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Test Bank for Marketing Management 14th

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Test Bank for Marketing Management 14th Edition by Kotler
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1) ________ is the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and
dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and wants.
A) Target marketing
B) Mind mapping
C) Consumer activism
D) Consumer behavior
E) Product differentiation
Answer: D
Page Ref: 151
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
2) Which of the following would be the best illustration of a subculture?
A) a religion
B) a group of close friends
C) your university
D) a fraternity or sorority
E) your occupation
Answer: A
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
AACSB: Multicultural diversity
Difficulty: Moderate
3) The relatively homogeneous and enduring divisions in a society, which are hierarchically
ordered and whose members share similar values, interests, and behavior constitute ________.
A) a culture
B) a subculture
C) a social class
D) a family
E) a group
Answer: C
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
1
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4) A person's ________ consist(s) of all the groups that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect
influence on his/her attitudes or behavior.
A) subculture
B) family
C) social class
D) reference groups
E) social networks
Answer: D
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
5) A(n) ________ group is one whose values or behavior an individual rejects.
A) aspirational
B) disassociative
C) membership
D) primary
E) procreational
Answer: B
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
6) Joe is a computer service technician. People in his neighborhood usually depend on his
suggestions for purchasing any computer accessory or hardware, as they believe that he has
access to far more information on computer technology than the average consumer. The
neighbors are also aware that Joe has the required knowledge and background for understanding
the technical properties of the products. Within this context, Joe can be called a(n) ________.
A) transactional leader
B) opinion leader
C) role model
D) gate-keeper
E) international marketer
Answer: B
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
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7) For a high-school student, Tim is highly concerned about environmental issues. He is a strong
supporter of the garbage recycling and afforestation campaigns taken up by the environmental
activists in his neighborhood. He wants to become a full time volunteer for their upcoming
wildlife protection program and has even saved money to contribute to the cause. This group of
environmental activists can be categorized under which of the following reference groups?
A) primary group
B) secondary group
C) aspirational group
D) dissociative group
E) cognitive group
Answer: C
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
8) Jason writes a weekly column in his school's newspaper about movies he has seen, books he
has read, and concerts he has attended. His column provides information and opinions. Feedback
from his fellow students is positive, and they are appreciative of the advice that is given. Which
of the following would be the most apt description of the role played by Jason?
A) silent majority
B) protestor
C) protector
D) adapter
E) opinion leader
Answer: E
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
9) Social classes differ in media preferences, with upper-class consumers often preferring
________ and lower-class consumers often preferring television.
A) movies
B) radio
C) video or computer games
D) magazines and books
E) music downloads
Answer: D
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
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10) If a direct-mail marketer wished to direct promotional efforts toward the family of ________,
efforts need to be directed toward parents and siblings of the family members.
A) orientation
B) procreation
C) immediacy
D) intimacy
E) reference
Answer: A
Page Ref: 154
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
11) The family in a buyers life consisting of parents and siblings is the ________.
A) family of procreation
B) family of influence
C) family of efficiency
D) family of orientation
E) purchasing family
Answer: D
Page Ref: 154
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
12) When Gary was a high school student, he enjoyed rock music and regularly purchased hip
clothing sported by his favorite rock band. However, five years later, when Gary became an
accountant, his preference shifted toward formal clothing. Which of the following personal
characteristics is likely to have had the most influence on Gary's preferences during his high
school days?
A) education
B) age
C) income
D) gender
E) physiological needs
Answer: B
Page Ref: 155
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
4
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13) Marriage, childbirth, and divorce constitute the ________ that shape the consumption pattern
of individuals.
A) psychological life cycle
B) product life cycle
C) social status
D) postpuberty cycles
E) critical life events
Answer: E
Page Ref: 156
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
14) Identify an economic circumstance that can greatly affect any product or brand choice.
A) retirement
B) values
C) lifestyle
D) borrowing power
E) relocation
Answer: D
Page Ref: 156
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
15) ________ refers to a set of distinguishing human psychological traits that lead to relatively
consistent and enduring responses to environmental stimuli.
A) Image
B) Personality
C) Psychological transformation
D) Lifestyle
E) Acculturation
Answer: B
Page Ref: 156
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
16) Brand personality analysts identified the popular music channel MTV as daring, spirited, and
highly imaginative. As per Jennifer Aaker's research, which of the following brand personality
traits best suits MTV?
A) excitement
B) sincerity
C) competence
D) ruggedness
E) sophistication
Answer: A
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
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17) The Marlboro Man was depicted in the advertisements of Marlboro cigarettes as a rugged
outdoor, tough cowboy type. This was done to establish what is called ________.
A) trademarking
B) a brand name
C) a brand personality
D) co-branding
E) a brand reference
Answer: C
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
18) Consumers often choose and use brands that have a brand personality consistent with how
they see themselves, also known as the ________.
