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FACTORS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM SUCCESS: APPLIED DELONE AND MCLEAN MODEL WITH TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL FOR SALES MANAGEMENT APPLICATION IN BANKING SECTOR OF INDONESIA

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 199–211, Article ID: IJMET_10_04_022
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
FACTORS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
SUCCESS: APPLIED DELONE AND MCLEAN
MODEL WITH TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE
MODEL FOR SALES MANAGEMENT
APPLICATION IN BANKING SECTOR OF
INDONESIA
Refa Nathanael Jusuf, Nilo Legowo, Taufik Samiaji, Deny Sundari
Information Systems Management Department,
Binus Graduate Program – Master of Information Systems Management,
Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta Indonesia 11480
ABSTRACT
The banking industry in Indonesia is developing using technology and one of the
private bank in Indonesia uses technology to build Information Systems (IS). The
purpose of this study is to evaluate information system success model for sales
management application. The methodology used to this study is the Delone and
McLean Model with the Technology Acceptance Model and added with the trust
factor. The study hypothesis consists of 15 hypotheses, where system quality,
information quality, service quality, and trust have an influence on perceived
usefulness and perceived ease of use. Then, perceived usefulness and perceived ease
of use through attitude toward using, behavioral intention to use, actual system usage,
user satisfication have an influence on net benefit. Data obtained from employees that
are distributed to the private bank employees. The number of employees in this study
are 360 respondent. The results of this study are known to have three hypotheses
rejected, namely: service quality has no effect on perceived usefulness, service quality
has no effect on perceived ease of use, and trust has no effect on perceived usefulness.
Keywords: Evaluation, Sales Mobile Application, Delone & McLean, Technology
Acceptance Model, Bank.
Cite this Article: Refa Nathanael Jusuf, Nilo Legowo, Taufik Samiaji and Deny
Sundari, Factors of Information System Success: Applied Delone and Mclean Model
with Technology Acceptance Model For Sales Management Application In Banking
Sector of Indonesia, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology
10(4), 2019, pp. 199–211.
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Factors of Information System Success: Applied Delone and Mclean Model with Technology
Acceptance Model For Sales Management Application In Banking Sector of Indonesia
1. INTRODUCTION
The development of technology in Indonesia grows rapidly. The banking industry in
Indonesia is transforming by utilizing technology. Investments in technology have a
significant impact on the banking industry. There are several factors that are key to the
transformation of banks in Indonesia. Technology and customer needs are the most influential
key factors for banks to transform [1].
Table 1 Bank Transformation Factors in Indonesia
Category
Percentage (%)
Technology
Customer Needs
Competition
Operational
Others
43
34
14
6
3
As the banking sector expanded, the number of banks continues to increase and along with
the development of technology, bank services changed. Investment banks in large quantities
for the decision support systems and banks need a competitive system on the market and
make better decisions [2] and banks invest in large volumes to adjust all changes, but the
return on investment is still a constant debate [3]. IS are the main drivers for starting business
changes within the organization and are considered very important for running an efficient
and effective modern business [4].
The private bank implements a mobile-based IS for their employees by utilizing
technology. After the application is implemented, there are a lot of problem reported by the
user. The application crashes when it is being accessed, slow response when retrieving data,
and user failed to login into the application with an error message “Network Error”. The
Figure 1 represent total incidents when the application crashes and The Figure 2 respresent
total incidents when the application give an error message “Network Error”. Both of incidents
taken from October 2017 until March 2018.
Figure 1 Total Incidents When The Application Crashes
Figure 2 Total Incidents When The Application Give An Error Message “Network Error”
From the two figures above, it can be seen that many incidents occurred for these two
problems. This problem can be annoying when users want to use the application to get data
information or process data. It must be wise to evaluate the success of a system, given that
investing in an information system project costs a lot and does not always guarantee success
[5]. Considering the high investment in IT, the success of investment and the quality of the
system developed are the most important for research and practitioners [6].
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Evaluation is the process of providing information designed to help make decisions about
the object being evaluated [7]. Evaluation is a series of techniques that facilitate decision
making with the aim of achieving the best results for the organization [8]. Measurement of
effectiveness against the success of information systems is an important problem for
practitioners and researchers. Measurement of success is very important to understand the
value of information systems and investments of information systems [9]. Researcher will
conduct a case study to evaluate information system success model for sales management
application.
2. METHODS
Researcher focus to evaluating IS success and searching the best model for the bank.
Researcher adopted the integrated IS success model and added trust variable to the model.
The integrated IS success model is generated by encompassing the fundamental theories of
both the Technology Acceptance Model and the Delone & McLean Update IS Success Model
is proposed [10].
The discussion starts with an introduction of Technology Acceptance Model, Delone &
McLean IS Success Model, Integreted IS Success Model, Trust Factor, The Research Model,
Hypothesis, Measurement of The Variables, Population and Sample, and Data Collection.
2.1. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
Technology Acceptance Model consists of six dimensions: External Variables, Perceived
Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Attitude Toward Using, Behavioral Intention to Use, and
Actual System Use [11].
TAM is a model for predicting rather than describing, which is used to predict the
acceptance of the system by the user. This model proposes that when users are offered to use
a new system, a number of factors influence their decisions about how and when to use the
