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Language Handbook Worksheets

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HOLT McDOUGAL LITERATURE
Language Handbook
Additional Practice in Grammar,
Usage, and Mechanics
GRADE 10
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Cover
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ISBN-13
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ISBN-10
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Table of Contents
To the Teacher
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Language Handbook 1
The Parts of Speech
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3
4
5
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6
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8
Identifying Common and Proper Nouns
and Proper Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Identifying and Using Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Recognizing and Labeling Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Identifying and Using Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Identifying Prepositions, Prepositional Phrases,
and Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Identifying and Using Conjunctions
and Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Determining the Parts of Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Language Handbook 2
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Agreement
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Making Subjects and Verbs Agree . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Using Correct Subject-Verb Agreement . . . . . . . . 11
Ensuring Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns
and Compound Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Ensuring Subject and Verb Agreement . . . . . . . . . 13
Ensuring Agreement When the Verb Precedes
the Subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
More Subject-Verb Agreement Problems . . . . . . . 16
Ensuring Agreement Between Pronouns
and Antecedents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Using Correct Pronouns with Antecedents . . . . . 18
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Language Handbook 3
Using Verbs
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2
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Using Irregular Verbs Correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Using the Past and Past Participles of
Irregular Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Distinguishing Between Lie and Lay
and Sit and Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
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Distinguishing Between Rise and Raise,
Lie and Lay, and Sit and Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Writing the Correct Verb Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Avoiding Needless Changes in Tense . . . . . . . . . . 27
Using Active and Passive Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Language Handbook 4
Using Pronouns
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Using the Nominative Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Using the Objective Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Using Pronouns in Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Classifying Pronouns by Case, Person,
and Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Special Pronoun Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Ensuring Clear Pronoun Reference . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Language Handbook 5
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Choosing Between Adjectives and Adverbs . . . . . 38
Using Modifiers with Linking Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Using Different Forms of Modifiers to Show
Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Using Different Forms of Modifiers to Show
Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Using Modifiers in Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Avoiding Double Negatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Avoiding Dangling Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Avoiding Misplaced Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Revising Misplaced Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Language Handbook 6
Phrases
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Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
Identifying Prepositional Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Using and Identifying Adjective Phrases . . . . . . . 50
Using and Identifying Adverb Phrases . . . . . . . . . 51
Identifying Participles and Participial Phrases . . . 52
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Using Modifiers
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Identifying Gerunds, Gerund Phrases, Infinitives, and
Infinitive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Identifying Gerunds, Gerund Phrases, Infinitives,
Infinitive Phrases, and Infinitive Clauses . . . . . . . 54
Identifying Appositives and Appositive Phrases . . 55
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Language Handbook 7
Clauses
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Identifying Independent and Subordinate
Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Identifying Adjective Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Identifying and Using Adverb Clauses . . . . . . . . . 60
Using Adverb Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Identifying Noun Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Identifying Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Language Handbook 8
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Sentence Structure
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Identifying Sentences and Fragments . . . . . . . . . 67
Identifying Subjects and Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Identifying and Using Compound Subjects and
Compound Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Finding the Subject and the Predicate
of a Sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Identifying and Using Complements . . . . . . . . . . 71
Identifying Direct and Indirect Objects . . . . . . . . 72
Classifying Sentences by Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Recognizing Simple, Compound, Complex,
and Compound-Complex Sentences . . . . . . . . . . 74
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Language Handbook 9
Writing Complete Sentences
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Identifying Sentence Fragments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Identifying and Correcting Sentence Fragments . 79
Making Complete Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Identifying and Revising Run-on Sentences . . . . . 81
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Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Language Handbook 10
Writing Effective Sentences
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Using Adjectives,Adverbs, and Prepositional
Phrases to Combine Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Using Participial Phrases to Combine Sentences . 86
Using Participial Phrases to Combine Sentences . 87
Using Participial Phrases to Combine Sentences . 88
Using Appositives and Appositive Phrases to
Combine Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Using Appositives and Appositive Phrases to
Combine Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Using Subjects,Verbs, and Independent
Clauses to Combine Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Using Subjects,Verbs, and Independent
Clauses to Combine Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Using Adjective Clauses to Combine Sentences . . 93
Using Adjective Clauses to Combine Sentences . . 94
Using Adverb Clauses to Combine Sentences . . . 95
Using Noun Clauses to Combine Sentences . . . . 96
Using Parallel Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Rewriting Stringy and Wordy Sentences . . . . . . . 99
Varying Sentence Structures and Sentence
Beginnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Capitalization
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2
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Using Capital Letters Correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Capitalizing Proper Nouns, School Subjects,
and Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Using Capitals Correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Language Handbook 12
Punctuation
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Using End Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Using Commas in Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
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Using Commas to Separate Adjectives and to
Join Independent Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Using Commas to Distinguish Essential from
Nonessential Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Using Commas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Using Commas Correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Using Commas, Semicolons, and Colons . . . . . . 119
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Language Handbook 13
Punctuation
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4
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Using Italics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Punctuating Direct Quotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Punctuating Split Quotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Punctuating Dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Using Quotation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Language Handbook 14
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Punctuation
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Using Apostrophes to Form Possessives . . . . . . . 134
Placing Apostrophes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Identifying Where Apostrophes Are Needed . . . 136
Using Apostrophes in Possessives and in
Contractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Using Apostrophes for Contractions . . . . . . . . . 138
Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses . . . . . . . . . . 139
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Language Handbook 15
Spelling
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Using Word Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Using Spelling Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Adding Prefixes and Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Forming Plurals of Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Forming Plurals of Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
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Language Handbook 16
Glossary of Usage
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Common Usage Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Common Usage Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
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To the Teacher
T
his booklet, Language Handbook, contains practice and reinforcement
copying masters that cover the material presented in the Grammar
Handbook section of the Student Edition.The worksheets reinforce the
grammar, usage, and mechanics rules and instruction covered in the
Grammar Handbook.Tests at the end of each section can be used either for
assessment or as end-of-section reviews.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
A separate Answer Key for the Language Handbook provides answers or
suggested responses to all items in this booklet.
To the Teacher
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Page 1
NAME
Language
Handbook
CLASS
DATE
1 The Parts of Speech
WORKSHEET 1
Identifying Common and Proper Nouns
and Proper Adjectives
Exercise A Identify the italicized nouns in the following paragraph as proper or common.
On the line provided, write P for proper or C for common.
EXAMPLE
Annie Smith Peck’s mountain-climbing [1] career __C__ lasted forty
years.
[1] Annie Smith Peck _____ was one of the foremost mountain climbers of her time. In 1895
she became the third [2] woman _____ to climb the Matterhorn in the Swiss Alps. Later she
climbed [3] Mount Shasta _____ in California and Mount Orizaba in [4] Mexico _____.
Determined to set a [5] record _____, Peck traveled to [6] Peru _____ to attempt to climb
Huascarán. She did not reach the [7] summit _____ on her first try, but she returned in 1908.
Peck was fifty-eight years old when she finally conquered [8] Huascarán _____. With this
[9] achievement _____, she set the record for the highest climb in the Western Hemisphere.
This adventurous woman continued traveling and climbing [10] mountains _____ well into
her eighties.
Exercise B Underline each adjective in the following sentences. Then, circle the proper
adjectives. Not all sentences contain proper adjectives.
EXAMPLE
1. Christina has learned a great deal about Greek traditions from
her grandfather.
1. Vietnamese spring rolls are rolled in thin wrappers made from rice.
2. The exhausted hikers set up camp in a clearing near a lake.
3. The arena was filled to capacity with enthusiastic fans waiting for tip-off.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
4. After invading Spaniards defeated the Aztecs in 1521, Mexico became a Spanish colony.
5. Because they are based on the Hebrew calendar, Jewish holidays occur on different dates
each year on the Gregorian calendar.
6. An obedient dog is the result of hours of training by a patient and sensitive owner.
7. The tragedies of Christopher Marlowe, an Elizabethan playwright, are each about a strong
main character.
8. The hot-air balloons made a dazzling sight as they rose into the sky.
9. The guppy is a tropical fish native to the fresh waters of the West Indies and South America.
10. The Old Point Loma Lighthouse in San Diego honors Portuguese explorer Juan Rodriguez
Cabrillo.
The Parts of Speech
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NAME
CLASS
Language
Handbook
DATE
1 The Parts of Speech
Identifying and Using Pronouns
WORKSHEET 2
Exercise A For each of the following sentences, identify the italicized pronoun by type.
On the line provided, write PERS for personal, REFL for reflexive, INT for intensive, DEM for
demonstrative, INTER for interrogative, REL for relative, or INDEF for indefinite.
EXAMPLE
___REFL___ 1. After finishing his homework, Ernesto treated
himself to a snack.