A) actual self-concept
B) ideal self-concept
C) others' self-concept
D) prohibitive self-concept
E) suggestive self-concept
Answer: A
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
19) Consumers often choose and use brands that have a brand personality consistent with how
they think others view them, also known as the ________.
A) actual self-concept
B) others' self-concept
C) ideal self-concept
D) dual self-concept
E) perceptual self-concept
Answer: B
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
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20) Consumers who are highly sensitive to how others see them and who choose brands whose
personalities fit the consumption situation are called ________.
A) change agents
B) self motivators
C) self monitors
D) self adapters
E) opinion leaders
Answer: C
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
21) Within the context of Jennifer Aaker's analysis, identify the brand personality that can be
associated with a new product whose promotional messages consistently portray it as being
reliable, intelligent, and successful.
A) sincerity
B) excitement
C) competence
D) sophistication
E) ruggedness
Answer: C
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
22) Ford motors, uses the ad caption "Magnify the Adventure" to promote its latest SUV, the
Ford Endeavour. The ad features the car traveling through an uneven, rocky terrain. Within the
context of Jennifer Aaker's brand personality analysis, Ford Endeavour is most likely to be
strong on which of the following traits?
A) sincerity
B) intelligence
C) imagination
D) sophistication
E) ruggedness
Answer: E
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
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23) ________ portrays the "whole person" interacting with his or her environment.
A) Attitude
B) Personality
C) Lifestyle
D) Self-concept
E) Subculture
Answer: C
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
24) Consumers who worry about the environment and want products to be produced in a
sustainable way have been named ________.
A) "Green"
B) "Tree Huggers"
C) "LOHAS"
D) "Socialists"
E) "Mamas"
Answer: C
Page Ref: 158
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
25) IKEA has achieved global recognition by offering consumers leading-edge Scandinavian
furniture at affordable prices. IKEA is delivering value to consumers who are ________.
A) money constrained
B) time constrained
C) brand constrained
D) value constrained
E) self-concept constrained
Answer: A
Page Ref: 158
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
26) Marketers who target consumers on the basis of their ________ believe that they can
influence purchase behavior by appealing to people's inner selves.
A) time famine
B) sophistication
C) money constrain
D) social class
E) core values
Answer: E
Page Ref: 159
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
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27) The starting point for understanding consumer behavior is the ________ model in which
marketing and environmental stimuli enter the consumer's consciousness, and a set of
psychological processes combine with certain consumer characteristics to result in decision
processes and purchase decisions.
A) self-reliance
B) self-perception
C) psychogenic
D) stimulus-response
E) projective
Answer: D
Page Ref: 160
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
28) ________ assumed that the psychological forces shaping people's behavior are largely
unconscious, and that a person cannot fully understand his or her own motivations.
A) Abraham Maslow
B) Frederick Herzberg
C) Sigmund Freud
D) John Cacioppo
E) Karl Marx
Answer: C
Page Ref: 160
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Easy
29) Which of the following techniques was suggested by Freud to trace a person's motivations
from the stated instrumental ones to the more terminal ones?
A) laddering
B) word association
C) role playing
D) casting
E) selective attention
Answer: A
Page Ref: 160
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Easy
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30) Which of the following theories developed by Frederick Herzberg distinguishes dissatisfiers
from satisfiers?
A) trait-role theory
B) psychological constraint theory
C) probability theory
D) leadership model
E) two-factor theory
Answer: E
Page Ref: 161
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
31) At the top of Maslow's hierarchy of needs (shown as a pyramid in the text) are ________
needs.
A) esteem
B) self-actualization
C) social
D) safety
E) physiological
Answer: B
Page Ref: 161
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Easy
32) ________ is the process by which we select, organize, and interpret information inputs to
create a meaningful picture of the world.
A) Consumption
B) Perception
C) Acculturation
D) Assimilation
E) Cognitive dissonance
Answer: B
Page Ref: 161-162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
33) ________ can work to the advantage of marketers with strong brands when consumers make
neutral or ambiguous brand information more positive.
A) Selective attention
B) Selective distortion
C) Selective retention
D) Selective choice
E) Selective embellishment
Answer: B
Page Ref: 162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
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34) ________ is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our preconceptions.
A) Selective retention
B) Cognitive dissonance
C) Selective distortion
D) Subliminal perception
E) Selective embellishment
Answer: C
Page Ref: 162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
35) Marketers embed covert messages in ads or packaging of which the consumers are not
consciously aware, yet it affects their behavior. This technique employed by the marketers
targets the ________ of a consumer.
A) selective attention
B) selective distortion
C) subliminal perception
D) voluntary attention
E) selective retention
Answer: C
Page Ref: 162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
36) ________ teaches marketers that they can build demand for a product by associating it with
strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement.