system, especially in terms of usefulness and ease of use [12].
TAM starts by proposing external variables as the basis for tracing the impact of external
factors on two main internal beliefs, which are perceived usefulness and perceived ease of
use, while perceived ease of use also affects perceived usefulness over and above external
variables [13].
2.2. Delone & McLean Information System Success Model
The original model of Delone & McLean was founded in 1992. The main purpose of this
model was to “identify those factors that contribute to information systems success” [14].
They identified six dimensions of information systems success: Information Quality,
System Quality, Use, User Satisfaction, Individual Impact and Organizational Impact.
“System quality” refers to the performance of an IS system itself, while “Information quality”
refers to how good is the output from a particular IS system. “Use” is used to measure how
well the output of the IS system, such as information or physical reports, are used. “User
satisfaction” represents users’ overall comments on the IS system. “Individual impact” that
Delone and McLean address here refers to the influence of the outputs of IS systems on
individual users’ behaviors, while “Organizational impact” refers to the effects of the usage of
IS systems on the organizational performance. It is proposed that Information quality and
System quality have influence on both Use and User satisfaction. Use and User satisfaction
affects Individual impact, and Individual impact in terms influences Organizational impact.
One thing needs to be addressed is that the model was built based on a process nature, and the
focus while utilizing this model should be to examine how these six categories of factors are
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Factors of Information System Success: Applied Delone and Mclean Model with Technology
Acceptance Model For Sales Management Application In Banking Sector of Indonesia
interrelated and interdependent with one another instead of concerning the causal
relationships among them [10].
In 2003, Delone & McLean refined the original IS success model in response to feedback
received from other scholars working in the area [15]. Delone and McLean slightly modify
their original model by including some factors that are newly considered important for
evaluating IS success. In Delone and McLean’s update model, they do not separately consider
about individual impact, organizational impact, and some other kinds of emerging impact
measures, such as work group impact and consumer impact. On the contrary, Delone and
McLean use the term “net benefits” to represent all the impact measures for the sake of
simplifying the model. In addition, Delone and McLean think the variable “use” in their
original model is defined without considering the actual complexity of the usage behaviors.
They realize that perspective system users, especially the e-commerce system users, are not
always required to use the system. The usage of the systems performed by these users may
not be able to totally represent the complex conception of “use” for the purpose of evaluating
net benefits under certain circumstances. They suggest “intention to use” as an alternative of
“use” for some particular circumstances in their update model [10].
The Delone and McLean model is implemented to provide a general and comprehensive
definition of IS success that includes different perspectives in evaluating IS. This model
review the definitions of the success of existing IS and appropriate actions, and classify them
into six main categories [3].
2.3. Integration of TAM and Delone & McLean Information System Success
Model
Researcher adopted the integrated IS success model by Wang & Liu because it is
comprehensive and solid model for evaluating IS success model. The model is combination
both of TAM and Delone & McLean. TAM focus how users to accept and use a technology
and Delone & McLean focus in net benefits received by the users. TAM and Delone &
McLean have their own strenghts and weakness in evaluating IS success.
The new model is built by taking three variables, system quality, information quality, and
service quality from Delone & McLean IS success model. In the new model, Wang & Liu
include variables perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use because both of them have
direct influence on system usage. They replace intention to use / use with the three factors that
are proposed in TAM for evaluating system usage, which are attitude toward using,
behavioral intention to use, and actual system usage.
Wang & Liu keep the variable user satisfaction because that actual system usage has
direct impact on both user satisfaction and the overall benefits that are generated by the
implementation of the information system, and user satisfaction also directly affects the
overall benefits.They suggest that user satisfaction has direct influence on perceived ease of
use and perceived usefulness, and in turn affects actual system usage indirectly.
2.4. Trust Factor
Researcher feels the model that proposed by Wang & Liu is not suitable enough for the
banking sector. In the banking sector, trust is really important and can give a big impact to the
IS success.
Building trust is based on a feeling of security and system security, resulting in a positive
attitude towards the system [16]. Trust is the desire to be vulnerable to the actions of others
and the desire to depend on others [17].
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Trust factors have a positive and significant impact on perceived ease of use and
perceived usefulness. Trust factors can potentially influence user interest in using information
systems [18].
Trust factors have a positive and significant impact on customer satisfaction and customer
loyalty. User or customer satisfaction can be assumed to determine net benefits or individual
impacts [19].
2.5. The Research Model
This study adopted The Integrated IS Success Model which combination of TAM and Delone
& McLean. The researcher also added trust factor into the model and modify the relationship
between variables which suitable for the bank for assessing IS success.
The researcher added trust factor into the model because the employees will store and
process very sensitive data related to their customer from the application. The trust factor
becomes very important because the employees does not know whether the information
entered is stored correctly and can only be accessed by people who have the right to access
the information.
If the employees have a small trust, then the information entered will be less information
while the information is needed to analyze and help the bank to determine the strategy. The
research model to evaluate IS success shown below in Figure 3.
Figure 3 The Research Model
2.6. Hypothesis
Researcher have developed hypothesis to test the research model. The following 15
hypothesis will be tested:

