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Year 12 2018 Modern History ATAR Program and Scheme of Assessment

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Year 12 Modern History
Units 3 & 4
2018 Course Documents, Programmes &
Scheme of Assessment
Semester One: Russia and the Soviet Union 1914 - 45
Semester Two: The changing European world since 1945
Student Name: ________________________________________________________________
To the student
Welcome to the study of Modern History at Year 12 level. This course will build on the skills and capabilities
which you have developed during Year 11. Whilst the content is new, the skills of inquiry, analysis of sources
and understanding of Historical narratives will continue to be developed over the year in preparation for
your final exams.
The information provided in this booklet will give you a clear understanding of the requirements of the
course and what you need to do in order to maximise your chances of success. Do not lose it - you will need
to refer to it frequently throughout the year. You will not be issued with another booklet at the beginning
of Semester two.
Please consider the following points which were included at the front of your Year 11 Booklet and are offered
as a means of ensuring that you remain focused, organised and prepared for assessments:
 Keep notes in a specific section of your file, or in a separate book/file. By doing this, you will
automatically build a body of notes which will provide valuable revision for when you come to
prepare for Semester exams.
 Do some reading at least 3 times per week. The student who does not read widely and go beyond
the material covered in class is likely to perform poorly in assessments and especially the Semester
exam. Always have at least one other text source apart from your class text.
 Begin working on assessments and preparation for assessments early. Many students do poorly in
assessments simply because they have left things until the last minute. This is especially important
for the Inquiry and the Semester exams.
 Make frequent notes on material covered in class. This should be done at night after each class. It
will consolidate what you have learned and help you to remember and understand the key aspects.
 Be engaged in class – ask questions, make comments about issues, provide answers etc...Be an active
participant, not a passive one. If everyone is prepared to input, the experience of learning will be all
that much richer.
 You will be issued with a pocket folder in which to keep all of your assessment work. It is vital that
you do not lose any of this material. It may be needed later in the year to validate your grade. The
folder will be kept with your teacher and handed out as necessary to place assessments into it.
Finally, I wish you well in your study of Modern History over the next 9 months. Remember, the key to
success is planning, organization and regular revision. If you can maintain your commitment to these,
everything else will fall into place. Good luck!
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR UPPER SCHOOL STUDIES
STUDENT REQUIREMENTS
Students must:





attend classes on a regular basis
be punctual to all classes
behave in a manner that encourages a positive learning environment
carry out the level of study and revision required to maximise their academic potential
meet all of the other assessment requirements outlined in this subject handbook and the College’s
Assessment Policy For Senior School Students
THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER
Your History teacher will:





encourage regular and punctual attendance
maintain appropriate standards of behaviour
require the completion of all coarse work to an expected standard
keep appropriate records of a student’s attendance, behaviour and academic achievement
report regularly to parents/guardians and/or the Year Coordinator and/or the school administration
on a student’s rate of progress and level of academic achievement.
COLLEGE ASSESSMENT POLICY: KEY POINTS*
A.
Assignments

Students will be issued with a date for the completion of each assignment task. The penalty for not
meeting an assignment deadline is the loss of 10% of the possible mark per day (For weekends 20%
will be deducted).

Students will not be penalised in the case of illness, family bereavement or exceptional
circumstances as outlined in writing by parents.

If an assignment deadline conflicts with a planned legitimate absence from school (e.g. school
excursion) it is the student’s responsibility to submit work prior to such a deadline.
B.
In-Class Assessments

Any absence from school during an in-class assessment must be acknowledged in writing by
parents. Students will be required to complete an alternative assessment at the discretion of the
subject teacher.

If a student is absent from an in-class assessment then a medical certificate must be provided to
account for all instances where a student misses an in-class assessment due to illness.
Please note:

The Head of Social Science and Dean of Year 12 will be notified when a student misses an in-class
assessment or does not submit an assignment.