__________
1. Has anyone seen a blue-and-white umbrella?
__________
2. Mr. Pekarcik has decided to lead the panel discussion himself.
__________
3. In some Hopi ceremonies, male dancers wear masks that represent their
ancestors.
__________
4. Have you ever asked yourself what you can do to help save an endangered
species?
__________
5. These are the hats the actors will be wearing in the school play.
__________
6. Kwanzaa, which is based on a traditional African festival, was developed in the
1960s by Maulana Karenga.
__________
7. Who can explain the difference between a typhoon and a cyclone?
__________
8. Wyatt thanked his sister for driving him home from soccer practice.
__________
9. Sachi is a friend upon whom I can always rely.
__________ 10. In most games, Coach Miltos gives everyone on the team a chance to play.
Exercise B
In each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with an appropriate
pronoun.
EXAMPLE
1. Mrs. Tallchief has gone to Kansas City to visit ___her___
daughter.
2. The players were proud of __________ for winning a tough game.
3. Is __________ the most recent issue of this magazine?
4. __________ of the rivers forms most of the border between the United States and Mexico?
5. The rumba, __________ originated in Africa, developed into its modern form in Cuba.
6. Janelle cooked the entire meal __________, and the guests were impressed.
7. Gwendolyn Brooks is best known for her poetry, but __________ also has written a novel and
an autobiography.
8. Each student _________ is running for student council may display campaign posters on the
cafeteria bulletin board.
9. The mountain bikers were tired but relaxed after __________ long ride.
10. Ms. Batista asked __________ on the decorating committee to arrive one hour early.
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1. I wanted to borrow __________ of the books, but I had to choose just one.
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NAME
CLASS
Language
Handbook
DATE
1 The Parts of Speech
WORKSHEET 3
Recognizing and Labeling Verbs
Exercise A Underline all of the verbs in the following sentences. Make sure you include
the helping verbs. Be careful not to underline any word that interrupts the verb phrase (such as
not, never, surely, always). Some of the sentences contain more than one verb.
EXAMPLE
1. George Washington Carver chose to remain at the Tuskegee
Institute, although he could have made $100,000 a year working
for Thomas Edison.
1. George Washington Carver was a great agricultural chemist.
2. He made discoveries that improved the agriculture of the South.
3. As a boy, he often rambled about the countryside, where he would study the ways of plants
and animals.
4. Carver fought against poverty and prejudice and finally attained his education.
5. He worked his way through high school and college.
6. Carver’s laboratory was in Booker T. Washington’s Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.
7. When the boll weevil threatened the cotton crop, Carver suggested that farmers plant peanuts.
8. Farmers followed his advice and were soon producing more peanuts than they could sell.
9. When he responded to this new problem, Carver discovered over three hundred commercial
uses for the peanut.
10. He also performed wonders with the sweet potato, from which flour, rubber, ink, and
molasses can now be produced.
Exercise B Identify the italicized verb in each sentence. On the line provided, write AV
for action verb, LV for linking verb, or HV for helping verb.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLE
__HV__ 1. The career of the folk singer Joan Baez has spanned
several decades.
__________
1. Joan Baez was born in New York City in 1941.
__________
2. Her father, a physicist and educator, worked at Harvard University.
__________
3. Some of his folk-singer friends in Boston taught Joan to play the guitar.
__________
4. Baez began her career in Boston coffeehouses in the late 1950s.
__________
5. Baez performed at the Newport, Rhode Island, Folk Festival a number of times.
__________
6. Soon several record companies offered to produce her first album.
__________
7. During the 1960s, Baez became well known for her traditional folk ballads.
__________
8. Young people were inspired by her rendition of “We Shall Overcome.”
__________
9. Diamonds and Rust, released in 1975, remains Baez’s best-known album.
__________ 10. During the 1998 Newport Folk Festival Tour, Baez sang in fourteen cities.
The Parts of Speech
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NAME
Language
Handbook
CLASS
DATE
1 The Parts of Speech
Identifying and Using Adverbs
WORKSHEET 4
Exercise A In each blank in the following sentences, write an adverb that modifies the
verb by answering the question in parentheses. Do not use the same adverb more than once.
EXAMPLE
1. Tae kwon do ____currently____ ranks as one of the most popular
martial arts. (When?)
1. The children ____________________ seem hungry. (When? )
2. We ____________________ moved to a larger apartment. (When? )
3. I stepped ____________________ to bring in the paper. (Where? )
4. Our neighbors moved ____________________ last week. (Where? )
5. One should read directions ____________________. (How? )
6. Barika plays ____________________ for her age. (How? )
7. We should watch this video ____________________. (When? )
8. The gas tank was leaking ____________________. (To what extent? )
9. Leslie ____________________ clasped the tuna roll with her chopsticks. (How? )
10. My friend Chim speaks ____________________ about the benefits of recycling. (How? )
Exercise B In each blank in the following sentences, insert an adverb before each
italicized adjective or adverb to specify to what extent or how much. Do not use the same adverb
more than once.
EXAMPLE
1. Typing is a(n) ____extremely____ useful skill.
1. Delia will need ____________________ better grades to get into college.
2. The water was ____________________ cold for swimming.
4. This story ends ____________________ cleverly.
5. The pozole was ____________________ spicy that I couldn’t eat it.
Exercise C Each of the following sentences contains two adverbs. Underline each adverb,
and draw an arrow from the adverb to the verb, adjective, or other adverb that it modifies.
EXAMPLE
1. I returned from San Francisco early yesterday.
1. I have never had a more exciting vacation.
2. San Francisco is surely the most attractive American city.
3. A modern city seldom has such old-fashioned charm.
4. I frequently went to the theater there.
5. The productions were always very professional.
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3. Andy throws a(n) ____________________ fast curve.
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WORKSHEET 5
Exercise A
DATE
Identifying Prepositions, Prepositional Phrases,
and Adverbs
Fill in each blank with an appropriate preposition.
EXAMPLE
1. The band marched ______across______ the field.
1. The baker put the bread ____________________ the oven.
2. The Mexican American poet Alurista is also an author ____________________ children’s
books.
3. The plane flew ____________________ the clouds.
4. We pitched our tent ____________________ two large rocks.
5. We rise early every day ____________________ Sunday.
6. Do you want your sandwich ____________________ or ____________________ mustard?
7. This is a story ____________________ prison inmates who train guide dogs.
8. The ball was easily stopped as it rolled slowly ____________________ the goal.
9. The argument occurred ____________________ the meeting.
10. The Indian Nirayana horoscope is based ____________________ the movements of the moon.
Exercise B
Underline each prepositional phrase in the following paragraph.
EXAMPLE
[1] Mr. Velarde told us a story about some confused travelers.
[1] Two travelers who had never seen any fireflies came to this country and stopped at a
hotel. [2] They were soon attacked by huge mosquitoes that had entered through a break in the
screen. [3] The unhappy travelers turned the lights out and crawled under the sheets. [4] After a
few minutes, one of the men peeked out and saw a firefly across the room. [5] “It’s no use,” he
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
groaned. “Now they are looking for us with lanterns.”
Exercise C Identify each italicized word in the following sentences. In the space above
the italicized word, write PREP for preposition or ADV for adverb.
EXAMPLES
ADV
1. Bianca and Cliff are waiting outside.
PREP
2. They will be waiting outside the gymnasium.
1. An ambulance streaked past and wailed down the street.
2. An ambulance streaked past our house.
3. Carla had told me this joke before.
4. Carla had told me this joke before class.
5. People gathered around to watch the Chilkat dancers.
The Parts of Speech
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Identifying and Using Conjunctions and
Interjections
WORKSHEET 6
Exercise A Circle each conjunction in the following sentences, and underline the words
or groups of words that the conjunction connects. Then, identify the conjunction by type. On the
line provided, write COORD for coordinating, CORREL for correlative, or SUB for subordinating.
EXAMPLES
__COORD__ 1. Robert and Hiroshi presented their oral
interpretation of a passage from the Aeneid.
_ _SUB __ 2. After I cook dinner, you can wash the dishes.
__________
1. Phoebe will go to see any movie that stars either Robin Williams or Will Smith.
__________
2. I tried to help him, but he wouldn’t accept any assistance at all.
__________
3. The volleyball team will be going to the state tournament if they win tonight’s
game.
__________
4. You can prepare the Spanish rice while the tamales are baking.
__________
5. The proposed new tax law has the support not only of the governor but also of
many state legislators.
Exercise B On the lines provided, write an appropriate conjunction to complete each of
the following sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. At the movie theater we snacked on popcorn ___and___
peanuts.
1. __________ Julia __________ Tamisha will be doing her oral report on the Harlem
Renaissance.
2. The kite rose easily at first __________ then dropped lifelessly as the wind suddenly died
down.
3. I can’t decide __________ to look for a part-time job __________ to continue volunteering at
the animal shelter.