H1 There is a significant positive relationship between System Quality and Perceived Usefulness.

H2 There is a significant positive relationship between System Quality and Perceived Ease of Use.

H3 There is a significant positive relationship between Information Quality and Perceived Usefulness.

H4 There is a significant positive relationship between Information Quality and Perceived Ease of Use.

H5 There is a significant positive relationship between Service Quality and Perceived Usefulness.

H6 There is a significant positive relationship between Service Quality and Perceived Ease of Use.

H7 There is a significant positive relationship between Trust and Perceived Usefulness.

H8 There is a significant positive relationship between Trust and Perceived Ease of Use.

H9 There is a significant positive relationship between Trust and User Satisfication.
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Acceptance Model For Sales Management Application In Banking Sector of Indonesia

H10 There is a significant positive relationship between Perceived Usefulness and Attitude Toward
Using.

H11 There is a significant positive relationship between Perceived Ease of Use and Attitude Toward
Using.

H12 There is a significant positive relationship between Attitude Toward Using and Behavioral
Intention to Use.

H13 There is a significant positive relationship between Behavioral Intention to Use and Actual System
Usage.

H14 There is a significant positive relationship between Actual System Usage and User Satisfication.

H15 There is a significant positive relationship between User Satisfication and Net Benefit.
2.7. Measurement of The Variables
This study is measures with data on IS success and technological factors. A selection of
indicators is that they have been used frequently in IS research as a measure of IS success.
The following indicators will be used:

System Quality is measured by Access, Reliability, System Features, and Response Time [6][20].

Information Quality is measured by Accuracy, Understandability, Consistency, and Completeness [6]
[20].

Service Quality is measured by IS Training, and Responsiveness [21].

Trust was measured by Privacy, and Security [18].

Perceived Usefulness is measured by Effectiveness, Increase Productivity, Work More Quickly, Makes
Job Easier, Job Performance, and Useful [11].

Perceived Ease of Use is measured by Clear & Understandable, Easy to Use, Controllable, Easy to
Learn, Flexible, and Easy to Become Skillful [11].

Attitude Toward Using is measured by Fun, and Enjoy [22].

Behavioral Intention to Use is measured by Use, and Plan [23].

Actual System Usage is measured by Duration, and Frequency [24].

User Satisfication is measured by Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Overall Satisfaction [25].

