efficacy being
ordinarily viewed as hindrances for ladies in the Western world which may not be obstructions
for Iranian ladies regarding enterprise. Iranian ladies' abnormal state of self-efficacy and their
hazard taking capacities makes it conceivable components for progress for the business people.
In addition the social and the customary limits are the negative generalizations are the primary
boundaries these ladies need to survive. However, it’s conjointly inferred that because of the
on top of factors the participation of ladies entrepreneurs in engineering science sector is
restricted and limiting it majorly as male dominated sectors. A Romanian societal study on
entrepreneurship mentality, female entrepreneurs' personal characteristics /competences and
motivation was done by Violeta Sima, Ileana Georgiana Gheorghe, Augustin Mitu et al
(2017). The main challenges in LIMO implementation in Romania with regards to female
mentality and work based on Romanian labour market, female employment, management and
women entrepreneurs was observed. In all sectors like construction, civil, real estate,
manufacturing, tourism, service etc the efficiency of decision making of women in comparison
to male is low. The women entrepreneurs are found to be hard working, open mentality to
challenges, team work, better environmental conditions, good negotiators etc. The principle
difficulties of the task were found to be drawing ladies of all age groups, fortifying women
business acumen, tech savvy with well versed in social media, reinforcing their self assurance.
Federico Pablo, Antonio Garcia and Jose Luis Crespo et al (2014) attempted to comprehend
issues on ladies' practices in innovative movement, business acumen, recognizing the
distinctions in contrast with men. The primary points broke down show comparative findings
in connection to attributes and inspirations, initiative style, key decision, deterrents and results.
Innovative ladies studies results an assortment of segments reflecting the economy's normal;
and customarily female oriented business like selected services and informal sectors rather
listing out a least possibility of existence in core sectors like civil, construction, real estate,
manufacturing etc. Male and female purposes behind progress and survival are observed to be
significantly the equivalent, however close to home qualities and inspirations were observed to
appear as something else. Among the distinctions discovered, it merits featuring the measure
of time given by enterprising ladies to family tasks, the higher extent of ladies in the staff they
utilize, and their pledge to item and administration advancement. It moreover recommends new
methodologies in approaches went for advancing the section of ladies in pioneering move
promise to advancement in merchandise and enterprises. Joseph Farhat & Naranchimeg
[email protected]
Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy, Dr. B.C.M. Patnaik, Devesh Rath
Mijid et al (2018) studies enumerates an unmistakable probability that the execution estimates
utilized in these examinations have neglected to control for the dimension of heterogeneity that
might be inalienable in the organizations which depends on past research proposing the less
achievement rate of female-claimed firms in contrast with male possessed firms. Likewise, it's
determined that female-had firms have a comparative rate of survival as their men-asserted
accomplices and that the advancement rate appeared ladies-guaranteed associations with
respect to components, for instance, total assets, work, advantage, and arrangements, is the
thing that could be contrasted with men-possessed firms. There is nonattendance of any gender
gaps as far as business execution. Moreover, the outcomes showed that, while the organizations
that are begun by ladies begin littler and remain littler, they don't fall behind those begun by
guys as far as business execution. Be that as it may, it spreads a message for giving better
chances, inspiration, and self-assurance among ladies to assemble a superior endeavor in
contrast with their male partners. In addition study also shows less women entrepreneurs’
involvement in civil, construction, real estate sector of business. Valerie Caven and Ani
Raiden (2010) studies relates to research the degree extent of job life balance activities work
in the design calling along with requirements addressable of utilization. The information
uncovers critical worries over keeping up a tasteful work-life balance inside the calling. Most
workers inviting work-life balance was seen inside nearby expert utilized modelers however
this included some significant pitfalls of a less innovative and littler occupations. The
examination depends on a two-crease investigation: (i) if the current discussions on job life
balance induces to a great extent overlooked the business setting this is a critical variable in
building up and keeping up work-life balance inside [some] proficient occupations, for
example, design (ii) based on an industrial cultural seismic move required to be a timely
addressable to issues related to the board, and in context to the business work profile it’s hard
to accomplish the set goals.