A) Demand theory
B) Learning theory
C) Economic theory
D) Psychological theory
E) Demographic theory
Answer: B
Page Ref: 163
Objective: 2
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
11
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37) Anne is a frequent purchaser of Yoplait strawberry yogurt. For once, she decides to try a
different flavored yogurt. Instead of trying out the flavors offered by competing brands, Anne
selects a different flavor offered by Yoplait. Here, her past experience with the brand prompts
her to make the choice. Anne's behavior can be best described as ________.
A) fallacy of proposition
B) associative networking
C) generalization
D) heuristic thinking
E) self-actualization
Answer: C
Page Ref: 163
Objective: 2
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
38) The ________ says people have a general tendency to attribute success to themselves and
failure to external causes.
A) availability heuristic
B) trait-role theory
C) awareness set
D) generalization theory
E) hedonic bias
Answer: E
Page Ref: 163
Objective: 2
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
39) As Rita scans the yellow pages section of her phone book looking for a florist, she sees
several other products and services advertised. Though interesting on first glance, she quickly
returns to her primary task of finding a florist. The items that distracted her from her initial
search were most likely stored in which of the following types of memory?
A) Short-term memory
B) Long-term memory
C) Middle memory
D) Subconscious memory
E) Subliminal memory
Answer: A
Page Ref: 163
Objective: 2
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
12
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40) Betsy, a teenager, uses most of her post school hours in either playing tennis or watching
movies. She barely manages to concentrate in her lessons for a couple of hours before term
exams. Being questioned about her substandard performance in the school, she points out the
teacher's inability to complete the entire course during the school hours as the possible reason.
Betsy's behavior is most likely to be associated with ________.
A) generalization
B) hedonic bias
C) discrimination
D) selective attention
E) psychological repositioning
Answer: B
Page Ref: 163
Objective: 2
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Difficult
41) The associative network memory model views long-term memory as ________.
A) a subliminal perception
B) the interplay of drives
C) a strong internal stimulus impelling action
D) a temporary and limited repository of information
E) a set of nodes and links
Answer: E
Page Ref: 163
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
42) ________ refers to the process in which information gets out of memory.
A) Memory encoding
B) Memory decoding
C) Memory classification
D) Memory retrieval
E) Memorization
Answer: A
Page Ref: 165
Objective: 2
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
13
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43) Amtex electronics, a consumer products brand, advertises its products inside supermarkets
and retail stores frequently to promote the process of ________ and stimulate purchase.
A) memory verification
B) memory retrieval
C) memory decoding
D) memory formation
E) memory augmentation
Answer: B
Page Ref: 165-166
Objective: 2
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
44) Cognitive psychologists believe that memory is ________, so that once information becomes
stored in memory, its strength of association decays very slowly.
A) highly perceptual
B) somewhat collective
C) highly communicative
D) often reflective
E) extremely durable
Answer: E
Page Ref: 166
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
45) The milder information search state where a person simply becomes more receptive to
information about a product is called ________.
A) active information search
B) information search
C) heightened attention
D) purchase decision
E) dynamic information search
Answer: C
Page Ref: 167
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
46) The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a(n) ________.
A) product
B) advertisement for the product
C) salesperson from a previous visit
D) problem or need
E) internal cue
Answer: D
Page Ref: 167
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Easy
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47) Which of the following is considered to be a more advanced form of information search
wherein the person might phone friends or go online to secure information about a product or
service?
A) heightened attention
B) short-term memory processing
C) subliminal processing of information
D) long-term memory processing
E) active information search
Answer: E
Page Ref: 167
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
48) Of key interest to marketers are the major informational sources to which the consumer will
turn and the relative importance of each. Which of the following can be considered an
experiential information source?
A) consumer-rating organizations
B) mass media
C) acquaintances
D) Web sites
E) personal handing and examination
Answer: E
Page Ref: 167
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
49) Brands that meet consumers' initial buying criteria are called the ________.
A) total set
B) awareness set
C) consideration set
D) choice set
E) decision set
Answer: C
Page Ref: 167
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
15
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50) Maria considers buying a car for herself, after she notices the advantages derived by her best
friend from his new car. Which of the following forms of stimulus has activated Maria's problem
recognition process?
A) external stimuli
B) internal stimuli
C) peer stimuli
D) secondary stimuli
E) marketing induced stimuli
Answer: A
Page Ref: 167
Objective: 3
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
51) A consumer who uses Google to find comparative reports on new automobiles, is most likely
using which of the following information sources for assistance?
A) personal
B) public
C) experiential
D) commercial
E) under-the-radar
Answer: D
Page Ref: 167
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
52) With respect to consumer decision making, the ________ is the set of strong contenders from
which one will be chosen as a supplier of a good or service.
