# Physical-Science-Tables-Formulas-and-Equations

```Physical Science: Tables & Formulas
SI Base Units
Base Quantity
Amount of substance
Electric current
Length
Luminous intensity
Mass
Time
Temperature
Unit Name
mole
ampere
meter
candela
kilogram
second
Kelvin
Unit Symbol
Mol
A
M
Cd
Kg
S
K
SI Derived Units
Derived Quantity
Name (Symbol)
Area
Volume
Speed/velocity
Acceleration
Frequency
Force
Pressure, stress
Energy, work, quantity of heat
Power
Electric charge
Electric potential difference
Electric resistance
Square meter (m2)
Cubic meter (m3)
Meter per second (m/s)
Meter per second squared (m/s2)
Hertz (Hz)
Newton (N)
Pascal (Pa)
Joule (J)
Watt (W)
Coulomb (C)
Volt (V)
Ohm (Ω)
Expression in terms of
other SI units
Expression in terms
of SI base units
N.m2
N. m
J/s
-W/A
V/A
s-1
m . kg . s-2
m-1 . kg . s-2
m2 . kg . s-2
m2 . kg . s-3
s.A
m2·kg·s-3·A-1
m2·kg·s-3·A-2
Prefixes used to designate multiples of a base unit
Prefix
tera
giga
mega
kilo
centi
milli
micro
Nano
pico
Symbol
T
G
M
k
c
m
u
n
p
Meaning
trillion
billion
Million
Thousand
One hundredth
One thousandth
One millionth
One billionth
One trillionth
Multiple of base unit
1, 000, 000, 000, 000
1, 000, 000, 000
1, 000, 000
1, 000
1/100 or .01
1/1000 or .001
1/1000000 or .000001
1/1000000000 or .000000001
1/1000000000000 or.000000000001
Scientific Notation
1012
109
106
103
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12
In general, when converting from base units (m, l, g, etc) or derived units (m2,m3, m/s, Hz, N, J, V, etc) to a
multiple greater (kilo, mega, giga, or tera) than the base or derived unit- then divide by the factor. For
example: 10m = 10/1000km = 1/100 km = .01km.
Page 1 of 10
When converting from base units or derived units to a multiple smaller (centi, milli, micro, nano) than the
base or derived unit- then multiply by the factor. For example: 10m = 10 x 100cm = 1000cm.
Subatomic Particles
Particle
Proton
Neutron
Electron
Charge
+1
0
-1
Mass
1
1
0
Location
nucleus
nucleus
Outside the nucleus
Common Cations
Ion Name (symbol)
Lithium (Li)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Rubidium (Rb)
Cesium (Cs)
Beryllium (Be)
Magnesium (Mg)
Calcium (Ca)
Strontium (Sr)
Barium (Ba)
Aluminum (Al)
Ion Charge
1+
1+
1+
1+
1+
2+
2+
2+
2+
2+
3+
Common Anions
Element Name (symbol)
Fluorine
Chlorine
Bromine
Iodine
Oxygen
Sulfur
Nitrogen
Ion Name (symbol)
Fluoride
Chloride
Bromide
Iodide
Oxide
Sulfide
Nitride
Ion Charge
1111223-
Common Polyatomic Ions
Ion Name
Carbonate
Chlorate
Cyanide
Hydroxide
Nitrate
Ion Formula
CO32ClO3CNOHNO3-
Ion Name
Nitrite
Phosphate
Phosphite
Sulfate
Sulfite
Ion Formula
NO2PO43PO33SO42SO32Page 2 of 10
Prefixes for Naming Covalent Compounds
Number of Atoms
1
2
3
4
5
Prefix
Mono
Di
Tri
Tetra
penta
Number of Atoms
6
7
8
9
10
Prefix
Hexa
Hepta
Octa
Nona
deca
Types of Chemical Reactions
Type of reaction
Combustion
Synthesis
Decomposition
Single Replacement
Double Replacement
Generalized formula
HC + O2  H2O + CO2
A + B  AB
AB  A + B
A + BC  AC + B
AX + BY  AY + BX
Specific Example
2C2H6 + 7O2  6H2O + 4CO2
2Na + Cl2  2NaCl
2H2O  2H2 + O2
2Al + 3CuCl2  3Cu + 2AlCl3
Pb(NO3)2 + K2CrO4  PbCrO4 + 2KNO3
The Effects of Change on Equilibrium in a Reversible Reaction (Le Châtelier’s
Principle)
Condition
Temperature
Pressure
Concentration
Effect
Increasing temperature favors the reaction that absorbs energy (endothermic)
Increasing pressure favors the reaction that produces less gas.
Increasing conc. of one substance favors reaction that produces less of that substance
Common Acids
Acid
Hydrochloric (muriatic) acid
Nitric acid
Sulfuric acid
Acetic acid
Citric acid
Formic
Formula
HCl
HNO3
H2SO4
CH3COOH
C6H8O7
HCOOH
Strength
strong
strong
strong
weak
weak
weak
Formula
KOH
NaOH
Ca(OH)2
NH3
Strength
strong
strong
strong
weak
Common Bases
Base
Potassium hydroxide (potash)
Sodium hydroxide (lye)
Calcium hydroxide (lime)
ammonia
Page 3 of 10
pH scale
Strong acids  more acidic 
0
1
2
3
4
weak acids
5
6
Neutral Weak bases
7
8
9
 More basic 
10
11
12
strong bases
13
14
Alpha particle
Beta particle
Gamma
Symbol
4
2 He
0
-1 e
γ
Charge
+2
-1
0
Nuclear Equation
225
Ac  87 221Fr + 2 4He
89
14
14
0
6 C  7 N + -1 e
n/a
Equations
Units: g/cm3 or g/mL
Density = mass ÷ volume (D = m/v)
Rearranged: mass = Density x Volume Units: grams or
Volume = mass ÷ density Units: cm3 or mL
Moles = mass (grams) x Molar Mass (grams / mol)
Molar Mass = atomic mass in grams
Energy = mass x (speed of light)2
E = mc2
Units: joules
Speed = distance ÷ time
Units: meters / second
v=d÷t
Rearranged: distance = speed x time Units: meters
time = distance ÷ speed Units: seconds
Momentum = mass x velocity
p=mxv
Units: kg
Acceleration = (final velocity - initial velocity) ÷ time
.