3.2. Literature Related To Role Conflict and Work Life Balance in
Sara Poggesi & Michela Mari & Luisa De Vita et al (2017) studied that in light of the bidimensional conceptualization of work-family conflict (WFC), recognizing work family
impedance and family obstruction with work, examination checks an all-encompassing model
of the WFC which considers either within region impacts or the cross-space effects of work and
family stressors on work family impedance and family obstruction with work experienced by
womenpreneurs. In addition, throughout late years (20 years), academic thought towards workfamily struggle (WFS) issues has been continually getting to be because of the money related
changes occurring in the open eye. Neneh Brownhilder Ngek et al (2018) describes the
outcomes affirmed the negative effect of family-work conflict (FWC) on the execution of ladies
possessed organizations. A quantitative research method with a descriptive research design by
Olawale Fatoki et al (2017) demonstrated that migrant business visionaries have an abnormal
state of WLC. Ladies business visionaries have a more elevated amount of WLC contrasted
with male business visionaries. Moreover, migrant business people should set objectives that
consolidate both work and life exercises to diminish WLC. The booking of work and life
exercises by business visionaries is imperative and it should set practical desires for what can
be accomplished in multi day particularly at work. Thus, this will empower business visionaries
not to make irrational requests on themselves rather appoint the work to representatives with
the basic goal that business people can possess the energy for different exercises. In spite of the
fact that there is a solid assortment of existing exploration on ladies' vocation life advancement
and on ladies' business enterprise/ women entrepreneurs, there is an absence of comprehension
of the particular encounters of mother business people/ mother entrepreneurs as described by
Rebecca E. Hudson Breen, Susan L. Tasker, Bryan Hiebert et al (2017). The center
[email protected]
Challenges and Motivational Factors among Womenpreneurs in Construction and Architecture
Sectors – An Empirical Study
classification "Continuing onward" delineates a recursive fuelled seven essential influential
parameters as an essential social procedure namely feeling upheld, settling on decisions,
adjusting innovatively, recalling the push, recollecting the draw, imagining the future, and
living my qualities. The way toward propping up is a versatile and recursive procedure of
settling on decisions and adjusting imaginatively, which is bolstered and continued through
inclination upheld and having a feeling of living one's qualities. Emma Hagqvist, Susanna
Toivanen, Claudia Bernhard-Oettel (2018) expounds on the association with work meddling
with personal life and personal life meddling with work among autonomously utilized
individuals across over European countries. Sexual orientation is an imperative hazard
parameter in encountering payment of work meddling to personal life, personal life meddling
with work payment, and how obstruction identifies with prosperity, on both an individual and
a logical dimension. Gender equality contrasts to first delineated reasons for periodical requests
and homely youngsters’ identification with impedance, which moreover, explains the reasons
for obstruction identification with prosperity. In the idea of doing gender, these outcomes
propose that manliness and womanliness appear to be increasingly express among
independently employed people. Meltem Ince Yenilmez (2018) examined the looks at female
entrepreneurs who run and work organizations and new businesses in two unique urban areas
in Turkey; Istanbul and Izmir. In outline women entrepreneurs in these two urban areas, start
their organizations all alone. At long last, on the rundown, lower dimensions of family-work
clashes in this investigation uncovers that female business people normally have a solid family
emotionally supportive network and they had practical house help available to help. Different
contemplations ought to be given to the distinction in economies. This correlation is required
by the way that the contrasts among people, as their unmistakable styles of the executives, or
the way that men will in general last longer as business visionaries than ladies may be. In
addition the social issues that either debilitates or empowers women entrepreneurs / female
business visionaries, should be tended to as culture varies starting with one society then onto
the next among created or creating nations of the world. Sucheta Agarwal and Usha Lenka
et al (2015) studied the work-life parity of ladies business people/ women entrepreneurs.
Business enterprise has risen as a worldwide idea and contributed for financial improvement of
the nation based on skills of business visionaries for accomplishment enterprise creation or
entrepreneurship considering as an unmistakable field in the aggressive business world.
Absence of appropriate direction, government preparing, specialized learning, family backing,
and poor system are obstructions in their enterprising endeavor. Ladies endeavor to keep up
work-life balance through their innovative aptitudes like powerful correspondence, sorting out,
arranging, driving and assigning abilities. Anil Boz Semerci, Thierry Volery et al (2017)
described the child rearing worry of business visionaries / entrepreneurs. The outcomes uncover
that social help is a solid indicator of child rearing pressure and that there is an immediate
impact between child rearing pressure and family obstruction to work. In context to difficulties
on child rearing, numerous business visionaries face consistent strain accomplishes a positive
business outcome adventure also buckle down, for extended periods of time. In this manner, a
superior comprehension of business visionaries' child rearing jobs and stress can reveal some
insight into the difficulties looked without anyone else utilized people and adds to the
professional conduct and vocation improvement writing and useful encounters. Aizzat Mohd.