No special arrangements will be made for a student taking a family holiday outside of the scheduled
school holiday periods.
C.
Semester Examinations

The Semester I and II examination dates for this year have already been set. The College cannot
make exceptions for students taking a holiday or overseas trip outside of the scheduled school
holiday periods.
D.
Cheating/Plagiarism/Presentation

Student work will only be assessed if the teacher is confident that, to the best of his/her
knowledge, all uncited work is the student’s own. If a student is found cheating or colluding in any
assessment they will not receive a mark for the section of the assessment that has been plagairised.
Parents will be informed.
Poorly presented and/or illegible work will be returned to the student unmarked to be resubmitted.
The normal penalty for late submission will then apply.

E.
Extensions

Extensions will be awarded at the discretion of the teacher and only in cases of extenuating
circumstances. An application for an extension must be made well before the due date.
* Students should refer to the College’s Assessment Policy for further details.
Rationale
The Modern History ATAR course enables students to study the forces that have shaped today’s world and
provides them with a broader and deeper comprehension of the world in which they live. While the focus is
on the 20th century, the course refers back to formative changes from the late 18th century onwards and
encourages students to make connections with the changing world of the 21st century.
Modern history enhances students’ curiosity and imagination and their appreciation of larger themes,
individuals, movements, events and ideas that have shaped the contemporary world. The themes that run
through the units include: local, national and global conflicts and their resolution; the rise of nationalism and
its consequences; the decline of imperialism and the process of decolonisation; the continuing struggle for
the recognition of human rights; the transformation of social and economic life; the regional shifts in power
and the rise of Asia; and the changing nature and influence of ideologies.
The Modern History ATAR course begins with a study of key developments that have helped to define the
modern world, with special attention given to important ideas and their consequences. This provides a
context for a study of movements for change in the 20th century that have challenged the authority of the
nation-state, the principal form of political organisation in the modern world. Students then investigate crises
that confronted nation-states in the 20th century, the responses to these crises and the different paths
nations have taken in the modern world. The course concludes with a study of the distinctive features of
world order that have emerged since World War II and that are central to an understanding of the present.
The Modern History ATAR course continues to develop the historical skills and understandings taught in the
Year 7–10 History curriculum. Students pose increasingly complex questions about the past and use their
historical inquiry skills, analytical skills and interpretation of sources to formulate reasoned answers to those
questions. The opportunities to apply these skills are sequential and cumulative so that students develop an
increasingly sophisticated understanding of the different and sometimes conflicting perspectives of the past.
Students are introduced to the complexities associated with the changing nature of evidence, its expanding
quantity, range and form; the distinctive characteristics of modern historical representation; and the skills
that are required to investigate controversial issues that have a powerful contemporary resonance. Students
develop increasingly sophisticated historiographical skills and historical understanding in their analysis of
significant events and close study of the nature of modern societies.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
Unit 3
Unit description
This unit examines the characteristics of modern nations in the 20th century; the crises that confronted
nations, their responses to these crises and the different paths nations have taken to fulfil their goals.
Students study the characteristics of one nation. Students investigate crises that challenged the stability of
government, the path of development that was taken and the social, economic and political order that was
either established or maintained. Students examine the ways in which the nation dealt with internal
divisions and external threats. They emerge with a deeper understanding of the character of a modern
nation. The key conceptual understandings covered in this unit are the reliability and usefulness of
evidence; cause and effect; continuity and change; significance; empathy; contestability; and changing
representations and interpretations.
Learning outcomes
By the end of this unit, students:

understand the characteristics of modern nations, the internal divisions and external threats that they
encountered, and the different experiences of individuals and groups within those nations

understand the significance of the changes experienced by modern nations and the different paths of
development they have taken

apply key concepts as part of an historical inquiry, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and
effect, significance, empathy, perspectives and contestability