A) total set
B) awareness set
C) consideration set
D) choice set
E) decision set
Answer: D
Page Ref: 167-168
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
16
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53) A(n) ________ is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something.
A) attitude
B) belief
C) desire
D) feeling
E) emotion
Answer: B
Page Ref: 168
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Easy
54) A(n) ________ puts people into a frame of mind, such as, liking or disliking an object,
moving toward or away from it.
A) attitude
B) belief
C) feeling
D) position
E) stance
Answer: A
Page Ref: 168
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
55) Marketers need to identify the hierarchy of attributes that guide consumer decision making in
order to understand different competitive forces and how these various sets get formed. This
process of identifying the hierarchy is called ________.
A) market partitioning
B) brand association
C) market valuation
D) market estimation
E) market identification
Answer: A
Page Ref: 168
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
56) ________ are a person's enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotional feelings,
and action tendencies toward some object or idea.
A) Discriminations
B) Values
C) Beliefs
D) Feelings
E) Attitudes
Answer: E
Page Ref: 168
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Easy
17
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57) The expectancy-value model of attitude formation posits that consumers evaluate products
and services by combining their ________.
A) needs
B) wants
C) desires
D) brand beliefs
E) consuming attitudes
Answer: D
Page Ref: 169
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
58) Gordon Jones is considering purchasing a computer from Best Buy. He has created a scale
for rating eight different computers on three different characteristics. He plans to short-list only
those computers, that score at least a seven on his scale on all three characteristics. Which of the
following choice heuristics has he chosen?
A) elimination-by-aspects heuristic
B) lexicographic heuristic
C) conjunctive heuristic
D) anchoring and adjustment heuristic
E) representativeness heuristic
Answer: C
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
59) With the ________ heuristic, the consumer sets a minimum acceptable cutoff level for each
attribute and chooses the first alternative that meets the minimum standard for all attributes.
A) conjunctive
B) lexicographic
C) elimination-by-aspects
D) primary
E) secondary
Answer: A
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
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60) ________ are rules of thumb or mental shortcuts in the decision process.
A) Attitudes
B) Beliefs
C) Heuristics
D) Discriminations
E) Biases
Answer: C
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
61) Even if consumers form brand evaluations, two general factors can intervene between the
purchase intention and the purchase decision. One of these is unanticipated situational factors.
What is the other factor?
A) Amount of purchasing power
B) Attitudes of others
C) Short-term memory capabilities
D) Ability to return merchandise
E) The self-concept
Answer: B
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
62) A mobile phone manufacturing company observes that the main reason for an abrupt fall in
their sales volume is the unconventional design of their phones that consumers found
inconvenient and unattractive. The findings prompt the company to adopt a new strategy. They
redesigned the product models keeping the requirements of the end-user in mind. According to
the expectancy value-model, the company's strategy can be termed as ________.
A) psychological repositioning
B) real repositioning
C) competitive depositioning
D) physiological depositioning
E) prescriptive method
Answer: B
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
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63) Ford believes its cars to be of higher quality than General Motor's but thinks that consumers
wrongly believe the opposite. Ford might employ a(n) ________ strategy to change buyers'
perceptions of its competition.
A) real repositioning
B) competitive depositioning
C) psychological repositioning
D) biased repositioning
E) attribute repositioning
Answer: B
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Easy
64) When a marketer tries to alter a consumer's beliefs about a company's brand to get the
consumer to rethink a purchase decision, the marketer is using ________.
A) psychological repositioning
B) competitive depositioning
C) positioning
D) repositioning
E) biased positioning
Answer: A
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
65) With the ________, the consumer chooses the best brand on the basis of its perceived most
important attribute.
A) lexicographic heuristic
B) conjunctive heuristic
C) elimination-by-aspects heuristic
D) availability heuristic
E) representativeness heuristic
Answer: A
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
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66) ________ risk occurs if the product fails to perform up to expectations.
A) Physical
B) Financial
C) Social
D) Psychological
E) Functional
Answer: E
Page Ref: 171
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
67) Steve has only 20 minutes to have lunch. Although he really likes McDonald's, the line is
very long and he is concerned that he will not have a chance to get through the line and eat his
lunch before he is due back at work. Steve perceives ________ in going to McDonald's today.
A) time risk
B) functional risk
C) physical risk
D) psychological risk
E) social risk
Answer: A
Page Ref: 171
Objective: 3
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
68) A key driver of sales frequency is the product ________ rate.
A) consumption
B) disposal
C) refusal
D) utility
E) option
Answer: A
Page Ref: 172
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Easy
69) The level of engagement and active processing undertaken by the consumer in responding to
a marketing stimulus is called ________.