5. Baseball __________ soccer are popular spectator sports in Japan.
Exercise C
Underline the interjection in each of the following sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. Ouch! I think I just got stung by a wasp!
1. Is that—oh, my—a baby bobcat?
2. Hey! Look out for that branch!
3. Aw, don’t be so harsh with him.
4. Wow! What a great achievement this is!
5. It’s finally time to eat. Hooray!
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4. Be sure to use proper form and timing __________ you serve the tennis ball.
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WORKSHEET 7
Determining the Parts of Speech
Exercise In the space above each italicized word in the following sentences, write the part
of speech of that word. Use the following abbreviations: N for noun; PRON for pronoun; ADJ for
adjective; V for verb; ADV for adverb; PREP for preposition; CONJ for conjunction; and INT for
interjection.
EXAMPLES
V
1. Mr. Weinberg spices his lentil soup with cumin.
N
2. In Mexican cooking, the spices are often roasted.
1. Theo’s father owns an oil well in New Mexico.
2. After he recovered from his illness, Franklin felt well.
3. My sister can play tennis very well.
4. Tears well in my eyes when I chop onions.
5. Well! That taco was delicious!
6. Is the main printer connected to each computer?
7. I want each of you to congratulate yourself.
8. Tamara’s answers are usually right.
9. Would you please right the overturned pot?
10. She arrived at the library around 3:00 P.M.
11. You may turn your desk around now.
12. In the storm we got soaked through.
13. A through flight goes to Lima tomorrow morning.
14. Will Grandma stay in Florida through the winter?
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
15. If you walk for an hour every day, you will become more fit.
16. Amber was excited, for she had just been hired to baby-sit with the Thompson children.
17. The girls’ basketball team came back on the bus.
18. I will back him for student council president.
19. Clay has always loved the spring flowers.
20. Will this spring hold the latch closed?
21. Our dog will spring at a stranger.
22. A few students have read “The Gift of the Magi.”
23. Many people enter races but few win.
24. So! You’ve been hiding.
25. The last customer left, so we closed the shop.
The Parts of Speech
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Test
WORKSHEET 8
Exercise A In the space above each italicized word in the following paragraph, write the
part of speech of that word. Use the following abbreviations: N for noun; PRON for pronoun; ADJ
for adjective; V for verb; ADV for adverb; PREP for preposition; CONJ for conjunction; and INT for
interjection.
EXAMPLES
PRON
PREP
ADJ
N
[1] I have worked [2] in the [3] sandwich shop for six [4] months.
The person [1] behind the counter of a sandwich [2] shop meets [3] all [4] sorts of people
[5] during the day’s work. [6] One customer [7] who comes [8] in daily [9] at noon [10] always
orders a peach smoothie [11] and a tuna sandwich, [12] but he never [13] fails to ask first,
[14] “Hey, what [15] kinds of smoothies do you have?” [16] He then asks a [17] similar question
about the sandwiches. I often [18] wonder if he [19] is [20] lonesome and likes to hear
[21] someone talk or, perhaps, has a faint [22] hope that someday I will announce a
[23] completely new [24] flavor [25] or sandwich.
Exercise B On the line provided, write the part of speech of each italicized word in the
following paragraph. Use the following abbreviations: N for noun, PRON for pronoun, ADJ for
adjective, V for verb, ADV for adverb, PREP for preposition, or CONJ for conjunction.
EXAMPLES
A tree frog, as the name suggests, [1] spends ___V___ most of
[2] its __PRON__ time in trees.
range in [3] size ________ from less than one inch to about [4] five ________ inches long. The
[5] sticky ________ pads on their feet [6] help ________ them climb trees [7] and ________ leap
from limb to limb. Tree frogs [8] are ________ [9] more ________ often heard [10] than ________
[11] they ________ are seen, but the sound is difficult to locate even [12] when ________ it is
nearby. Types of tree frogs called [13] peepers ________, which live in the [14] eastern ________
half of [15] North America ________, can [16] usually ________ be heard in the early spring.
Male peepers make a [17] high-pitched ________ sound to attract females. They [18] sometimes
________ form a large, noisy group called a chorus. In the summer other kinds of tree frogs living
in woodlands give [19] their ________ calls in the evenings or [20] before ________ a rainfall.
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Tree frogs, [1] which ________ are common [2] in ________ North and South America,
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WORKSHEET 1
Exercise A
Making Subjects and Verbs Agree
On the line provided, rewrite each of the following pairs of subjects and verbs
in the plural form.
EXAMPLE
1. dog barks __dogs bark__________________________________________
1. baby cries
2. wind gusts
3. squirrel chatters
4. flower grows
5. band plays
6. boat sails
7. lion roars
8. sea gull flies
9. girl sings
10. day begins
Exercise B On the line provided, rewrite each of the following pairs of subjects and verbs
in the singular form.
EXAMPLE
1. cars start ___car starts ________________________________________________________
1. children run
2. storms howl
3. owls hoot
4. trees sway
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
5. secretaries file
6. gliders soar
7. geese honk
8. pitchers throw
9. windows shine
10. clocks tick
Continued
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Agreement
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(continued)
Exercise C Rewrite each of the following sentences on the lines provided. Change the
singular subjects to plural and the plural subjects to singular. Be sure to make each verb agree with
its subject. You may need to add an article (a, an, or the) to some subjects.
EXAMPLES
1. The comedian laughs. ___The comedians laugh. ________________________
2. Astronauts are highly trained. __The astronaut is highly trained.
1. Moira’s aunt bakes bread. ____________________________________________________________
2. Meteorologists predict the weather. __________________________________________________
3. The lock is jammed. ________________________________________________________________
4. Cousin Tony’s child speaks Spanish. __________________________________________________
5. The flowers bloom in June. __________________________________________________________
6. They compete in races. ________________________________________________________________
7. Whooping cranes are endangered. ____________________________________________________
8. The pagoda has eight sides. __________________________________________________________
10. She likes tortellini. __________________________________________________________________
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9. The dancers are moving gracefully. ____________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 2
Using Correct Subject-Verb Agreement
Exercise A Underline the subject in each of the following sentences. Then, underline the
verb form in parentheses that agrees in number with its subject.
EXAMPLE
1. The goal of the team (comes, come) first.
1. The spring rolls, not the sour fish soup, (appear, appears) first on the menu.
2. Our supply of towels ( goes, go) very fast.
3. The reasons for his success (is, are) easy to see.
4. The list of winners (impresses, impress) all of us.
5. The uses of aluminum (is, are) various.
6. This book about the rain forests (have, has) many beautiful photographs.
7. The guacamole mix together with the bowl (costs, cost) $2.50.
8. The rivalry between the two towns (is, are) very keen.
9. Mario, along with his sisters, (loves, love) going to the Jacob Lawrence exhibit.
10. The effects of sunburn (sneaks, sneak) up on me every summer.
11. The shells on this beach (is, are) mostly small and smooth.
12. This collection of stories ( gets, get) my highest recommendation.
13. Daudi, not his parents, (buys, buy) most of his school supplies.
14. The abilities of this child (astonishes, astonish) everyone.
15. A booklet with complete instructions (comes, come) with each kit.
16. The conditions in this hospital (requires, require) thorough investigation.
17. The noisy chattering of the sparrows (wakes, wake) me very early.
18. The drills in soccer (lasts, last) from one to two hours.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
19. My parents, as well as my uncle, (owns, own) some Maria Martinez pottery.
20. The trees on the hillside ( prevents, prevent) soil erosion.
Exercise B For each of the following sentences, underline the verb in parentheses that
agrees in number with its subject.
EXAMPLE
1. The blue curtains (was, were) a handsome addition to the room.
1. One of our greatest traffic problems, reckless drivers, ( frustrate, frustrates) even the experts.
2. Chicken pot stickers, a popular Chinese appetizer, (taste, tastes) delicious.
3. Her only source of income (come, comes) from odd jobs.
4. The only evidence of the crime (seem, seems) hard to believe.
5. The use of too many capitals (is, are) as serious a mistake as using too few.
Agreement
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WORKSHEET 3
Ensuring Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns and
Compound Subjects
Exercise A Some of the following sentences contain errors in subject-verb agreement. If a
sentence has an error, draw a line through the incorrect verb form and write the correct form on
the line provided. If a sentence is already correct, write C.
EXAMPLES
___have___ 1. Several of the tomato plants has new blossoms.
___ _C_ ___ 2. Both of my hamsters like to run in their wheel at
night.