use historical skills to investigate the history of selected nations, frame questions for research,
determine the reliability and usefulness of sources and evidence, explore different interpretations of
the past, and use a range of evidence to analyse interpretations and representations, and communicate
historical arguments.
Unit 4
Unit description
This unit examines some significant and distinctive features of the modern world within the period
1945–2001 in order to build students’ understanding of the contemporary world – that is, why we are here
at this point in time. These include changes to the nature of the world order: shifting international
tensions, alliances and power blocs; the emergence of Asia as a significant international political and
economic force, and the nature of engagement by and with Australia; the nature of various conflicts and
regional and international attempts to create peace and security. Students study one of these features. As
part of their study, they should follow and make relevant connections with contemporary events. The key
conceptual understandings covered in this unit are: causation; continuity and change; historical significance
and changing perspectives and interpretations of the past; and contestability.
Learning outcomes
By the end of this unit, students:

understand the distinctive features of the modern world that have emerged since World War II and the
historical forces that provided their impetus

understand the changes that took place over time, and their significance to the experiences of
individuals, groups, nations and the international community

apply key concepts as part of an historical inquiry, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and
effect, significance, empathy, perspectives and contestability

use historical skills to investigate some distinctive features of the world since 1945; frame questions for
research; interpret sources and evidence with a focus on reliability and usefulness; and use evidence to
evaluate perspectives and interpretations, and communicate historical arguments.
UNIT SKILLS & CONTENT
Historical Skills Unit 3
The following skills will be developed during this unit.
Chronology, terms and concepts

identify links between events to understand the nature and significance of causation, continuity and
change over time

use historical terms and concepts in appropriate contexts to demonstrate historical knowledge and
understanding
Historical questions and research

formulate, test and modify propositions to investigate historical issues

frame questions to guide inquiry and develop a coherent research plan for inquiry

identify, locate and organise relevant information from a range of primary and secondary sources

practise ethical scholarship when conducting research
Analysis and use of sources

identify the origin, purpose and context of historical sources

analyse, interpret and synthesise evidence from different types of sources to develop and sustain an
historical argument

evaluate the reliability, usefulness and contestable nature of sources to develop informed judgements
that support an historical argument
Perspectives and interpretations

analyse and account for the different perspectives of individuals and groups in the past

evaluate critically different historical interpretations of the past, how they evolved, and how they are
shaped by the historian’s perspective

evaluate contested views about the past to understand the provisional nature of historical knowledge
and to arrive at reasoned and supported conclusions
Explanation and communication

develop texts that integrate appropriate evidence from a range of sources to explain the past and to
support and refute arguments

communicate historical understanding by selecting and using text forms appropriate to the purpose
and audience

apply appropriate referencing techniques accurately and consistently
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
Elective 2: Russia and the Soviet Union 1914–1945 (World War I to the end of World War II)

an overview of Russia in 1914 as background for more intensive study of the period

the significant ideas of the period, including autocracy, Marxism, communism, Leninism, Stalinism, and
collectivisation

the internal divisions and crises within Russian society, including the impact of World War I; the causes,
events and outcomes of the February and October Revolutions in 1917

the initial reforms and decrees of the Bolsheviks; the opposition to the Bolsheviks; the Brest-Litovsk
Treaty; the civil war and the reasons for the Bolshevik victory

the significance of the struggle of Josef Stalin and Leon Trotsky for power and the reasons for the
success of Stalin

the changes that transformed Russia, including War Communism; the New Economic Policy; the
creation of the USSR; the Five Year Plans and how they contributed to state control of the economy,
forced rural collectivisation, state-created famine and the modernisation of the Soviet Union

the social/cultural impact of Bolshevism and Stalin’s Cultural Revolution to 1945, including women,
nationalities, youth and education (Komsomol), the arts (including Social Realism) and religion

the different experiences of individuals and groups in the period to 1945, including nobility, the clergy,
peasants and factory workers; and the methods the regime employed to control them, including
mobilisation and propaganda, repression, the Purges and the Great Terror

the impact of World War II and the methods that enabled the USSR to secure victory

the role and impact of significant individuals in the period, including political, military and
social/cultural leaders
Historical Skills Unit 4
The following skills will be developed during this unit.
Chronology, terms and concepts

identify links between events to understand the nature and significance of causation, continuity and
change over time

use historical terms and concepts in appropriate contexts to demonstrate historical knowledge and
understanding
Historical questions and research