Nasurdin, Noor Hazlina Ahmad, Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal et al (2013), examination
tried for gender equality contrasts among Malaysian entrepreneurs with respect to the four
elements of work-family balance a) characterize work-family balance, (b) audit early and
contemporary models of work-family balance, (c) survey the significant causes and results of
work-family parity, and (d) investigate procedures for advancing work-family balance among
Malaysian entrepreneurs. It gives the idea that encounters of contention and assistance did not
[email protected]
Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy, Dr. B.C.M. Patnaik, Devesh Rath
fit in with the conventional gender role viewpoint as theorized. Despite the fact that the
encounters related with work-family issues have been speculated to be diverse for hitched male
and female business people inside the Malaysian setting, the outcomes demonstrated no
3.3. Literature Related to Performance and Motivational Factors in
Lois M. Shelton et al (2006) studied that the existing hypothesis is reached out to anticipate
the adequacy of procedures for fundamentally lessening work to family strife through
controlling jobs, provides remarkable quality related to work and family jobs which assets
accessible to women business visionary. A calculated casing work dependent on the builds of
job inclusion and job strife is utilized to analyze whether high-development female business
people pick increasingly proper procedures for lessening work– family struggle than their less
fruitful partners. The possible suggestive measures catering to the three fundamental procedures
for controlling roles likely (1) job disposal; (2) job decrease; and (3) job sharing has been
identified. Consequently, the high inescapability of gathering building and participative
organization practices found in women had associations may be driven by the prerequisite for
female business visionaries to manage work– family conflicts similarly as innate characteristics
or socialization. Rincy V. Mathew and N. Panchanatham et al (2011) studies elaborates that
in India, business has customarily been viewed as a male privilege. This examination revealed
that activity over-load, subordinate thought issues, nature of prosperity, issues in time the load
up and nonattendance of fitting social help are the main issue affecting the adjusting work and
life of women agents in India. Also, regardless of the way that most by a long shot of the
representatives dissected in this examination encounters adjusting work and life issues, there
are tremendous differences in the element of adjusting work and life issues looked by the
changed classes of women businessmen. Michela Mari and Sara Poggesi et al (2015)
illustrated a study within Italy, based on influence of family setting by ladies firms' execution
in contextualizing of examination. By utilizing ordinal relapses, the impact of three elements
of the family setting on female firms' execution, to be specific: the inspirations to begin and
enterprise by the help from the family for enterprise set up; components accomplishing a
reasonable harmony among life in relation to work and family has been illustrated. By and
large, the outcomes offer significant help for the supposition that female entrepreneurs profit
by being maneuvered through undertaking, via explicit family connections or networking also
furthermore through chose instruments adjusting life in work and family, accordingly the
addition demonstrated the logic behind a solid the connection among company's exhibition and
the home setting for ladies. The studies on gender gap enterprises in Poland by Paweł
Ziemiański (2018) focuses on the investigation to break down whether the experience of
working in a relative's business is connected diversely to the surveyed probabilities of people
beginning their own new pursuit. Ladies who have helped in a family-possessed business
evaluate their likelihood of going into business as higher than ladies without such experience
do yet it doesn't impact them as much as it impacts men. This implies probably a portion of the
components that can be required to can possibly influence the pioneering choices of individuals
who gain experience when working in a privately-owned company may lesser affect ladies than
men. A study in Bosnia and Herzegovina by Munira Sestic, Sabina Ibrahimagic (2015)
illustrated through the financial strengthening of ladies can prompt better development, more
prominent intensity and better human advancement. Financial strengthening of ladies through
enterprise and private company offers an enormous space for the presentation genuine changes
in their lives. Thus, independent work has moved toward becoming for some ladies this is their
solitary possibility for paid work. In the meantime, ladies who undergone up against with fewer
chances to go into business because of explicit gender boundaries in access to data, encouraging
[email protected]
Challenges and Motivational Factors among Womenpreneurs in Construction and Architecture
Sectors – An Empirical Study
groups of people and insurance. An Israeli entrepreneurs study by Dafna Kariv et al (2008)
described this examination which builds up an imaginative standpoint for an examination of
the connection between business people's pressure evaluated as constructive or pessimistic and
their business' money related execution, which turnover of businesses owned by men and
businesses owned by women. In light of duo overwhelming speculations, the resource oriented
sight in context to pressure examination hypothesis, which guesses that proprietors' pressure
speaks to the capabilities they have and use to deal with their organizations for elite. A various
leveled relapse developed optimistic pressure towards positivity which helps in business' trigger
to turnover thereby blocking the negative pressure gender based communications through
societal help with job hustle and tussle compounded to the basic impacts of stress factor for
achieving enterprise turnover solely. Taking everything into account, the ramifications of the
investigations on businesses owned by men and businesses owned by women money related
execution analyzes; the outcomes to be reevaluated which demonstrates the board idea of highperforming businesses owned by men in respect to businesses owned by women.