Net Benefit is measured by Job Effectiveness, Job Simplification, Productivity, and Decision
Effectiveness [6][20].
2.8. Population and Sample
The population of this study consisted of employees who used sales management application
in the bank. The total employees from all regions in Indonesia are 360 employees.
2.9. Data Collection
This study used a survey to collect data to test the relationships shown in the research model.
The survey was conducted from August to October 2018. The survey method is required to be
the most suitable method for this study to test the relationships.
This study used five point Likert scale to represent the responses, whereas scale from 5
(highly agree or satisfied) to 1 (highly disagree or satisfied). A total of 360 questionnaires was
distributed, but only 205 questionnaires used for analysis at 57% from total questionnaires.
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3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The analysis of the retrieved survey data is based on SmartPLS 3. The result below in Figure
4.
Researcher will use a lot of techniques to validate the IS success model. For example, the
validity will be measured by using factor loading and average variance extracted, the reability
will be measured by using composite reability and cronbach’s alpha. Finally, the multiple
regression analysis was used to further explain the significance of the independent and
dependent variables of hypothesis.
Figure 4 The Research Result
3.1. Demographic Analysis
A summary of the demographic characteristics from the employees is shown in below Table
2.
Table 2 The Demographic Characteristics
Age
Gender
Educational
Level
Working
Experience
Using
Application
Experience
<= 20
21 – 30
31 – 40
>= 41
Male
Female
Bachelor’s
Master’s
<= 1 Year
1 Year – <= 3
Years
3 Years – <= 7
Years
> 7 Years
<= 1 Month
2 – 6 Months
7 – 12 Months
> 12 Months
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Frequency
(N = 205)
1
81
113
10
132
73
197
8
24
Percentage
(%)
0.5
39.5
55.1
4.9
64.2
35.8
96.3
3.7
11.5
79
38.7
101
49.4
1
13
11
147
34
0.4
6.2
5.2
71.6
16.5
205
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Factors of Information System Success: Applied Delone and Mclean Model with Technology
Acceptance Model For Sales Management Application In Banking Sector of Indonesia
Respondents to age ranged from 20 to more than 41 years of age, approximately 60%
above 31 years and 40% between 20 to 30 years. According to gender Men is more
respondents than Women (Men 64.2% and Women 35.8%) and from educational level,
bachelor’s is the highest degree with 96.3%. Respondents working experience approximately
49.8% above of 3 years and 50.2% less than 3 years. Respondents experience when using
application approximately 88,1% above of 6 months and 11,9% less than 7 months.
3.2. Validity Test
Validity test is conducted in this study using the all questions in the questionnaire, this test
will divided by two test which are Convergent Validity and Discriminant Validity.
3.2.1 Convergent validity
Researcher used factor loading value to determine the convergent validity. The factor loading
value must be greater than 0.5 and ideally it is 0.7 or greater [26].
If the factor loading value is greater than 0.7, then the variable is valid and if the factor
loading value is smaller than 0.7, then the variable is invalid. The result is shown in below
Table 3.
Table 3 The Convergent Validity
Variables
System
Quality
Information
Quality
Service
Quality
Trust
Perceived
Usefulness
Perceived
Ease of Use
Attitude
Toward
Using
Behavioral
Intention to
Use
Actual
System
Usage
User
Satisfication
Net Benefit
SQ1
SQ2
SQ3
SQ4
IQ1
IQ2
IQ4
RQ1
RQ2
TR1
TR2
PU1
PU2
PU3
PU4
PU5
PU6
PE3
PE4
PE6
AU1
Factor
Loadings
0.730
0.729
0.770
0.825
0.876
0.872
0.861
0.897
0.884
0.935
0.941
0.766
0.833
0.881
0.920
0.857
0.733
0.930
0.945
0.860
0.962
AU2
0.962
0.700
Valid
IU1
0.944
0.700
Valid
IU2
0.938