formulate, test and modify propositions to investigate historical issues

frame questions to guide inquiry and develop a coherent research plan for inquiry

identify, locate and organise relevant information from a range of primary and secondary sources

practise ethical scholarship when conducting research
Analysis and use of sources

identify the origin, purpose and context of historical sources

analyse, interpret and synthesise evidence from different types of sources to develop and sustain an
historical argument

evaluate the reliability, usefulness and contestable nature of sources to develop informed judgements
that support an historical argument
Perspectives and interpretations

analyse and account for the different perspectives of individuals and groups in the past

evaluate critically different historical interpretations of the past, how they evolved, and how they are
shaped by the historian’s perspective

evaluate contested views about the past to understand the provisional nature of historical knowledge
and to arrive at reasoned and supported conclusions
Explanation and communication

develop texts that integrate appropriate evidence from a range of sources to explain the past and to
support and refute arguments

communicate historical understanding by selecting and using text forms appropriate to purpose and
audience

apply appropriate referencing techniques accurately and consistently
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
Elective 1: The changing European world since 1945

an overview, as background, of the nature of the origins and early development of the Cold War to
1948, including the ideological, cultural and political differences between the United States and the
Soviet Union; and the significance of the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan and Berlin Blockade

the significant ideas of the period, including communism, capitalism, democracy, containment, peaceful
co-existence, détente, glasnost and perestroika, nationalism, and re-integration

the evolving nature and character of the Cold War in Europe from 1948 through to détente, including
the impact of the arms race, the space race, and threat of nuclear war; the 1956 invasion of Hungary;
the Berlin Wall; the Cuban Missile Crisis; the Prague Spring and the Brezhnev Doctrine; the new Cold
War of the 1980s; and the collapse of communism 1989–1991

significant developments that followed the end of the Cold War in 1989, including the break-up of the
Soviet Union and the resultant changes in the politics and economics of the Soviet Union; the
reunification of Germany (the Two Plus Four Treaty 1990); the break-up of the former Yugoslavia; and
the changing role of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) from Cold War Alliance to the
NATO-Russia Council

the development of European governance and extension of the ‘European Union’, including the
European Economic Community (EEC) (1958), the Maastricht Treaty (1992), the European Union (1993),
the Eurozone (1999)

the changing nature of world order in the period 1989–2001, with specific reference to the place of
Europe and the European nation states within that world order