__________
1. Of course, all of the kittens in the litter need good homes.
__________
2. Do both of these dresses require dry cleaning?
__________
3. Everyone in the choir enjoy singing gospel music.
__________
4. Neither of the boys were on time for the yoga lesson.
__________
5. Several of the trees in the front yard needs pruning.
__________
6. Most of the dancers practices at least one hour each day.
__________
7. Unfortunately, none of the furniture has been shipped yet.
__________
8. Many of the children become drowsy during storytime.
__________
9. Each fall somebody at Mother’s office plan an outing to the Pueblo Cultural
Center in Albuquerque.
__________ 10. Nothing in these boxes are of any use to us.
Exercise B In each of the following sentences, underline the verb in parentheses that
agrees with its subject or subjects.
EXAMPLE
1. Both the color print and the negative (has, have) been lost.
2. Every Saturday, either Chen or his sisters (cleans, clean) the bathroom and kitchen.
3. Basil and oregano (is, are) key seasonings for this Italian dish.
4. Tani or Elbert (knows, know) the way to the flea market.
5. Neither the coach nor the players (wants, want) to lose another game.
6. Red beans and rice (is, are) the restaurant’s most famous dish.
7. Gabriela Sabatini and Arantxa Sanchez Vicario (is, are) Mimi’s favorite tennis players.
8. Picante sauce or bean dip ( goes, go) well with tortilla chips.
9. Neither Leroy nor his father (wants, want) to ride the train all the way to Arkansas.
10. At the end of the week, Floyd or Ruben (takes, take) the newspapers to the recycling center.
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1. A short story and an excerpt of a novel by Ernest J. Gaines (appears, appear) in this literature
collection.
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WORKSHEET 4
Ensuring Subject and Verb Agreement
Exercise A Rewrite each of the following sentences on the lines provided. Change the
singular subjects to plural and the plural subjects to singular. Be sure to make each verb agree with
its subject. You may need to change other words in the sentence.
EXAMPLE
1. The peaches don’t look ripe. ___The peach doesn’t look ripe. ____
1. The windows in the bedroom don’t open. ________________________________________________
2. This key doesn’t work in this lock. ____________________________________________________
3. Don’t they cost much? ________________________________________________________________
4. These pens don’t write well. ________________________________________________________
5. This Mimbres bowl doesn’t fit on the shelf. ____________________________________________
6. Don’t they like adventure movies? ______________________________________________________
7. The color doesn’t fade easily. ________________________________________________________
8. The couch doesn’t look modern. ______________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
9. Those movie titles don’t sound very exciting. __________________________________________
10. These enchiladas don’t have enough sauce. ____________________________________________
Exercise B In each of the following sentences, underline the verb in parentheses that
agrees with its subject.
EXAMPLE
1. The invading army (has, have) surrounded the city.
1. The audience quickly (takes, take) their seats as the house lights dim.
2. The band (loads, load) their instruments in the bus with care.
3. After each basket by the home team, the crowd (roars, roar).
4. The staff (has, have) organized a picnic for the second week in June.
Continued
☞
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(continued)
5. Our team (wins, win) most of the close games.
6. The jury (was, were) arguing among themselves.
7. One by one, the flock of geese (is, are) landing on the crystal clear lake.
8. The faculty (has, have) all planned different events for Black History Month.
9. We hope that the chorus (knows, know) their parts well by now.
10. Her family often (dines, dine) at a nearby Indian restaurant famous for its curries.
Exercise C Underline the subject or subjects in each of the following sentences. Then,
underline the verb in parentheses that agrees with its subject or subjects.
EXAMPLE
1. The first item listed in this recipe (is, are) string beans.
1. Salted eggs (remain, remains) an important symbolic dish in the Seder meal.
2. Lemons (seems, seem) to be a good garnish for many fish dishes.
3. The pyramids of Egypt in Giza (is, are) one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
4. The poems of Maya Angelou always (has, have) been an inspiration to me.
5. One memorable sight from our travels (was, were) the magnificent mountain ranges in
Honshu, Japan.
6. One responsibility of car owners (continue, continues) to be regular oil changes.
7. Elia and Mauli ( place, places) first in the doubles tennis tournament.
8. Green bell peppers (is, are) an essential ingredient in Gordon’s stir fry.
9. Now, the two injured children (become, becomes) his immediate concern.
10. Fleas and ticks (appear, appears) to be an ongoing problem for many pet owners.
11. Soybeans (is, are) the source of tofu, a food product.
12. Laughter (stay, stays) a vital part of everyday life as long as you live.
14. To cats and gardeners, mockingbirds (seem, seems) a nuisance.
15. (Is, Are) most fruits and vegetables health foods?
16. On stage, Natalie (become, becomes) Miss Hannigan in every word and action.
17. The capital and largest city of Hawaii (is, are) Honolulu.
18. The state of Hawaii (consist, consists) of 132 islands.
19. Michael Jordan’s specialty and Karl Malone’s specialty (is, are) basketball.
20. Despite a lack of support, Mr. Watson (remain, remains ) mayor for three more years.
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13. A galley on boats and airplanes (is, are) a tiny, efficient kitchen.
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Ensuring Agreement When the Verb Precedes
the Subject
WORKSHEET 5
Exercise A Underline the subject in each sentence. Then, underline the verb or
contraction that agrees with the subject.
EXAMPLE
1. There (is, are) no curves in this road.
1. There (sit, sits) our dog and cat.
2. There (is, are) usually seven candles on a menorah.
3. Here (are, is) my plans for the summer.
4. There ( go, goes) all the buses.
5. Here (lies, lie) the bodies of Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett Browning.
6. Here (comes, come) one of my favorite authors, Pat Mora.
7. There (weren’t, wasn’t) enough programs for everybody.
8. There (have been, has been) too many accidents lately.
9. Where (is, are) your seats for the ice-skating show?
10. How much (do, does) those pocket radios cost?
11. Where (are, is) the Pamunkey Indian Reservation?
12. (Is, Are) either of you going my way?
13. (Doesn’t, Don’t) those coats look expensive?
14. (Has, Have) any one of you ever hooked a sailfish?
15. (Does, Do) one of your brothers play the saxophone?
16. How much (does, do) one of those dogs eat?
17. (There’s, There are) three windows in my room.
18. (Where’s, Where are) those articles on Black History Month?
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
19. (Here’s, Here are) some fresh eggs for your family.
20. (There’s, There are) a bushel of apples on that tree.
Exercise B Rewrite each sentence, changing the italicized subject from singular to plural.
You will need to change the verb, and you may need to change or delete other words, too.
EXAMPLE
1. There is a picture on the wall. There are pictures on the wall.______
1. Here’s your friend.
2. How much is the pumpkin ?
3. Where’s my letter ?
4. There goes the fire engine !
5. Is there a lemon for the punch ?
Agreement
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WORKSHEET 6
Exercise A
DATE
More Subject-Verb Agreement Problems
Underline the correct verb in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. Civics (is, are) a challenging and worthwhile course to take.
1. Twenty dollars (is, are) too much to pay for that blouse.
2. Mathematics (was, were) just one of Benjamin Banneker’s many interests.
3. Eight eggs (is, are) in the refrigerator.
4. Mumps (cause, causes) painful swelling of the glands in the throat.
5. Physics (was, were) the field in which Chen Ning Yang excelled.
6. Ten minutes (is, are) long enough for this quiz.
7. Economics (doesn’t, don’t) really interest me.
8. Three pounds of hamburger (makes, make) twelve big patties.
9. The 1900 Olympics (was, were) the first to include female athletes.
10. A hundred pounds (is, are) too much for you to lift.
Exercise B Some of the following sentences contain errors in subject-verb agreement. If a
sentence has an error, draw a line through the incorrect verb form and write the correct form on
the line provided. If a sentence is already correct, write C.
EXAMPLES
___C___ 1. Many a young actor has moved to Los Angeles in
hopes of beginning an exciting career.
__________
1. The Southwestern Association for Indian Arts sponsor the Santa Fe Indian Market
each year.
__________
2. “St. Louis Blues” were the song that stopped the show.
__________
3. Every young girl and boy need positive role models.
__________
4. “Thoughts of Hanoi” has been added to the reading list.
__________
5. According to this article, Colorado Springs is located in the Rocky Mountains.
__________
6. The Netherlands have a democratic government based on a constitution.
__________
7. After the storm every able-bodied man, woman, and child were helping with the
cleanup.
__________
8. Many a fine performer has graced the stage of this historical music hall.
__________
9. Gymnastics are an exciting part of the Olympics.
__________ 10. “The Bells of Santa Cruz” was written by Nina Otero.
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__was__ 2. Dances with Wolves were directed by Kevin Costner.
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WORKSHEET 7
Ensuring Agreement Between Pronouns and
Antecedents
Exercise A Proofread each of the following sentences for errors in pronoun-antecedent
agreement. Draw a line through any incorrect pronoun, and underline the antecedent. Then, write
the correct pronoun on the line provided. If a sentence is already correct, write C.