A) elaboration likelihood
B) consumer disengagement
C) consumer involvement
D) variety seeking
E) low involvement
Answer: C
Page Ref: 173
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
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70) A consumer is persuaded to buy a product by a message that requires little thought and is
based on an association with a brand's positive consumption experiences from the past. In this
situation, the consumer used a ________ to arrive at this purchase decision.
A) central route
B) peripheral route
C) behavioral route
D) subjective route
E) objective route
Answer: B
Page Ref: 173
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
71) Richard Petty and John Cacioppo's ________, an influential model of attitude formation and
change, describes how consumers make evaluations in both low- and high-involvement
circumstances.
A) introspective model
B) elaboration likelihood model
C) stimulus-response model
D) associative network memory model
E) expectancy-value model
Answer: B
Page Ref: 173
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
72) Which of the following products is most likely to be characterized by low involvement but
significant brand difference?
A) toothpastes
B) digital cameras
C) packet of salt
D) a milk carton
E) furniture
Answer: A
Page Ref: 174
Objective: 4
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
22
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73) With the ________, predictions of usage are based on quickness and ease of use.
A) availability heuristic
B) representative heuristic
C) anchoring heuristic
D) adjustment heuristic
E) semantic heuristic
Answer: A
Page Ref: 174-175
Objective: 4
Difficulty: Moderate
74) A consumer tells another consumer, "Every time I eat at Big Bill's Steakhouse, I get poor
service." Whether this is true or not, it is the consumer's perception. This is an example of
consumers basing future predictions on the quickness and ease with which a particular example
of an outcome comes to mind. This scenario would be an illustration of the ________ heuristic.
A) discrimination
B) differentiation
C) availability
D) screening
E) representativeness
Answer: C
Page Ref: 174-175
Objective: 4
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Difficult
75) Ben always reaches for the bright blue and yellow box of Ritz crackers when he visits the
snack food aisle in the grocery store. He rarely even reads the box or checks the price. Which of
the following heuristics is most likely being used by Ben?
A) Availability
B) Representative
C) Anchoring
D) Adjustment
E) Semantic
Answer: B
Page Ref: 175
Objective: 4
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Difficult
23
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76) ________ refers to the manner in which consumers code, categorize, and evaluate financial
outcomes of choices.
A) Cost accounting
B) Financial accounting
C) Behavioral accounting
D) Mental accounting
E) Factual accounting
Answer: D
Page Ref: 176
Objective: 4
Difficulty: Easy
77) Social class is the fundamental determinant of a person's wants and behavior.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 151
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
78) An example of a subculture would be a person's geographic region.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
79) Groups that have an indirect influence on a person's attitude or behavior can be a part of
his/her reference groups.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
80) Members within a social class tend to behave more alike compared to members from two
different social classes.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
81) Secondary groups require continuous interaction to be effective and meaningful.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
24
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Full file at https://testbanku.eu/
82) When Mark went to college he had a burning desire to join a social fraternity; for Mark, the
fraternity would be a dissociative group.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
83) A person's position in a group is defined in terms of role and status.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 154
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
84) Marketers need to be aware of the status-symbol potential of brands because people usually
choose products which reflect their role and their actual or desired status in a society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 155
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
85) The behavior people exhibit as they pass through certain life-cycle stages, such as becoming
a parent, is largely fixed and does not change over time.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 155
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
86) For an employee at an organization, annual appraisal can be considered as a critical life event
that impacts his/her consumption behavior.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 156
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Easy
87) Whereas economic circumstances can have a profound effect on consumption, occupation
does not impact how people spend their money and what they buy.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 156
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
25
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Full file at https://testbanku.eu/
88) According to the research conducted by Jennifer Aaker, one of the five traits of a product's
brand personality is its physical structure.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
89) Brand personality is the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular
brand.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
90) The five brand personality traits identified by Jennifer Aaker are consistently observed
regardless of nationality or culture.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
AACSB: Multicultural diversity
Difficulty: Moderate
91) A person's personality portrays the "whole person" interacting with his or her environment.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
92) Consumers who experience money constraints are prone to multitasking.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 158
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
93) Psychogenic needs arise from the physiological states of tension such as hunger or
discomfort.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 160
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
26
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Full file at https://testbanku.eu/
94) Sigmund Freud assumed that the psychological forces shaping people's behavior are largely
unconscious, and that people cannot fully understand their motivations.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 160
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Easy
95) According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs model, recognition, self-esteem, and status would
constitute a person's social needs.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 161
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
96) According to Herzberg's two-factor theory, satisfiers will make the major difference as to
which brand the customer buys.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 161
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
97) Perception depends only on the physical stimuli experienced by the person.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
98) People are more likely to notice stimuli whose deviations are large in relation to the normal
size of the stimuli.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
99) Selective attention is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our
preconceptions.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
100) Selective retention works to the advantage of strong brands.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Easy
27
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101) Because of selective retention, we are likely to forget about the good points of competing