the role of significant political leaders throughout the period
ASSESSMENT
Assessment table – Year 12
Type of assessment
Weighting
Historical inquiry
Students use the relevant historical skills to plan, conduct and communicate an
inquiry related to the elective they are studying. Typically the inquiry proposition is
devised by the student.
The final presentation can be: a written report; an analysis of the sources used in
the inquiry; a debate; a hypothetical; an oral presentation and/or a multimodal
presentation which can be presented individually or in a group.
Typically one historical inquiry is completed for each unit.
20%
Explanation
A response in the form of an essay for one or more closed or open questions or for a
topic. The question can require students to respond to propositions or points of
debate; explanations or evaluations of historical evidence; and interpretations
and/or representations.
At least two explanation tasks must be administered under test conditions.
20%
Source analysis
A number of sources are interpreted, analysed, evaluated and/or synthesised.
Questions typically require students to use evidence from the sources when
commenting on: message; origin, purpose and context; reliability, usefulness and
contestability of the evidence; perspective; and relevance to the context.
Typically the teacher selects the sources and provides the questions.
Source material can include: photographs, cartoons, paintings, graphs, government
papers, extracts from newspaper articles, letters, diaries, literary sources, and/or
secondary sources.
At least two source analysis tasks must be administered under test conditions.
20%
Examination
Typically conducted at the end of each semester and/or unit and reflecting the
examination design brief for this syllabus.
40%
Modern History – ATAR Year 12
Assessment Outline
Unit 3 – Modern nations in the 20th century (Elective 2: Russia and the Soviet Union 1914−1945)
Unit 4 – The modern world since 1945 (Elective 1: The changing European world since 1945)
Assessment
When/start
type
Assessment
Assessment type
and
weighting
task
(from syllabus)
submission
(from
weighting
date
syllabus)
Historical inquiry
Explanation
10%
Hand out
Week 1.4:
Validation
Essay Week
1.6
Task 2 Part A: Topic: Role and impact of key leaders/ideology in Bolshevik
Revolution October 1917
Task 2 Part B: An in-class validation essay
10%
Week 2.9 &
Week 3.1
Task 9 Part A: Topic: the European Union
Task 9 Part B: An in-class validation essay
5%
Week 1.8
Task 3: An in-class essay based on content related to Civil War and
Bolshevik Consolidation
5%
Week 2.4
Task 5: An in-class essay based on content related to the impact of WW2,
methods used to secure victory and leadership.
20%
20%
5%
5%
Source analysis
Total
Week 3.4
Week 3.8
Task 10: An in-class essay based on content related to the end of the
Communism in USSR
Week 1.3
Task 1: An in-class source analysis based on the content related to causes
of discontent/February revolution
5%
Week 2.2
Task 4: An in-class source analysis based on the content related to
social/cultural changes to 1945
20%
Week 2.9
Task 7: An in-class source analysis based on the content related to
cooperation in the West
5%
Week 3.9
Task 11: An in-class source analysis based on the content related to the end
of the Cold War.
15%
Semester 1
Examination
Week 2.6
Task 6: Semester 1 examination – three hours duration using the
examination design brief from the syllabus
25%
Semester 2
Examination
Week 4.1
Task 12: Semester 2 examination – three hours duration using the
examination design brief from the syllabus
40%
100%
Task 8: An in-class essay based on content related to détente
5%
5%
Examination
Assessment task
100%
EXAMINATIONS
Examination design brief – Year 12
Time allowed
Reading time before commencing work: ten minutes
Working time for paper:
three hours
Permissible items
Standard items: pens (blue/black preferred), pencils (including coloured), sharpener, correction fluid/tape, eraser, ruler,
highlighters
Special items: nil
Provided by the supervisor
a source booklet containing one set of four sources for each Unit 3 and Unit 4 elective
SECTION
SUPPORTING INFORMATION
Section One
Source analysis – Unit 3
25% of the total examination
One question
Suggested working time: 45 minutes
The question consists of five parts, which are structured as a series of open
and/or partially open questions.
This question is applicable to all Unit 3 electives.
There are four sources for each elective which the candidate is required to
interpret, analyse, evaluate and/or synthesise. The question requires
candidates to use evidence from the sources.
Source material can include: photographs; cartoons; paintings; graphs;
and/or extracts from government papers, newspaper articles, letters, diaries,
literary sources and/or secondary sources.
The source material for each elective is comparable and is placed in the
same order. One source shows broad perspectives, interpretations or
historiography.
Section Two
Questions are specific to the Unit 3 electives.
Essay – Unit 3
Use of questions common to all electives is not precluded.
25% of the total examination
One question from a choice of three for
each elective
Suggested working time: 45 minutes
Section Three
Source analysis – Unit 4
25% of the total examination
One question
Suggested working time: 45 minutes
The question consists of five parts, which are structured as a series of open
and/or partially open questions.
This question is applicable to all Unit 4 electives.
There are four sources for each elective which the candidate is required to
interpret, analyse, evaluate and/or synthesise. The question requires
candidates to use evidence from the sources.
Source material can include: photographs; cartoons; paintings; graphs;
and/or extracts from government papers, newspaper articles, letters, diaries,
literary sources and/or secondary sources.
The source material for each elective is comparable and is placed in the
same order. One source shows broad perspectives, interpretations or
historiography.
Section Four
Essay – Unit 4
25% of the total examination
One question from a choice of three for
each elective
Suggested working time: 45 minutes
Questions are specific to the Unit 4 electives.
Use of questions common to all electives is not precluded.
TEACHING/LEARNING PROGRAMME
Russia and the Soviet Union 1914 - 45
Week
Term 1
Week 1
2–3
Key teaching points
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 overview of Russia in 1914
 significant ideas of the period
 the role and impact of significant individuals in the period, including political, military and
social/cultural leaders
Overview
 geography, social structure, role of the Orthodox Church, political structure of Russia
 ideas and groups in 1914