EXAMPLE
____it____ 1. A car rusts even if you don’t drive them.
__________
1. After we get an essay back, we must correct them.
__________
2. Before someone takes medicine, they should always read the label.
__________
3. Before you repeat stories, make sure that it really happened.
__________
4. Writer Dorothy West won several Boston Post prizes when she was a teenager.
__________
5. If somebody feels sleepy, they shouldn’t drive a car.
__________
6. If a child has bad manners, his or her parents may be to blame.
__________
7. If any students are interested in track, he should see Coach Lee.
__________
8. During World War II many Japanese Americans lost their homes and jobs.
__________
9. A pet cannot be healthy unless the owner feeds them properly.
__________ 10. If you see one of the girls, ask them about the Spanish Club meeting.
Exercise B In each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with a pronoun or pair of
pronouns that agree with the antecedent.
EXAMPLE
1. Whenever a person gets angry, _he or she_ should count to ten.
1. It’s easy to forget an assignment unless you write __________ down.
2. Not a single customer has ever asked for __________ money back.
3. The participants in the Papago rain ceremony have taken __________ places.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
4. If you tease a dog, __________ might snap at you.
5. Whenever you are introduced to a person, always try to remember __________ name.
Exercise C
Underline the correct pronoun in each of the following sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. Leta is one person who takes pride in (her, their) work.
1. Anyone who wants to enter (his or her, their) artwork in the contest should speak to me
after class.
2. The books that have red tape on (its, their) spines belong on the reserve shelf.
3. All who finish (his or her, their) assignments early may begin reading for tomorrow’s class.
4. The players who push (himself or herself, themselves) hardest during practice will get to play
in the game.
5. Any student who gets permission from (his or her, their) parents or guardian may go on the
field trip.
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WORKSHEET 8
Using Correct Pronouns with Antecedents
Exercise A Proofread the following sentences for pronoun-antecedent agreement. Draw a
line through any incorrect pronoun, and write the correct pronoun or pair of pronouns on the
line provided. If a sentence is already correct, write C.
EXAMPLE
___himself or herself___ 1. Everybody can make themselves an
expert in some field.
_________________
1. Everybody thinks that their own child is the most intelligent.
_________________
2. Each of his sisters put themselves through engineering school.
_________________
3. No one in his or her right mind would ever drive at that speed.
_________________
4. One of my brothers might sell you their ticket to the Bulls’ game.
_________________
5. Did either of those boys take their best friend to see the Elk Nation
Singers?
_________________
6. Either of these girls will lend you their notes.
_________________
7. Somebody is doing their presentation on Vietnamese culture.
_________________
8. Each of the boys should earn at least part of their spending money.
_________________
9. Nobody should be made to feel that he or she must like poetry.
_________________ 10. Each of our fathers will contribute their favorite recipe to the cookbook.
Exercise B
Underline the correct pronoun in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. A lion or a tiger will provide food for (its, their) young.
1. Neither Nancy nor Yolanda wanted to give (their, her) speech first.
2. Both Sachi and Jerome enjoyed (her, their) quesadillas.
4. After Akako borrowed my rod and net, she forgot to return (them, it).
5. Neither Ross nor Allan could persuade (himself, themselves) to try.
6. You can use my knife and fork as long as you wash (it, them).
7. If you break a cup or saucer, you can’t replace (them, it).
8. Carmen and one other girl ate (their, her) salads.
9. If there is a nut or a raisin in this salad, I can’t find (them, it).
10. Leonard and Renaldo are continuing (their, his) t’ai chi ch’uan lessons.
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3. If you have a complaint or a suggestion, tell the editor about (them, it).
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CLASS
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2 Agreement
WORKSHEET 9
Test
Exercise A Most of the sentences in the following story contain one or more errors in
agreement. Draw a line through each incorrect verb or pronoun, and write the correct form in the
space above it.
EXAMPLE
has
[1] Many a student have rushed to get to school on time.
[1] The joy of early rising don’t mean much to Andy—especially when school days is
concerned. [2] This morning his mother and his older sister has to wake him. [3] Showering and
dressing ordinarily takes him about ten minutes, but this time one of his socks are missing.
[4] Then there’s still a few things to be done before he can leave for school. [5] Every one of his
books have to be collected from various nooks and corners, and neither his father nor his sister
are willing to assist in the search. [6] His parents insist that a glass of milk and an apple is not a
sufficient breakfast—that a person can’t do their best on an empty stomach—so he grudgingly
bolts down a dish of hot cereal.
[7] Ten minutes are scarcely enough time to make his first-hour class—unless one of his friends
come along in a car. [8] He looks down the street. [9] Neither Sam nor Lucia are in sight. [10] Beads
of perspiration gathers on his brow as he thinks of explaining his tardiness to Ms. Kohari, his
counselor, who will remind him that nobody can hold a job if they are late half the time.
[11] How lucky! [12] Here comes Lucia around the corner in her chugging “Zebra.”
[13] Lucia’s old coupe with its red and green stripes and its rattling fenders are the joke of the
school, but Andy is mighty glad to see it.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
[14] When Lucia stops for a red light two blocks from school, the motor dies. [15] A little work
with the spark plugs usually start it—but not today! [16] Someone soon comes along and gives her
a push with their bumper. [17] Suddenly there’s several deafening explosions. [18] From the
exhaust comes clouds of choking smoke. [19] Everything is working normally once again as the
“Zebra” resumes its journey. [20] Only a pool of water and oil mark the spot where it faltered.
[21] As Andy, together with his chauffeur, rush into school, the tardy bell rings. [22] The
memory of previous experiences discourage the friends. [23] “We had transportation difficulties,”
explain Andy and Lucia to an unsympathetic Ms. Kohari.
[24] “I’m afraid you’re running out of excuses. [25] If a person starts on time, he gets here on
time,” she says as she gives them each a pink “unexcused tardiness” form.
Continued
☞
Agreement
19
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Exercise B
CLASS
2 Worksheet 9
DATE
(continued)
Underline the correct word in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. Most of the acting students (admires, admire) Courtney B.
Vance.
1. Their year-end sale (don’t, doesn’t) begin until Monday.
2. (Is, Are) there any stringed instruments in African music?
3. Show how each of these answers (was, were) obtained.
4. Phyllis or her sister usually ( get, gets) the honors.
5. One of these envelopes (contains, contain) the lucky number.
6. Our main objection (were, was) the uncomfortable seats.
7. How much (is, are) haircuts in your neighborhood?
8. Five dollars (seems, seem) too much for one taco, rice, and beans.
9. Not one of our birthdays (comes, come) during the summer.
10. In a leap year, (there’s, there are) twenty-nine days in February.
Exercise C Underline the correct word or word group in parentheses in each of the
following sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. The birds that live in our back yard never lose (its, their) charm.
1. That ferret is one pet that gets (itself, themselves) into a lot of trouble.
2. The boy who left (his, their) belongings on the bus ran back quickly.
3. The Tennessee Valley Authority, which makes (its, their) home in Knoxville, works to develop
the natural resources of the Tennessee Valley.
4. Joshua is someone who always tries (his, their) hardest, no matter what the task.
5. Trees that lose (its, their) leaves every year are called deciduous trees.
7. Neither Andrew nor Jason admitted ( his, their ) weariness after the long tennis match.
8. Elizabeth and Marie opened ( her, their ) gifts after we had lunch.
9. Two of my friends who moved to New Orleans came back to Austin to visit me on
( his or her, their ) vacation.
10. Both Mark and Steven went to the library to research possible topics for (his, their ) reports.
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6. Each of the students displayed ( his or her, their ) best work in the school’s annual art show.
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3 Using Verbs
WORKSHEET 1
Using Irregular Verbs Correctly
Exercise A In each of the following sentences, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of
the italicized verb shown before the sentence.
EXAMPLE
write 1. Santha Rama Rau __wrote__ East of Home after she had
__written__ Home to India.
begin
1. Bill __________ to study, but he should have __________ earlier.
break
2. The Wildcats __________ a record which no team had __________ for years.
come
3. Earl __________ home an hour ago, but Arlene still hasn’t __________ home.
do
4. I __________ the work I should have __________ last night.
drink
5. Walter __________ the milk that his little sister should have __________.
give
6. Mother __________ me the Pueblo prayer stick that her grandfather had
__________ her when she was a child.
go
7. Joan __________ to see Iris, but Iris had already __________.
ride
8. I __________ for another half hour before I realized that I had __________ past
Galesburg.
ring
9. The principal __________ the fire alarm although someone else had already
__________ it.
swim
10. Mrs. Ferris __________ again in the river in which she had __________ as a child.
Exercise B Rewrite each sentence, adding the helping verb or verbs printed in
parentheses. To do this, you will need to change the form of each verb.