products.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
102) Consistent with the elaboration memory model, consumer brand knowledge in memory can
be conceptualized as consisting of a brand node in memory with a variety of linked associations.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 163
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
103) Brand associations consist of all brand-related thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images,
experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on that become linked to the brand node.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 164
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Easy
104) Memory is a very constructive process. This means people do not remember information
and events completely and accurately and often remember only bits and pieces that they fill in
based on whatever else they know.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 165
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
105) Every consumer has to pass through all five stages of the buying process when in a buying
situation.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 166
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
106) The buying process starts when the buyer decides to or actually enters a store or service
provider's facility.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 167
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
28
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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107) A belief is a person's enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluation, emotional feeling, and
action tendency toward some object or idea.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 168
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
108) The expectancy-value model of attitude formation posits that consumers evaluate products
and services by combining their brand beliefs according to importance.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 169
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
109) If a company finds that a consumer has chosen a competitive product over their company's
offering, one way to get the consumer back could be by developing a strategy wherein the
company "shifts the buyer's ideals" on one or more levels.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Difficult
110) With noncompensatory models of consumer choice, positive and negative attribute
considerations usually net out.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
111) Volvo has the reputation for being one of the most "safe" cars on the road. For those that
value safety, Volvo would be the logical choice. This is an example of the lexicographic
heuristic of consumer choice.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
112) When consumers evaluate the risks associated with a purchase, only real risks with a high
likelihood of occurrence should be considered.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 171
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
29
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113) Psychological risk refers to the threat posed by a product to the physical well-being of a
consumer.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 171
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
114) With respect to a consumer buying situation that involves variety-seeking behavior, the
market leader generally encourages variety seeking by offering lower prices or deals.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 174
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
115) Anchoring heuristic comes in to play when consumers base their predictions on the
quickness and ease with which a particular example of an outcome comes to mind.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 176
Objective: 4
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
116) The prospect theory maintains that consumers frame decision alternatives in terms of gains
and losses according to a value function.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 177
Objective: 4
Difficulty: Moderate
117) Explain the differences between culture, subculture, and social class.
Answer: Culture is the fundamental determinant of a person's wants and behavior. Subcultures
provide more specific identification and socialization of their members. Subcultures include
nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographic regions. Social class is a relatively
homogeneous and enduring division in a society, that are hierarchically ordered and whose
members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.
Page Ref: 151-153
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
30
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118) What is a reference group? Describe three different types of reference groups that can have
an impact on a consumer's purchasing behavior.
Answer: Reference groups consist of all the groups that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect
influence on attitudes or behavior. Types of reference groups that can impact a consumer's
purchasing behavior include membership groups, primary groups, secondary groups, aspirational
groups, and disassociative groups.
Membership groups are the groups which have a direct influence on the person. Primary groups
are the groups with whom the person interacts fairly continuously and informally, such as family,
friends, neighbors, and coworkers. Secondary groups tend to be more formal and require less
continuous interaction. Aspirational groups are those a person hopes to join; and dissociative
groups are those whose values or behavior an individual rejects.
Page Ref: 154
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
119) The family is the most important consumer buying organization in society, and family
members constitute the most influential primary reference group. We can distinguish between
two family categorization in the buyer's life. Name the two families and their impact on buying
behavior.
Answer: The family of orientation consists of parents and siblings. From parents a person
acquires an orientation toward religion, politics, and economics and a sense of personal ambition,
self-worth, and love. Even if the buyer no longer interacts very much with his or her parents,
their influence on behavior can be significant. A more direct influence on everyday buying
behavior is the family of procreation—namely, one's spouse and children.
Page Ref: 154
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
120) Each person has personality characteristics that influence his or her buying behavior. What
does personality mean in terms of buying traits?
Answer: Personality is often described in terms of such buying traits as self-confidence,
dominance, autonomy, deference, sociability, defensiveness, and adaptability. Personality can be
a useful variable in analyzing consumer brand choices. The idea is that brands also have
personalities, and consumers are likely to choose brands whose personalities match their own.
Page Ref: 156-157
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
31
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121) People from the same subculture, social class, and occupation may lead quite different
lifestyles. A lifestyle is a person's pattern of living in the world as expressed in activities,
interests, and opinions. Lifestyle portrays the "whole person" interacting with his or her
environment. Given this information, describe the LOHAS (an acronym) lifestyle described in
the text and its usefulness in marketing.
Answer: Consumers who worry about the environment, want products to be produced in a
sustainable way, and spend money to advance their personal development and potential have
been named "LOHAS." The name is an acronym standing for lifestyles of health and
sustainability. The market for LOHAS products encompasses things such as organic foods,
energy-efficient appliances, and solar panels as well as alternative medicine, yoga tapes, and
ecotourism.