autocracy, liberalism, socialism, Marxism and communism

nobility, intelligentsia, Social Democrats, Bolsheviks/Mensheviks, Socialist Revolutionaries,
Constitutional Democrats
 political changes from 1905 including Dumas and Fundamental Laws
 individuals including Tsar Nicholas II, Trotsky and Lenin
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the internal divisions and crises within Russian society
 the significant ideas of the period
Historical skills
 Chronology, terms and concepts
 Perspectives and interpretations
1914–1917: World War I and its impact
 causes of discontent/February Revolution

political discontent; Tsar as commander-in-chief, Tsarina and Rasputin, Progressive Bloc

economic discontent

military defeat, mutiny, Brusilov
 events of February Revolution 1917
 outcomes

Provisional Government and Kerensky

Petrograd Soviet

the Soviets and Order Number 1

July Days

Kornilov affair

the weaknesses of the political system

Bolshevik response – April Theses, Bolshevik Military Revolutionary Committee
(Milrevcom), the growth of support for the Bolsheviks
Historical skills
 Analysis and use of sources
 Perspectives and interpretations
 Explanation and communication
Task 1: Source analysis
Week
4
5−6
Key teaching points
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the role and impact of significant individuals in the period, including political, military and
social/cultural leaders
Historical skills
 Perspectives and interpretations
Revolutionary ideals: the revolution from below versus the revolution from above
 causes and events of the October Revolution, roles of Trotsky and Lenin
 outcomes of the October Revolution
Historical debate
 the Bolshevik seizure of power – a coup d’état or a revolution?
 the importance of leadership in the revolution
Evaluation of Lenin/Leninism
 Soviet Interpretations, Liberal Western Interpretations and Revisionist Interpretations
Task 2: Part A Historical Inquiry Process
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the initial reforms and decrees of the Bolsheviks
Putting ideas into practice: support and opposition
 initial reforms and decrees:

role of Lenin and the Sovnarkom

Land, Peace and Factory Decrees, abolition of classes and ranks, separation of church and
State, abolition of the Constituent Assembly, State Socialism
 Brest-Litovsk Treaty 1918
 opposition to the Bolsheviks

the elimination of class enemies including the Tsar, nobility and the clergy

development of the Red Terror
 the Civil War and reasons for the Bolshevik victory

Trotsky and the Red Army

strategic advantages

communism/War Communism and impact on the peasants

the role of Lenin and the Cheka

Kronstadt Rebellion
Historical skills
 Chronology, terms and concepts
 Explanation and communication
Task 2: Historical Inquiry Validation Essay
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the changes that transformed Russia
 the significant ideas of the period
Task 3: Explanation – essay
7–8
Changes
 the New Economic Policy (NEP) and the impact on the peasants
 creation of the USSR
The power struggle between Trotsky and Stalin
 NEP versus industrialisation and collectivisation
 Socialism in One Country versus Permanent Revolution
 Politburo factions – Zinoviev, Kamenev and Bukharin
 reasons for the success of Stalin
Changes (ii)
 the Five Year Plans

state control of the economy

forced rural collectivisation

state-created famine

modernisation, urbanisation, industrialisation

Stakhanovites, Shock troops and the factory workers
Historical skills
 Analysis and use of sources
 Perspectives and interpretations
 Explanation and communication
Week
9-11
Term 2
Week
1-2
3
Key teaching points
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the different experiences of individuals and groups in the period to 1945
 the significant ideas of the period
 the significance of the struggle of Josef Stalin and Leon Trotsky for power and the reasons for
the success of Stalin
Historical skills
 Perspectives and interpretations
The nature and style of Stalin’s leadership/Stalinism
 experience of the nobility, clergy, peasants and factory workers
 methods the regime employed to control

repression

class warfare including dekulakisation

mobilisation and propaganda including the ‘Cult of Stalin’