EXAMPLES
1. The wind began to howl. The wind had begun to howl._____(had )
2. He spoke too long. He has spoken too long.______________ (has )
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
1. The string broke. ____________________________________________________________ (had )
2. We rode all day. ______________________________________________________________ (have)
3. It came loose. ________________________________________________________________ (has)
4. The horse ran away. ____________________________________________________________________________________ (had )
5. Sue wrote this formula. __________________________________________________ (will have)
Using Verbs
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3 Using Verbs
WORKSHEET 2
Exercise A
DATE
Using the Past and Past Participles of Irregular
Verbs
On the line provided, write the correct past form of each italicized verb.
EXAMPLES
catch 1. The shortstop __caught__ the pop fly.
lead
1. The wilderness guide __________ the hikers to the waterfall.
eat
2. The puppy __________ the dog biscuit.
steal
3. We __________ the show with our comic routine.
speak
4. I never __________ a word about the incident.
be
5. Something __________ wrong with the elevator.
freeze
6. The lake __________ overnight.
run
7. Ms. Kaimowitz __________ for mayor in the last election.
throw
8. That boy just __________ away his opportunities for success.
shrink
9. My favorite shirt __________ in the hot water.
find
10. I never __________ the missing library book.
pay
11. The contractor __________ for the lumber.
keep
12. Nina’s two-base hit __________ our winning streak going.
have
13. Barbara’s car __________ a flat tire on the way.
swing
14. Antonio __________ his fishing line out over the water.
see
15. We __________ several deer crossing the road.
bring
16. They __________ the potato salad for the picnic.
choose
17. Bud __________ to take the path of least resistance.
tear
18. Candace __________ the top off the envelope.
fall
19. The booster rocket burned out and __________ away.
shake
20. My friend Lita __________ the can before opening it.
Exercise B
On the line provided, write the past participle of each italicized verb.
EXAMPLE
find 1. The missing glove had been __found__ earlier in the day.
take
1. The ball was ____________ away by the coach.
ride
2. This horse must have been ____________ by a very good rider.
give
3. The child should have been ____________ a flu shot.
choose
4. She and I were ____________ for the team.
break
5. Their doorbell has been ____________ for several months.
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sing 2. The soprano ___sang___ an aria from La Bohème.
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3 Using Verbs
WORKSHEET 3
Distinguishing Between Lie and Lay and Sit and Set
Exercise A For each of the following sentences, underline the correct form of lie or lay
given in parentheses.
EXAMPLE
1. Finally the puppy (lay, laid ) down on the blanket and fell asleep.
1. Please (lie, lay) these letters on Miss Wilson’s desk.
2. Turn back that beautiful Navajo blanket before you (lie, lay) down.
3. The nurse (lay, laid ) a cold cloth on my forehead.
4. Tatami mats (lay, laid ) on the floor of the Japanese restaurant.
5. I can’t remember where I (lay, laid ) the Yo-Yo Ma CD.
6. The patient had (lain, laid ) in bed for several days.
7. You must have (lain, laid ) your coat on some wet paint.
8. Dad’s old uniform had (lain, laid ) in a trunk for years.
9. The leftover antipasto was still (lying, laying) on the counter.
10. The workers are now (lying, laying) the foundation.
Exercise B For each of the following sentences, underline the correct form of sit or set
given in parentheses.
EXAMPLE
1. Annette (sat, set) a bowl of hummus on the table.
1. Don’t (sit, set) on this broken chair.
2. (Sit, Set) your chair in a shady spot.
3. Ms. Hobbs had (sat, set) at the same desk for years.
4. He had (sat, set) the trap right in front of the hole.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
5. They found the baby happily (sitting, setting) in a mud puddle.
6. Mr. Montero (sat, set) a small bowl of tomatillo relish near the tortilla chips.
7. The dog was (sitting, setting) next to the sofa at his owner’s feet.
8. Please (sit, set) the floor lamp down a few feet from the chair.
9. Julio was (sitting, setting) all the tools in a neat row on the workbench.
10. The family (sat, set) down at the table to begin the Seder.
Using Verbs
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3 Using Verbs
WORKSHEET 4
Distinguishing Between Rise and Raise, Lie and
Lay, and Sit and Set
Exercise A For each of the following sentences, underline the correct form of rise or
raise given in parentheses.
EXAMPLE
1. Michael Chang has (raised, rose) his level of play for this
important match.
1. Please pull out the rug when I (rise, raise) the table.
2. The accident rate always (rises, raises) on holidays.
3. Challah, or Jewish egg bread, (rises, raises) because it contains yeast.
4. We will lose money unless we (rise, raise) the price.
5. New car prices generally (rise, raise) in the spring.
6. The Smiths protested when we (rose, raised) to leave.
7. I (rose, raised) the mini blinds to let in the light.
8. Our canoe drifted away when the tide (rose, raised).
9. The tree roots have (rose, raised) the sidewalk several inches.
10. Attendance has (raised, risen) this year.
Exercise B For each of the following sentences, underline the correct form of the verb
given in parentheses.
EXAMPLE
1. Lisa ( sits, sets) on the patio and reads the newspaper.
1. Who has (sat, set) those books in the middle of the kitchen table?
2. We can see Josh (raising, rising) his hand to answer the question.
3. The detective has (lain, laid ) a trap for the criminal.
5. Can that big crane (rise, raise) those concrete panels to the top floor?
6. Dreaming of dancing with the ballet, Sandy (lay, laid ) in the hammock.
7. Bobby was (sitting, setting) at the desk doing his homework.
8. On Memorial Day, we always (rise, raise) the flag to honor veterans.
9. Why don’t you (lay, lie) out the clothes you’re going to wear tomorrow?
10. Will everyone in the courtroom please (rise, raise)?
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4. You cannot have (sat, set) there waiting for very long.
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3 Using Verbs
WORKSHEET 5
Writing the Correct Verb Tense
Exercise A On the lines provided, rewrite each of the following sentences, using the tense
indicated in parentheses.
EXAMPLE
1. Alise kept the information to herself. ( past perfect)
Alise had kept the information to herself. ________________________
1. After dinner Dad froze the leftover soup. ( future)
__________________________________________________________________________________
2. The powwow will begin with a sunrise ceremony beside the sacred fire. ( present)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
3. Mrs. Okado drove around for hours searching for the lost cat. ( past perfect progressive)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
4. Alberto shook the rug thoroughly before placing it in the washer. ( past perfect)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
5. Vernon and Nina have sung this song together. ( future progressive)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
6. I have tried without success to contact the company. ( past)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
7. Sheryl stole third base, setting up the tying run. ( present perfect)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
8. Ms. Jenkins helped us with the costumes for the play. ( present perfect progressive)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
9. The dog drank all the water in its bowl. ( future perfect)
__________________________________________________________________________________
10. Rosa brought souvlaki, a traditional Greek dish, to the potluck dinner. ( present perfect)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Continued
☞
Using Verbs
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3 Worksheet 5
DATE
(continued)
Exercise B On the lines provided, rewrite each of the following sentences, using the tense
indicated in parentheses.
EXAMPLE
1. Justin had finished mowing the lawn by lunchtime.
( future perfect)
Justin will have finished mowing the lawn by lunchtime. ____________
1. The crew built a retaining wall to hold the riverbank. ( present progressive)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
2. Our class is studying the works of Zora Neale Hurston. ( present perfect progressive)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
3. Parisian fashions are worn by some of the most famous women in the world. ( present perfect)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
4. Several of the smaller candles burned out. ( past perfect)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
5. After the game, Coach Frye took us out for lunch. ( future)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
6. To make his scrapbook, Yoshi will start with a simple three-ring binder. ( past)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
8. Tamara worked hard at softball practice every day. ( present)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
9. We hiked for almost three hours without a break. ( past perfect progressive)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
10. By Tuesday, I had completed all the research for my term paper. ( future perfect)
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
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7. She decorated the picture frame with an assortment of buttons. ( past progressive)
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3 Using Verbs
WORKSHEET 6
Avoiding Needless Changes in Tense
Exercise In the following paragraph, the verb tenses are not consistent. Decide whether
the paragraph should be in present or past tense. Then, correcting all needless shifts in tense,
rewrite the paragraph in either the present or past tense.
EXAMPLE
[1] Our dog Barney surprised us all when he responds to an
emergency in a very sensible way.
Our dog Barney surprised us all when he responded to an emergency
in a very sensible way. ______________________________________
[1] One day Barney, my family’s beloved golden retriever, was hit by a car on the road in front
of our house. [2] Our neighbor, Mr. Sanchez, saw Barney get hit, but then Barney disappears.