0.700
Valid
SU1
1.000
0.700
Valid
US1
US2
US3
NB1
NB2
NB3
NB4
0.894
0.947
0.924
0.899
0.917
0.857
0.868
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Code
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Coefficient
Result
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
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Refa Nathanael Jusuf, Nilo Legowo, Taufik Samiaji and Deny Sundari
The result indicate that the convergent validity for the dimensions of IS success ranged
between (0.729 – 1.000) and the average is (0.879). These values are considered acceptable
for the purposes of this study.
3.2.2. Discriminant validity
Researcher used average variance extracted (AVE) value to determine the discriminant
validity. The AVE value must must be greater than 0.5 but can still be accepted if it is greater
than 0.4 [27].
If AVE value is greater than 0.5, then the variable is valid and if the factor loading value
is smaller than 0.5, then the variable is invalid. The result is shown in below Table 4.
Table 4 The Discriminant Validity
Variables
System Quality
Information Quality
Service Quality
Trust
Perceived Usefulness
Perceived Ease of Use
Attitude Toward Using
Behavioral Intention to Use
Actual System Usage
User Satisfication
Net Benefit
AVE
0.585
0.757
0.793
0.880
0.696
0.833
0.925
0.886
1.000
0.850
0.785
Coefficient
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
Result
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
Valid
The result indicate that the discriminant validity for the dimensions of IS success ranged
between (0.585 – 1.000) and the average is (0.817). These values are considered acceptable
for the purposes of this study.
3.3. Reability Test
Researcher used composite reability value and cronbach’s alpha for assessing reliability. The
composite reability value must be greater than 0.7 [28] and the recommendation for the
cronbach's alpha value is 0.7 or it can be more [29].
If the composite reability or cronbach’s alpha value is greater than 0.7, then the variable
is reliable and if the composite reability or cronbach’s alpha value is smaller than 0.7, then the
variable is not reliable. The result is shown in below Table 5.
Table 5 The Reability Test
Variables
System Quality
Information Quality
Service Quality
Trust
Perceived Usefulness
Perceived Ease of
Use
Attitude Toward
Using
Behavioral Intention
to Use
Actual System Usage
User Satisfication
Net Benefit
Composite
Reablility
0.849
0.903
0.885
0.936
0.932
Cronbach’s Alpha
Coefficient
Result
0.767
0.842
0.740
0.864
0.911
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
Reliable
Reliable
Reliable
Reliable
Reliable
0.937
0.899
0.700
Reliable
0.961
0.919
0.700
Reliable
0.939
0.871
0.700
Reliable
1.000
0.936
0.785
1.000
0.911
0.909
0.700
0.700
0.700
Reliable
Reliable
Reliable
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The result indicate that the composite reability for the dimensions of IS success ranged
between (0.785 – 1.000) and the average is (0.915) and the result for the cronbach’s alpha for
the dimensions of IS success ranged between (0.740 – 1.000) and the average is (0.872).
These values are considered acceptable for the purposes of this study.
3.4. Hypothesis Test
After all data are declared valid and reliable (based on the validity test and the reliability test),
it can be said that the data is feasible to be processed in the next stage to test the hypothesis.
P Value can also be interpreted as the amount of opportunity to make a mistake if we
decide to reject H0. In general, P Value is compared to a certain level, usually 0.05 or 5%. If
P Value is smaller than 0.05 then reject H0 (The hypothesis has a significant effect) and P
Value is greater than 0.05 then accept H0 (The hypothesis does not have a significant effect)
[30].
For t table with as many as 205 respondents and a significance level of 0.05, then the t
table is 1.971, meaning that if t table> t result then H0 is accepted and H1 is rejected. Based