Page Ref: 158
Objective: 1
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Difficult
122) Frederick Herzberg developed a two-factor theory that distinguishes dissatisfiers and
satisfiers. How does Herzberg's theory affect sellers' marketing strategy?
Answer: Herzberg's theory has two implications. First, sellers should do their best to avoid
dissatisfiers (for example, a poor training manual or a poor service policy). Although these things
will not sell a product, they might easily unsell it. Second, the seller should identify the major
satisfiers or motivators of purchase in the market and then supply them. These satisfiers will
make the major difference as to which brand the customer buys.
Page Ref: 161
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
123) People can emerge with different perceptions of the same object because of three perceptual
processes. List and briefly characterize these processes.
Answer: The three processes are selective attention, selective distortion, and selective
retention. Selective attention occurs because a person cannot possibly attend to all the stimuli
that he or she is exposed to during an average day. Some will be screened out. Selective
distortion is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our perceptions. Selective
retention occurs because people will fail to register much information to which they are exposed
in memory, but will tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs.
Page Ref: 162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Difficult
124) Explain the concept of selective retention and its association with marketing.
Answer: Selective retention says that consumers are likely to remember good points about a
product we like and forget good points about competing products. Selective retention works to
the advantage of strong brands. It also means that marketers need to use repetition in sending
messages to their target markets to make sure their message is not overlooked.
Page Ref: 162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
32
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125) Identify three types of risk consumers might perceive in the context of purchasing a car.
Answer: Consumers might perceive physical risk (an unsafe car poses a safety risk to the
physical well-being of the driver and passengers), a financial risk (the car might be overpriced or
may decline in value so rapidly that it will have minimal resale value when the consumer tries to
resell it), and a functional risk (the car may not perform to the expectations of the consumer).
Students may identify other risks, including social, psychological, and time risks.
Page Ref: 171
Objective: 3
AACSB: Analytic skills
Difficulty: Moderate
126) What is mental accounting? What, according to Thaler, are the core principles on which
mental accounting is based? Explain with examples.
Answer: Mental accounting refers to the way consumers code, categorize, and evaluate
financial outcomes of choices. Formally, it is "the tendency to categorize funds or items of value
even though there is no logical basis for the categorization, e.g., individuals often segregate their
savings into separate accounts to meet different goals even though funds from any of the
accounts can be applied to any of the goals."
According to Chicago's Thaler, mental accounting is based on a set of core principles:
1. Consumers tend to segregate gains. When a seller has a product with more than one positive
dimension, it's desirable to have the consumer evaluate each dimension separately. Listing
multiple benefits of a large industrial product, for example, can make the sum of the parts seem
greater than the whole.
2. Consumers tend to integrate losses. Marketers have a distinct advantage in selling something if
its cost can be added to another large purchase. House buyers are more inclined to view
additional expenditures favorably given the high price of buying a house.
3. Consumers tend to integrate smaller losses with larger gains. The "cancellation" principle
might explain why withholding taxes from monthly paychecks is less aversive than large,
lump-sum tax payments—the smaller withholdings are more likely to be absorbed by the larger
pay amount.
4. Consumers tend to segregate small gains from large losses. The "silver lining" principle might
explain the popularity of rebates on big-ticket purchases such as cars.
Page Ref: 176-177
Objective: 4
Difficulty: Moderate
127) Culture is the fundamental determinant of a person's wants and behavior. The growing child
acquires a set of values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors through his or her family and
other key institutions. What values are typical American young children exposed to?
Answer: According to the text, a child growing up in the United States is exposed to values
such as achievement and success, activity, efficiency and practicality, progress, material comfort,
individualism, freedom, external comfort, humanitarianism, and youthfulness.
Page Ref: 151-153
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
33
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128) An opinion leader is the person in informal, product-related communications who offers
advice or information about a specific product or product category, such as which of several
brands is best or how a particular product may be used. According to the text, how do marketers
try to reach opinion leaders?
Answer: Marketers try to reach opinion leaders by identifying demographic and psychographic
characteristics associated with opinion leadership, identifying the media read by opinion leaders,
and directing messages at opinion leaders.
Page Ref: 153
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
129) Explain the differences between a role and status.
Answer: A role consists of the activities a person is expected to perform. Each role carries a
status. For example, a senior vice-president has more status than a sales manager.
Page Ref: 154-155
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
130) Mention the personal factors that can influence the decision of a buyer.
Answer: Personal characteristics that influence a buyer's decision include age and stage in the
life cycle, occupation and economic circumstances, personality and self-concept, and lifestyle
and values. Because many of these have a direct impact on consumer behavior, it is important for
marketers to follow them closely.