A study on the different challenges and motivation factors among civil, construction, real estate,
architect womenpreneurs.
A study on prospects leading towards encouragement of more womenpreneurs in the field of
civil, construction, real estate, architect narrowing the gap of male intensive factor related to the
A comparative study on role conflict, work life balance and performance can be done between
menpreneurs (male entrepreneurs) & womenpreneurs (female entrepreneurs) in the state of
A detailed study on impact of different government schemes, facilities, support from financial
institutions leading towards better performance and motivation among entrepreneurs.
A complete examination on the effects of social inclusion towards entrepreneurship (male and
Thus from the following literature review its seen that there are numerous elements which urges
ladies to enter in this field of entrepreneurship uniquely to gain cash, monetary help to family,
freedom and so forth yet at the same time there are numerous obstacles before them like
continuing in market, capital, gender biasness, and role conflict, work life balance. As she plays
a multiple roles like existing scenario of venture, personal life, professional life, family life,
child parenting life. This leads to psychological stress and different health hazards. Normally
they begin their business after their begin achieving school. Ladies face more role conflict then
men entrepreneurs as social desire is more prominent for them. Life partner's along with family,
in-laws, friends and relatives help is an incredible quality for them. Dependency in organizing
capital is major ordeal for another business person. Also, to maintain a business she should have
a decent systems administration. Next to bunches of imperatives on the off chance that she get
support from her family and particularly from her mate it will assist her parcel with maintaining
her work life balance. However, the different motivating factors of independent life style, own
identity, extra financial benefit, ecosystem creation, self motivation leads to pursue
womenpreneurship. In addition different future steps should be incorporated to encourage more
womenpreneurs in the field of civil, construction, real estate; architect thereby narrowing the
gap of mindset related male intensive factor related to the sector.
[email protected]
Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy, Dr. B.C.M. Patnaik, Devesh Rath
Ignasi Brunet Icart and Alejandro Pizzi, (2013), Effects of the sexual division of labor on
self-employment creation in Spain, Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 2013,
Vol. 26, No. 2, 151–167, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2013.771857
Crystal X. Jiang, Monica A. Zimmerman, Grace Chun Guo, (2012),Growth of WomenOwned Businesses: The Effects of Intangible Resources and Social Competence, Journal of
Business Diversity vol. 12(1) 2012
Souha R. Ezzedeen and Jelena Zikic (2012), Entrepreneurial experiences of women in
Canadian high technology, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship Vol. 4 No.
1, 2012
S.W.J. Lamberts (2005), Is There A (Fe)Male Approach? Understanding Gender
Differences In
Entrepreneurship, ERIM Ph.D. Series Research in Management, ISBN 90–5892–080–1
Leslie Patricia Roberts (1998), DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY, October 1998
Golshan Javadian and Robert P. Singh (2012), Gender in Management: International
Journal, Vol. 27 No. 3, 2012
Violeta Sima, Ileana Georgiana Gheorghe, Augustin Mitu (2017), The Feminine
Entrepreneurship in Romania and New Ways for its Development, North Economic
Review, Volume I, Number 1, (2017)
Federico Pablo, Antonio Garcia and Jose Luis Crespo (2014), Do gender-related differences
exist in Spanish entrepreneurial activities?, International Journal of Gender and
Entrepreneurship, Vol. 6 No. 2, 2014
Joseph Farhat & Naranchimeg Mijid (2018), Do women lag behind men? A matchedsample analysis of the dynamics of gender gaps, J Econ Finan (2018)
Valerie Caven and Ani Raiden (2010), Work-life balance among architects, Egbu, C. (Ed)
Procs 26th Annual ARCOM Conference, 6-8 September 2010, Leeds, UK, Association of
Researchers in Construction Management, 533-542.