[3] Mr. Sanchez tried to call us, but there is no one home. [4] When Mother gets home, he tells her
what had happened. [5] Mother frantically calls all her friends and sent out search parties, but
Barney was nowhere to be found. [6] More worried than ever, we start making posters to place
throughout the neighborhood. [7] When the phone rings, we all hoped for the best. [8] It was Dr.
Monroe, Barney’s veterinarian. [9] “Mrs. Sullivan,” he said, “we just found Barney waiting outside
the door of the clinic. [10] He has injured one of his front legs, but we’re taking care of it now.”
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Using Verbs
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WORKSHEET 7
Using Active and Passive Voice
Exercise A Decide whether each of the following sentences is written in the active or the
passive voice. On the line provided, write AV for active voice or PV for passive voice.
EXAMPLES
__AV__ 1. Daniel has purchased several books on landscape design.
__PV__ 2. Several books on landscape design have been purchased
by Daniel.
__________
1. Sprinter Evelyn Ashford took home two gold medals from the 1984 Olympics.
__________
2. The cucumbers and the tomatoes will be planted by next week.
__________
3. The artwork of painter Pop Chalee reflects the traditions of the Pueblo people.
__________
4. The roof of Aunt Vicki’s house has been badly damaged by the high winds.
__________
5. The children’s sculptures have been displayed in a case at the public library.
__________
6. Many bird books from the early 1900s are graced by the illustrations of Louis
Fuentes.
__________
7. In the attic Dad found an old letter from his great uncle.
__________
8. Kaya and Sabina have been working on their science project for three weeks.
__________
9. Large donations were sent by several anonymous individuals.
__________ 10. Snapping turtles defend themselves with their strong, sharp jaws.
Exercise B Decide whether each sentence is written in the active voice or the passive
voice. If a sentence is in active voice, write ACTIVE. If it is in passive voice, rewrite it in
active voice.
EXAMPLE
1. Our house will be painted by two professional painters.
1. The press releases have been sent to the newspaper by Christie.
2. The report on Pocahontas was written by Ben.
3. I was beaten to the finish line by two other runners.
4. The crafts fair was organized by the student council.
5. Several swim team members were planning to attend the banquet.
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Two professional painters will paint our house. ____________________
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WORKSHEET 8
Exercise
DATE
Test
On the line provided, write the correct form of each irregular verb given in
parentheses.
We had just [1] __________ (drink) our lemonade when Joanna [2] __________ (run) into our
cottage to tell us that she had [3] __________ (see) the great sea serpent of Indian Lake. Before we
could question her, she had already [4] __________ ( go) on to tell the neighbors.
The enormous sea serpent had been [5] __________ (speak) about and [6] __________ (write)
about so much during the summer that I had almost [7] __________ (begin) to believe in it.
Vacationers had hesitated to let their children go into the water for fear that the monster might
devour them. For many people it had really [8] __________ (take) all the fun out of swimming.
We rushed down to the beach, where a large crowd had [9] __________ (come) together.
Everybody was pointing to a long, black line on the surface of the water, which had
[10] __________ (throw) the bathers into a panic. It was only a few hundred feet from the
shore. A person could have [11] __________ (swim) to it in a few minutes, but no one
volunteered to do so. Some of the onlookers were sure that they [12] __________ (see) the
monster’s great jaws and lashing tail.
“We should have [13] __________ (ring) for the police,” somebody suggested, without saying
just what our single police officer could have [14] __________ (do) about a sea serpent.
It soon grew dark and [15] __________ (begin) to rain. Everybody [16] __________ ( go) home
and [17] __________ (do) no more about the monster.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
The next morning the sea serpent was found [18] __________ (lie) on the beach. It turned out
to be a long piling that must have [19] __________ (break) loose from a nearby pier. Someone
with a paintbrush and a sense of humor had [20] __________ ( give) the monster a ferocious head
with glaring eyes and had [21] __________ (write) along its side,“Captured by David Hudg—” and
had then apparently [22] __________ (run) out of either paint or patience.
From miles around people [23] __________ (drive) over to see it. The Greenville Gazette
[24] __________ ( give) the complete story of the famous sea serpent of Indian Lake, with a
picture that someone had [25] __________ (take) of it.
Using Verbs
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4 Using Pronouns
WORKSHEET 1
Exercise A
DATE
Using the Nominative Case
Underline the correct pronoun in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. Mr. Jee and (I, me) take a walk together every Saturday morning.
1. The man in the aloha shirt is (he, him).
2. Patrice and (her, she) love the music of Ulali, a women’s a cappella group.
3. Richard and (we, us) played a word game to pass the time.
4. The winner and new record-holder is (she, her).
5. The other students in my group are Harley and (he, him).
6. Tina and (me, I ) would like to go on the camping trip.
7. The first two substitutes to enter the game were (her, she) and (I, me).
8. The only person to try the antipasto was (him, he).
9. Either Tranh or (me, I ) will take care of Mrs. Montero’s cat this weekend.
10. The Hendersons and (they, them) often vacation together.
Exercise B Some of the following sentences contain incorrect pronoun forms. If a
sentence contains an error, draw a line through the incorrect pronoun and write the correct form
on the line provided. If a sentence is already correct, write C.
EXAMPLES
____he____ 1. April and him have started a butterfly garden.
__________
1. Dad and me worked together to refinish the old bookcase.
__________
2. The audience rose when Ray Charles and her were introduced.
__________
3. The authors she most admires are Sandra Cisneros and him.
__________
4. After their bike ride, Kristen and she had lunch at a neighborhood café.
__________
5. Winifred and them plan to take the subway to the theater.
__________
6. Didn’t Lance and him bike through Vermont last summer?
__________
7. We knew that the people in the dragon costume were they.
__________
8. Her and her brother have Cherokee ancestors.
__________
9. I’m sure the woman who created this sculpture was she.
__________ 10. Either David or he will be the goalie for the soccer team.
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____C_____ 2. The first guests to arrive were they.
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4 Using Pronouns
WORKSHEET 2
Exercise A
DATE
Using the Objective Case
Underline the correct pronoun in parentheses in each of the following
sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. Colleen asked (he, him) for his advice.
1. Victor invited Leslie and (I, me) to see Los Lobos in concert.
2. After the game Dad gave Michael and (us, we) a ride home.
3. Come sit between Raul and (I, me).
4. Everyone except Joel and (him, he) entered projects in the science fair.
5. Did you tell the teacher or (her, she) about your problem?
6. Mr. Red Cloud left the dogs and (she, her) by the ravine and went for help.
7. Using handmade clay beads, Lucia made key chains for Mrs. Bernstein and (they, them).
8. The skills and persistence of Leon and (he, him) helped us win a close game.
9. To begin the lesson, the teacher read (they, them) a Maya creation myth.
10. I sent both Stephanie and (him, he) invitations to Friday’s party.
Exercise B On the line provided, write the pronoun that could be used in place of the
italicized word or words in each sentence.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLE
___them___ 1. Most of the newspapers were delivered before
dawn.
__________
1. Did you find any biographical information about Thurgood Marshall ?
__________
2. We just passed Janelle and Robert on the steps outside the auditorium.
__________
3. Mom told Mr. and Mrs. Acevedo about the neighborhood association.
__________
4. Please give the children their snacks before you leave.
__________
5. Juanita had to sit behind Sara and me at the play.
__________
6. The coach chose Linda because of her excellent conditioning.
__________
7. At last night’s football game, our team really gave the fans a thrill.
__________
8. He sent Juliette a dozen long-stemmed yellow roses for her birthday.
__________
9. Have you received an answer from the principal yet?
__________ 10. Mr. Conradt says he saw Connie Chung at the awards ceremony.
Using Pronouns
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4 Using Pronouns
WORKSHEET 3
Using Pronouns in Pairs
Exercise For each of the following sentences, underline the correct personal pronoun in
each set of parentheses.
EXAMPLE
1. Ms. Jenkins read (we, us) a poem by Ishmael Reed.
1. Murray liked Tortuga and Bless Me, Ultima so much that he read (they, them) twice.
2. If you are driving to the game, will you please take (he, him) and (I, me) with you?
3. Rafael brought (I, me) an authentic Zuni turquoise pendant from the craft festival.
4. (She, Her) and (I, me) are interested in the same hobbies.
5. Have you ever heard my mom and (he, him) discussing politics?
6. Is that (he, him) talking to Miss Ozawa?
7. Between you and (I, me), Perry is not a good dancer.
8. (Her, She) and her sister are both very athletic.
9. Liz told (him, he) and (I, me) entirely different stories.
10. It was (she, her) and (I, me) who designed the cover.
11. We decided to divide the fresh tomatoes between (they, them) and (us, we).
12. Why should it always be (he, him) who picks up the check?
13. How did you ever discover that it was (them, they)?
14. Please hand Wanda or (she, her) the chilies for the mole sauce.
15. (Them, They) and (us, we) are in the league playoffs.