1936 Constitution

murder of Kirov, the Show Trials, the Purges and the Great Terror (the Yezhovshchina)
Historical debate
 was dekulakisation a civil war?
 was terror from above or terror from below?
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the social/cultural impact of Bolshevism and Stalin’s Cultural Revolution to 1945
 the different experiences of individuals and groups in the period to 1945
Historical skills
 Chronology, terms and concepts
 Historical questions and research
 Analysis and use of sources
 Perspectives and interpretations
 Explanation and communication
Social/Cultural change to 1945
 women, the roles of Krupskaya and Kollontai
 nationalities
 youth and education such as the Young Pioneers, Komsomol, the role of Lunacharsky
 the arts including Socialist Realism, the role of Zhdanov
 religion, persecution, Soviet League of the Militant Godless
 the social/cultural impact of Bolshevism and Stalin’s Cultural Revolution and Great Retreat
Task 4: Source analysis
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the impact of World War II and the methods that enabled the USSR to secure victory
 the role and impact of significant individuals in the period, including political, military and
social/cultural leaders
 the different experiences of individuals and groups in the period to 1945
World War II (the Great Patriot War)
 Non-Aggression Pact, the invasion of Finland, the seizure of the Baltic States and the German
invasion

impact of the war 1941–1945 including:

level of destruction and number of casualties

collaboration of non-Russians with the Nazis

resurgence and exploitation of Russian nationalism by Stalin
4
Historical skills
 Chronology, terms and concepts
 Explanation and communication
World War II (The Great Patriotic War)
 methods that enabled the USSR to secure victory

NKVD and STAVKA

role of the military leaders (Zhukov, Vasilevsky, Molotov and Rokossovsky)

geo-political changes at the end of the war
Task 5: Explanation – essay
5
Exam Revision
6
Task 6: Examination (Semester 1)
The changing European World since 1945
Week
7
8-9
Term 3
Week
1-2
Key teaching points
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the nature of the origins and early development of the Cold War to 1948
 the significant ideas of the period
 the role of significant political leaders throughout the period
Overview – The division of Europe along ideological lines: the Iron Curtin descends
 ideological differences between capitalism, communism and democracy
 post-war conferences (Yalta and Potsdam) and conflict between leaders (Stalin, Truman and
Churchill)
 ideology versus expansionism, containment versus security
 1946 Iron Curtain speech, 1946 the Long Telegram, 1947 Truman Doctrine and 1948 Marshall
Aid
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the evolving nature and character of the Cold War in Europe from 1948 through to détente
 the significant ideas of the period
 the role of significant political leaders throughout the period
Part A: Bi-polar Europe – Cold War divisions
Conflict in and with the East, cooperation in the West
 Berlin Blockade
 the impact of the arms race and space race
 the threat of nuclear war (Mutually Assured Destruction)
 formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and Warsaw Pact
 the use of the Warsaw Pact (Hungary, Berlin Wall and Berlin Blockade, Prague Spring)
 beginning of trading relations between the Western European countries including the Monnet
vision, the ECSC, Euratom and the EEC (European Economic Community or Common Market)
and the implications in the West (including mistrust of the UK by de Gaulle and impacts on
NATO)
 significance of Khrushchev (peaceful co-existence and de-Stalinisation) and Eisenhower
(rollback strategy to force change) on relations between USA and USSR in Europe
 the lack of assistance from the USA in the Hungarian Uprising and negotiations between
Eisenhower and Khrushchev before the U2 spy plane incident
Historical skills
 Analysis and use of sources
 Perspectives and interpretations
 Explanation and communication
Task 7: Source analysis
Task 9: Historical Inquiry process
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the development of European governance and extension of the ‘European Union’
The European community; the development of the European Union (EU)
 the EU as an extension of the EEC 1958, timeline of the development of the EU from 1945
 growth in the 1970s with the inclusion of Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom
 1979 ERM
 1986 the ‘Single Market’
 1992 Maastricht Treaty, ground work for the EU
 1993 EU established and the ‘Four Freedoms’
 the nature and function of the EU
 desire for a European community with a basis of peace, security and trade
Task 9 Part B: Validation essay
Week
3
4
5-6
7-8
Key teaching points
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the evolving nature and character of the Cold War in Europe from 1948 through to détente
 the role of significant political leaders throughout the period
Brinkmanship and détente
 ‘Brinkmanship’ in practice: Berlin Wall 1961 and Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
 lead up to détente
 removal of Khrushchev
 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
 Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
 the hotline between the White House and the Kremlin
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 Détente: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) 1 1972 and SALT 2 1979, the Helsinki Accords
 negotiating with the West, maintaining control in the East; Brezhnev Doctrine
 importance and role of leaders in the lead up to and during the détente period: Khrushchev,
Kennedy, Brandt (ostpolitik), Brezhnev, Nixon, Carter and Ford
Historical skills
 Chronology, terms and concepts
 Perspectives and interpretations
 Explanation and communication
Task 8: Explanation – essay
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the role of significant political leaders throughout the period
The Second Cold War and the importance of Gorbachev
 the decline of détente in the late 1970s
 the ‘Evil Empire’ and ‘Star Wars’ re-intensification of the Cold War
 rise of Gorbachev, perestroika and glasnost
 summits between Reagan and Gorbachev 1985–1988
 collapse of Brezhnev Doctrine, Polish Solidarity, fall of the Berlin Wall
Historical skills