Page Ref: 155
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Moderate
131) What is brand personality and what are the five traits that has been linked to it?
Answer: Brand personality is the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a
particular brand. Traits that have been associated with brand personality are sincerity,
excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness.
Page Ref: 157
Objective: 1
Difficulty: Easy
132) Briefly explain Freud's theory on human motivation and explain how this might be related
to marketing.
Answer: Sigmund Freud assumed that the psychological forces shaping people's behavior are
largely unconscious, and that a person cannot fully understand his or her own stated capabilities.
When a person examines specific brands, he or she will react not only to their stated capabilities,
but also to other, less conscious cues.
Page Ref: 160
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
34
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133) Within the context of the Freudian theory, explain how the laddering technique can be used.
Answer: Shape, size, weight, material, color, and brand name can all trigger certain
associations and emotions. A technique called laddering can be used to trace a person's
motivations from the stated instrumental ones to the more terminal ones. Then the marketer can
decide at what level to develop the message and appeal.
Page Ref: 160
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
134) Abraham Maslow sought to explain why people are driven by particular needs at particular
times. Describe Maslow's hierarchy of needs. How does Maslow's theory help marketers?
Answer: Maslow's hierarchy of needs in order of importance are, physiological needs, safety
needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Maslow's theory helps marketers
understand how various products fit into the plans, goals, and lives of consumers.
Page Ref: 160-161
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
135) List and briefly characterize Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Answer: Beginning with the most basic needs to the most advanced, the need structure is as
follows: (1) physiological needs—food, water, shelter; (2) safety needs—security, protection; (3)
social needs—sense of belonging, love; (4) esteem needs—self-esteem, recognition, status; and
(5) self-actualization needs—self-development and realization.
Page Ref: 161
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
136) Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets
information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. For a marketer, what is the key
point of perception?
Answer: The key point is that perceptions can vary widely among individuals exposed to the
same reality. In marketing, perceptions are more important than the reality, as it is perceptions
that will affect consumers' actual behavior.
Page Ref: 161-162
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
137) What does the learning theory teach marketers about demand for products?
Answer: The learning theory teaches marketers that they can build demand for a product by
associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement.
Page Ref: 163
Objective: 2
Difficulty: Moderate
35
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138) What are the five stages of the consumer buying process?
Answer: The five stages are problem recognition, information search, evaluation of
alternatives, purchase decision, and postpurchase behavior.
Page Ref: 166
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
139) Describe how the problem recognition process works in the five-stage model of the
consumer buying process.
Answer: The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a problem or need. With an
internal stimulus, one of the person's normal needs—hunger, thirst, sex—rises to a threshold
level and becomes a drive; or a need can be aroused by an external stimuli such as an
advertisement.
Page Ref: 167
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
140) Through market research a consumer gathers information about the competing brands of a
product and their features. The consumer then advances through four sets with respect to brands
before a decision is reached. What are those four sets?
Answer: The four sets are: (1) the total set, (2) the awareness set, (3) the consideration set, and
(4) the choice set.
Page Ref: 167
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
141) Explain the differences between a belief and an attitude.
Answer: A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. An attitude is a
person's enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluation, emotional feeling, and action tendencies
toward some object or idea.
Page Ref: 168
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Easy
142) What do you understand by the term market partitioning?
Answer: Marketers need to identify the hierarchy of attributes that guide consumer decision
making in order to understand different competitive forces and how these various sets get
formed. This process of identifying the hierarchy is called market partitioning.
Page Ref: 168
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
36
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143) How is the expectancy-value model used in the evaluation of alternatives as a consumer
engages in a buying process?
Answer: The expectancy-value model of attitude formation posits that consumers evaluate
products and services by combining their brand beliefs—the positives and negatives—according
to importance. The model assists consumers in making choices.
Page Ref: 169
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Moderate
144) Describe the lexicographic heuristic used to make consumer choices.
Answer: The lexicographic heuristic is in use when the consumer chooses the best brand on the
basis of its perceived most important attribute.
Page Ref: 170
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Easy
145) What four strategies can marketers of low-involvement products employ in an effort to
convert their products into ones of higher involvement?
Answer: The four strategies are: (1) linking the product to some involving issue; (2) linking the
product to some involving personal situation; (3) designing advertising to trigger strong emotions
related to personal values or ego defense; and (4) adding important features to the product.
Page Ref: 174
Objective: 3
Difficulty: Difficult
146) Heuristics can come into play when consumers forecast the likelihood of future outcomes or
events. When would a consumer use an anchoring and adjustment heuristic?
Answer: Consumers will use this heuristic when the consumer arrives at an initial judgment
and then makes adjustments of that first impression based on additional information.
Page Ref: 176
Objective: 4
Difficulty: Moderate
37
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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