m/s
a = Δv ÷ t
Units: meters / (second)2
Rearranged: Δv = acceleration x time Units: meters/second
time = Δv ÷ a
Units: seconds
Force = mass x acceleration
F=mxa
Units: kg . m/s2 or Newtons (N)
Rearranged: mass = Force ÷ acceleration Units: g or kg
acceleration = Force ÷ mass Units: meters / (second)2
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Weight = mass x gravity (9.8 m/s2 )
Work = Force x distance
Units: kg . m/s2 or Newtons (N)
W=Fxd
Units: Joules (J)
Rearranged: Force = Work ÷ distance Units: Newtons
distance = Work ÷ Force Units: meters
Power = Work ÷ time
P=W÷t
Units: J/s or Watts (W)
Rearranged: Work = Power x time Units: Joules (J)
time = Work ÷ Power Units: seconds (s)
Mechanical Advantage = Output Force ÷ Input Force
(Resistance Force ÷ Effort Force)
or
Mechanical Advantage = Input Distance ÷ Output Distance (Effort Distance ÷ Resistance Distance)
Gravitational Potential Energy = mass x gravity (9.8 m/s2) x height
Joules
Rearranged: m = GPE ÷ (g . h)
h = GPE ÷ (m . g)
Kinetic Energy = ½ mass x (velocity)2
KE = .5 mv2
Rearranged: m = 2KE ÷ v2
v=
GPE = m x g x h
Units:
Units: Joules
Efficiency of a Machine = (Useful Work Output ÷ Work Input) x 100
Temperature Conversions
Celsius-Fahrenheit Conversion:
Fahrenheit temperature = (1.8 x Celsius temperature) + 32.00
F = 1.8 (C) + 320
Celsius temperature = (Fahrenheit temperature – 32) ÷ 1.8 C = (F – 32) ÷ 1.8
Celsius-Kelvin Conversion:
Kelvin = Celsius + 273
Celsius = Kelvin -273
Page 5 of 10
Specific Heat Equation
Energy = mass x Specific Heat Value x
E=m.c.Δt
change in temperature
Rearranged: mass = Energy ÷ (c x Δ T) Units: kg
Units: Joules
Δ T = Energy ÷ (c x mass ) Units: K or 0C
Wave Speed Equation
v=fxλ
Wave’s Speed = frequency x wavelength
Rearranged: Frequency = Wave Speed ÷ wavelength
Wavelength = Wave Speed ÷ frequency
Units: m/s
f=v÷λ
Units: Hertz
λ=v÷f
Units: meters / second
Speed of light (in a vacuum) = 3.0 x 108 m/s (300,000,000 m/s)
Speed of Sound (in air at 25 0C) = 346 m/s Speed of Sound (in water at 25 0C) = 1490 m/s
Speed of Sound (in iron at 25 0C) = 5000 m/s
Ohm’s Law Equation
Current = Voltage ÷ Resistance
I=V/R
Rearranged: Voltage = Current x Resistance
Resistance = Voltage ÷ Current
Units: Amperes (A)
V=IxR
Units: Volts (V)
R=V/I
Units: Ohms (Ω)
Electric Power Equation
Power = Current x Voltage
Variations:
P = I2 x R
P=IxV
Units: watts (W) or Kilowatts (kW)
P = V2 / R
Rearranged: Voltage = Power ÷ Current
V=PxI
Units: Volts (V)
Current = Power ÷ Voltage
I=P÷V
Units: Amperes (A)
Page 6 of 10
Electromagnetic Spectrum: Relates the energy, frequency and wavelength of various types of
electromagnetic waves (radio, TV, micro, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma). As energy and
frequency increase the wavelength decreases.
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AM radio - 535 kilohertz to 1.7 megahertz
Short wave radio - bands from 5.9 megahertz to 26.1 megahertz
Citizens band (CB) radio - 26.96 megahertz to 27.41 megahertz
Television stations - 54 to 88 megahertz for channels 2 through 6
FM radio - 88 megahertz to 108 megahertz
Television stations - 174 to 220 megahertz for channels 7 through 13
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Garage door openers, alarm systems, etc. - Around 40 megahertz
Standard cordless phones: Bands from 40 to 50 megahertz
Baby monitors: 49 megahertz
Radio controlled airplanes: Around 72 megahertz, which is different from...
Radio controlled cars: Around 75 megahertz
Wildlife tracking collars: 215 to 220 megahertz
MIR space station: 145 megahertz and 437 megahertz
Cell phones: 824 to 849 megahertz
New 900-MHz cordless phones: Obviously around 900 megahertz!
Air traffic control radar: 960 to 1,215 megahertz
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Global Positioning System: 1,227 and 1,575 megahertz
Deep space radio communications: 2290 megahertz to 2300 megahertz
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```
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