Chronology, terms and concepts

Historical questions and research

Analysis and use of sources

Perspectives and interpretations

Explanation and communication
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the changing nature of world order in the period 1989–2001
 the role of significant political leaders throughout the period
Part B: Forging a united European Community – Reunifying Europe post-1989
Break-up of the Soviet Union and the reunification of Germany
 social, political and economic change in the Soviet Union, collapse of communism in the East
 1990 reunification of Germany ‘Two by Four’ Treaty 1990
 the role of Helmut Kohl as first Chancellor of a reunified Germany and problems with
reintegration
 Western interests in the former USSR and the creation of the Russian oligarchs
 Russian relations with USA under the leadership of Yeltsin and Clinton
Historical skills
 Chronology, terms and concepts
 Perspectives and interpretations
 Explanation and communication
Task 10: Explanation – essay
Week
9
10
Term 4
Week 1
Key teaching points
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the changing nature of world order in the period 1989–2001
Conflict in the Balkans and the changing nature of NATO in a post-Cold War Europe
 gradual acceptance of former Warsaw Pact countries as members
 relations with Russia, 1997 NATO Summit, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
 break-up of Yugoslavia and ethnic tensions that ensued
 nature of the conflict and NATO’s role in the Balkans conflicts
 NATO from Cold War Alliance to the NATO-Russia Council 2002
Historical skills
 Analysis and use of sources
 Perspectives and interpretations
 Explanation and communication
Task 11: Source analysis
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
 the development of European governance and extension of the ‘European Union’
 the changing nature of world order in the period 1989–2001
Historical skills
 Perspectives and interpretations
The decline of the European nation-state
 Eurozone 1999
 gradual introduction of the Euro as Europe’s main currency by 2002
 issues with centralised governance
 movement of people through the EU and the rise of nationalistic groups in countries such as
Great Britain
 the struggle of NATO to find a role in the changed environment
 ‘Ostalgie’, the yearning for the ‘good old days’ of communism in the East
Historical debate
 the decline of Europe in a global context (as argued by historians such as Laqueur)
Task 12: Examination (Semester 2)
STUDENT RESOURCES
The following text books are prescribed for the semester units. Make sure you bring them to every History
class:
Semester 1

Webb, Ken
‘Russia and the Soviet Union’
Semester 2

Kelly, B Taylor, T Wood, A
‘The Changing World Order’
In addition to these text books, you are encouraged to have at least one other source book on the topic to
supplement your reading and research. It is recommended that you change this from time to time in the
Library so as to expose you to as many different interpretations as possible.
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