on the hypothesis test, it can be concluded that there are 3 rejected hypothesis and 12
acceptable hypothesis. The result is shown in below Table 6.
Table 6 The Hyphotesis Test
H1
H2
H3
H4
H5
H6
H7
H8
H9
H10
H11
H12
H13
H14
H15
Original
Sample
0.200
0.156
0.357
0.337
0.070
0.034
0.150
0.246
0.265
0.489
0.383
0.790
0.565
0.451
0.858
Sample
Mean
0.207
0.160
0.350
0.338
0.073
0.035
0.147
0.245
0.266
0.484
0.387
0.789
0.565
0.450
0.858
Standard
Deviation
0.086
0.066
0.070
0.075
0.082
0.072
0.091
0.084
0.066
0.065
0.066
0.032
0.065
0.076
0.022
T Statistics P Values
2.324
2.383
5.095
4.522
0.857
0.465
1.639
2.946
4.029
7.548
5.788
24.888
8.695
5.953
39.802
0.020
0.017
0.000
0.000
0.392
0.642
0.101
0.003
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Result
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Rejected
Rejected
Rejected
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Most of the hypotheses proposed are positive and significant, and the results confirm the main goals of this
study. But not all of these results are consistent with the prior literature due to special condition at the private
bank.
Twelve hypothesis are accepted due to the p values are lower than 0.05 and the t values are higher than 1.971.
The result are consistent with the references.
Three hypothesis (H5, H6, H7) are rejected due to the p values are higher than 0.05 and the t values are lower
than 1.971. In this case, when the employees have a problem with their application, the problem is not responded
quickly and it takes a long time to resolve the problem and the bank does not provide training on how to use
sales management applications to the employees. Other than that, the bank is not transparent to the employees
regarding the policies that have been made for the application.
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4. CONCLUSION
This study explores the relationship between IS quality (system quality, information quality,
service quality), and trust with a net benefit. Our results indicate that most variables provided
a sufficient contribution for prediction of the dependent variable.
IS quality dimensions (system quality and information quality) have a significant positive
influence on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. But, service quality does not has
a significant positive influence on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Trust has a
significant positive influence on perceived ease of use and user satisfaction but does not has a
significant positive influence on perceived usefulness.
Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have a significant positive influence on
attitude toward using. Attitude toward using has a significant positive influence on behavioral
intention to use. Behavioral intention to use has a significant positive influence on actual
system usage. Actual system usage has a significant positive influence on user satisfication.
Finally, user satisfication has a significant positive influence on net benefit.
The result of the study also can be used by another researcher to develop high quality of
information system success model. This study contributes the new model of IS success. The
model presents IS quality dimensions (system quality, information quality, and service
quality) with trust factor, which the trust factor is very imporant in the banking sector.
These contributions are expected to give benefits to all of researchers and practitioners.
Researchers can benefit by applying the new integrated information system success model in
the similar sector and also modify the model with another adjustment based on needs from the
research sector. Risk factor and customer / user needs factor can be added to the research
model so that the research model becomes more comprehensive for evaluating information
system success.
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