Sara Poggesi & Michela Mari & Luisa De Vita et al (2017); Women entrepreneurs and
work-family conflict: An analysis of the antecedents; Int Entrep Manage;
Neneh Brownhilder Ngek et al (2018); Family-work Conflict and Performance of Womenowned Enterprises: The Role of Social Capital in Developing Countries--Implications for
South Africa and Beyond; Journal of International Women’s Studies Vol. 19, No. 6 August
Olawale Fatoki et al (2017); Gender And The Work Life Conflict Of Immigrant
Entrepreneurs In South Africa; Gender & Behaviour, 15 (1), 2017, 8367 – 8379; Copyright
© 2017 Ife Centre for Psychological Studies/Services, Nigeria
Rebecca E. Hudson Breen, Susan L. Tasker, Bryan Hiebert et al (2017); How SelfEmployed Women with Children Manage Multiple Life Roles; Canadian Journal of
Counselling and Psychotherapy / ISSN 0826-3893 Vol. 51 No. 3 © 2017 Pages 187–
Emma Hagqvist, Susanna Toivanen, Claudia Bernhard-Oettel (2018); Balancing Work and
Life When Self-Employed: The Role of Business Characteristics, Time Demands, and
Gender Contexts; Soc. Sci. 2018, 7, 139; doi:10.3390/socsci7080139;
[email protected]
Challenges and Motivational Factors among Womenpreneurs in Construction and Architecture
Sectors – An Empirical Study
Meltem Ince Yenilmez (2018); An Inquiry Into Improving Women Participation In
Entrepreneurship In Turkey; International Journal of Entrepreneurship Volume 22, Issue 3,
Sucheta Agarwal and Usha Lenka et al (2015); Study on work-life balance of women
entrepreneurs – review and research agenda; PAGE 356 j INDUSTRIAL AND
COMMERCIAL TRAINING j VOL. 47 NO. 7 2015, pp. 356-362, © Emerald Group
Publishing Limited, ISSN 0019-7858
Anil Boz Semerci, Thierry Volery et al (2017); Entrepreneurs as parents: the antecedents
and consequence of parenting stress; International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior &
Research; Vol. 24 No. 1, 2018; pp. 41-58
Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin, Noor Hazlina Ahmad, Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal et al (2013);
Comparing Work-Family Conflict And Facilitation Among Male And Female
Entrepreneurs In Malaysia; International Journal of Business and Society; Vol. 14 No.1;
2013; 149-162
Lois M. Shelton et al (2006); Female Entrepreneurs, Work–Family Conflict, and Venture
Performance: New Insights into the Work–Family Interface; Journal of Small Business
Management 2006 44(2), pp. 285–297
Rincy V. Mathew and N. Panchanatham et al (2011); An Exploratory Study On The WorkLife Balance Of Women Entrepreneurs In South India; Asian Academy of Management
Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, 77–105, July 2011
Michela Mari and Sara Poggesi et al (2015); Family embeddedness and business
performance: evidences from women-owned firms; Management Decision Vol. 54 No. 2,
2016 pp. 476-500
Paweł Ziemiański (2018); Family business experience and the probability of starting a
venture: gender differences in Poland; JEEMS; , 23 (4) 2018, 603
Munira Sestic, Sabina Ibrahimagic (2015); Business Problems In A Women’s Small
Entrepreneurship - The Bosnia And Herzegovina Case Of Post Conflict And Transition
Context; 9th International Scientific Conference "Economic and Social Development";
Istanbul, 9-10 April 2015
Dafna Kariv et al (2008); The Relationship between Stress and Business Performance
among Men and Women Entrepreneurs; Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship
21, no. 4 (2008): pp. 449–476
[email protected]
Random flashcards
State Flags

50 Cards Education

Countries of Europe

44 Cards Education

Art History

20 Cards StudyJedi

Sign language alphabet

26 Cards StudyJedi

Create flashcards