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CAUSES OF ABUSE

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FACULTY OF COGNITIVE SCIENCES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
KMC3063: FAMILY COUNSELLING
GROUP ASSIGNMENT : DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
(20 %)
NO
NAME
NO. MATRIC
1.
DAYANG KHAIRUNISA BT JOHARI
55794
2.
NUR DALILAH AJLAA BT MOHD TAUFEK
57183
3.
NUR FARHANIM BT BAHARUDIN
57214
TABLE OF CONTENT
NO
CONTENT
1.
INTRODUCTION
2.
PREVALENCE OF ABUSE
3.
CAUSES OF ABUSE
4.
EFFECT ON MARITAL
RELATIONSHIP & STATUS
5.
REFERENCE
PAGE
3.0 CAUSES OF ABUSE
There are many factors that contributing to domestic violence likely to happen.
Based on the past research stated that, numbers of family members, type of marriage
and husband’s education have significant influence on domestic violence (Murthy et
al., 2004). In the other hand, studies by Fagot et al. (1998) and Malamuth et al. (1995)
revealed that those men who raised in patriarchal family structure that encourages
traditional gender role are more likely to abuse their intimate partners. If taking a
closer look into domestic violence issue , the causes for it to happen can be break into
two factors , which are perpetrator factor and victim factor.
Perpetrator can be defined as someone who committed as crime or violent or
harmful act (Cambridge Dictionary, 2019). The temperamental attitude of the
perpetrator is the root cause of domestic violence. Ruddle, Pina, & Vasquez (2017)
was attribute the temperamental attitude with anger. When the perpetrator in anger , it
tends to add the aggressive behavior especially in provocative events. It become
worse when the perpetrator has poor self-control of the situation that triggers their
anger, as the result it usually end with violent towards their partner. Next, in several
cases the perpetrator are most likely to be under substance abuse , either positive for
drugs or under influence of alcohol (Reingel et al., 2013). Gonzalez et al. (2014)
stated that there are strong correlations between alcohol addiction, drugs and
marijuana during the act of violence. In the other hands, the perpetrator might
experienced
of being victims of abuse themselves during their childhood
(Gil-González, Vives-Cases, Ruiz, Carrasco-Portiño, & Álvarez-Dardet, 2008). The
children who witnessed or experienced violence committed by people around them
are tend to being violent offender and involve in crime in his/her later life (Zinzow,
2009).
In term of victim, the main causes of domestic violence is possession of resources.
The possession of resources includes level of education, income and employment
status (Nurul Nadia, 2018). According to Naved (2013), the domestic violence often
happened to women who has lack of financial autonomy and low socioeconomic
status because they becoming economically dependent on their partner. Another
victim cause to domestic violence is positive attitude towards beating women, it might
started when their childhood by witnessing violence among parents that result in
women acceptance of abuse.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the domestic violence is a serious issue that need to be taking care
of by the government and other responsible party or organizations. The domestic
violence is not only only occurs towards women, but men also found to be abused by
their partners (Reingle et al.,2013). The type of violence done by the perpetrator are
not only physically, psychological, sexual, economic or financial and spiritual
(Women’s Aids Organisation, 2017). The domestic violence will surely leave impact
and scars towards the victims, families, friends and society. Next, it is important for
the society to aware of the causes of the domestic violence in term of perpetrator
causes which are temperamental attitude, substances abuse and witnessing family
violence and also victim causes of domestic violence which are possession of
resources and positive attitude toward beating women.
REFRENCE
Fagot BI, Loeber R, Reid JB. Developmental Determinants of Male to Female
Aggression. In. Russell GW (edi). Violence in Intimate Relationships. PMA
Publishing Corp. 1988. p. 91-105.
Gil-González, D., Vives-Cases, C., Ruiz, M. T., Carrasco-Portiño, M., &
Álvarez-Dardet, C. (2008). Childhood experiences of violence in perpetrators as a
risk factor of intimate partner violence: A systematic review. Journal of Public
Health, 30(1), 14– 22. http://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdm071
Gonzalez, J. M. R., Connell, N. M., Businelle, M. S., Jennings, W. G., & Chartier, K.
G. (2014). Characteristics of adults involved in alcohol-related intimate partner
violence: results from a nationally representative sample. BMC Public Health, 14,
466.
Malamuth NM, Linz D, Heavey CL, Barnes G, Acker M. Using the Confluence
Model of Sexual Aggression to Predict Men’s Conflict with Women: A Ten year
Follow up Study. J Pers Soc Psychol 1995;69(2):35369.
Murthy MSR, Ganesh P, Srivirajarani J, Madhusudan R. Proximate Determinants of
Domestic Violence: An Exploratory Study on Role of Menstrual Problems and
Life Style of Men. Demography India 2004;33(1):85105. 9
Naved, R. T. (2013). Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.
Archives
of
Sexual
Behavior,
42(4),
595–602.
http://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-0045-1
Perpetrator. (2019). In Cambridge dictionary . Retrieved from
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/perpetrator
Reingle, J. M., Staras, S. A. S., Jennings, W. G., Branchini, J., & Maldonado-molina,
M. M. (2013). The Relationship Between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner
Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample. Journal of
Interpersonal Violence, 27(8), 1–13
Ruddle, A., Pina, A., & Vasquez, E. (2017). Domestic violence offending behaviors:
A review of the literature examining childhood exposure, implicit theories, trait
aggression and anger rumination as predictive factors. Aggression and Violent
Behavior, 34, 154–165.
Women’s Aids Organisation. (2017). Violence against Women. Retrieved November
23, 2017, from http://www.who.int/
Zinzow, H. M., Ruggiero, K. J., Hanson, R. F., Smith, D. W., Saunders, B. E., &
Kilpatrick, D. G. (2009). Witnessed community and parental violence in relation
to substance use and delinquency in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of
Traumatic Stress, 22(6), 525–533
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