16. The FBI had trailed his partner and (him, he) across the country.
17. The only people I told were (she, her) and Nelson.
18. We didn’t know whether the cheers were for (them, they) or (we, us).
20. It was either the Fishers or (them, they) who reported the accident.
21. Mr. Martinez presented first place trophies to Ryan, Jonelle, and (I, me).
22. If Forrest and ( he, him) have the party at their house, will you bring refreshments?
23. Ms. Miles gave (she, her) and (I, me) advice on making social introductions.
24. The officer gave (he, him) and ( I, me) directions to the parking garage near the stadium.
25. The students who will perform the third routine in our dance recital are ( they, them)
and (I, me).
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19. Linda and (me, I ) played tennis doubles against Cara and (him, he).
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WORKSHEET 4
Classifying Pronouns by Case, Person, and Number
Exercise Underline the pronoun in each of the following sentences. Then, on the line
provided, classify the pronoun by case (nominative, objective, or possessive), person ( first
person, second person, or third person), and number (singular or plural ).
EXAMPLE
1. The prosecuting attorney was convincing when he made the
closing argument.
nominative, third person, singular______________________________
1. By the time swimmer Janet Evans was seventeen, she had set three world records.
2. Alex Haley became famous for his book Roots: The Saga of an American Family.
3. The dogs were tired after their long play session in the park.
4. Please hand me the photo album with last summer’s vacation pictures.
5. David, there is a special gift waiting for you at home.
6. Mr. Johnson gave us two tickets to the play at the Brighthouse Theater.
7. Is the red scarf lying by the sofa yours?
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
8. If the next two games go well, the next state champions will be we.
9. If the plants need more sun, move them to the windowsill.
10. When Satchel Paige joined the Cleveland Indians in 1948, he became the first African
American pitcher in the American League.
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WORKSHEET 5
Exercise A
DATE
Special Pronoun Problems
Underline the correct pronoun in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. To (who, whom) should I address the letter?
1. The Zuni, (who, whom) are descended from the Anasazi, are known for their silver, coral, and
turquoise jewelry.
2. It was Morihei Uyeshibu (who, whom) founded the martial art of aikido.
3. I know that Derrick is a friend upon (who, whom) I can always depend.
4. Mr. Garcia, the advisor for the school newspaper, is someone (who, whom) we all admire.
5. No one knows (who, whom) the guest speaker for tomorrow’s class will be.
6. The author to (who, whom) he is referring is Maxine Hong Kingston.
7. At the Cinco de Mayo festival, I saw Cynthia, (who, whom) I know from school.
8. Anyone (who, whom) gardens should watch this show for helpful tips.
9. (Whoever, Whomever) designed these fliers did a very nice job.
10. I would like to thank (whoever, whomever) sent me this beautiful plant.
Exercise B
Underline the correct pronoun in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. Delia doesn’t have as much patience as (she, her).
1. This shade of blue looks better on you than (I, me).
2. We have won nearly as many games as (they, them), according to Deanna.
3. The Cohens didn’t start out as early as (us, we) that morning.
4. With practice you could play just as well as (he, him).
Exercise C
Underline the correct pronoun in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. (We, Us) sophomores are organizing a new arts-and-crafts club.
1. The bus will take (we, us) students to the Cherokee Heritage Center right after lunch.
2. It is (us, we) voters who are to blame for the low turnout on election day.
3. The lifeguard warned two swimmers, Mimi and (she, her ), not to run.
4. The committee, (she, her), Aaron, and (me, I ), met with the senator.
5. The food was supplied by two families, (they, them) and (us, we).
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5. The referee’s ruling affected the other players more than (we, us).
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WORKSHEET 6
Ensuring Clear Pronoun Reference
Exercise Each of the following items contains an unclear pronoun reference. On the lines
provided, rewrite each item, correcting the unclear reference.
EXAMPLE
1. Laverne chatted with Mrs. Chisholm while she tended her flower garden.
While Mrs. Chisholm tended her flower garden, Laverne chatted with her. __
1. On last weekend’s fishing trip, I caught only one.
__________________________________________________________________________________
2. In this article they review R. Carlos Nakai’s new CD, Mythic Dreamer.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
3. Ramona is an excellent basket weaver, and she hopes to make it her career.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
4. Steven called his neighbor Mr. Rupert when he got home.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
5. Parts of the trail were still muddy from the recent storm. This made our hike somewhat dangerous.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
6. Susan saw Jennifer Azzi play basketball when she was a student at Stanford University.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
7. Our class is going to visit the Smithsonian Institution, which should be very educational.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
8. Marcelo stayed up late finishing his project. That explains why he looks so tired.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
9. At that museum they have an exhibit of paintings by Yasuo Kuniyoshi.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
10. Brian started telling Dwayne all about the game as soon as he walked in the door.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 7
Exercise A
DATE
Test
Underline the correct pronoun in parentheses in each of the following sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. Ask Sachi or (he, him) about the chemistry assignment.
1. Let Barbara or (he, him) know if you can’t go.
2. Between you and (I, me), their cooking is very bad.
3. It was probably Arturo or (he, him) who started the rumor.
4. Neither the Kwans nor (them, they) attended the meeting.
5. The man asked my friend and (I, me) to push his car.
6. What seems to be the trouble between Frances and (she, her)?
7. After the election it was (we, us) who called for a recount.
8. Were there any phone calls for Lusita or (I, me)?
9. The only ones not in the picture are Marge and (he, him).
10. Canada has as high a standard of living as (we, us).
11. The rolling of the ship didn’t make Corinne as sick as (I, me).
12. Clarence makes more fuss at the dentist’s than (him, he).
13. Why don’t you let (us, we) neighbors help you?
14. Hisoka and (he, him) are looking for a copy of Mexican Village, by Josephina Niggli.
15. Ms. Sevilla was reading Wyatt and (he, him) an Ashanti folk tale.
16. Dad said he’ll give you and (I, me) tango lessons this weekend.
17. The two boys—Earl and (he, him)—were all alone in the big house.
18. The first prize was shared by two girls—Rosemary and (her, she).
20. There’s the person (whom, who) I was telling you about yesterday.
Exercise B In the story below, find ten pronouns that are used incorrectly.
Cross out each incorrect pronoun and write the correction above it.
EXAMPLE
we
The Browns and us made it to the game just before the kickoff.
Coach Feng gave the Browns and we free passes to the game. My sister Lois and me decided
to make use of them. The Browns and we made plans to go together. Since they live farther from
the stadium than us, they were going to call for us. It was they—not we—who made the
suggestion. While Lois and I stood waiting at the curb, Hector and Sabina Calderón drove up and
offered to take us to the stadium.
Continued
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19. Mr. Cata will give (whomever, whoever) wants one a free pass to the Marisol exhibit.
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(continued)
“Thanks,” Lois said, “but him and I are getting a ride with the Browns, if they don’t forget to
pick us up.”
“Okay,” Hector said. “We’ll see you and they at the game.” The couple—him and Sabina—
waved and drove on.
As it approached eight o’clock, it began to look as if Lois and I were going to miss the
opening of the game. Could the Browns have forgotten to call for my sister and I? Just as we went
into the house to telephone, us two heard a car horn honk outside.
“It must be they,” I said. It was them all right.
“We’re ashamed of ourselves,” apologized Alvin Brown. “Cara and me both forgot to pick you
up until we got all the way to the stadium. There must be something wrong with us. Let’s get
going!”
Exercise C Each of the following items contains an unclear pronoun reference. On the
line provided, rewrite each item, correcting the unclear reference.
EXAMPLE
1. David doesn’t play soccer much, but he enjoys socializing with
them.
David doesn’t play soccer much, but he enjoys socializing with the
team members.
1. In this poem I am reading, it uses a great deal of alliteration.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
2. Rachel enjoys studying biology, although she has never seen one through a microscope.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
3. On the evening news, it said that there would be thunderstorms this weekend.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
4. Even though they don’t come out as well as I would like, I enjoy painting.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
5. Marcia told Andrea that she got the job at the mall.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 1
Choosing Between Adjectives and Adverbs
Exercise In each of the following sentences, underline the correct modifier in parentheses
and circle the word or words it modifies.
EXAMPLE
1. S. I. Hayakawa was known (international, internationally) as an
expert on semantics.
1. I felt very (bad, badly) about missing the picnic.
2. Cesar Chavez (courageous, courageously) organized farm workers’ unions in the
1960s and 1970s.
3. Jack plays tennis so (bad, badly), he can’t find a partner.
4. It’s possible to make curtains (quick, quickly) with this new machine.
5. A propeller-driven aircraft appears (slow, slowly) when compared with a jet.
6. Texas (sure, surely) has hot weather in August.
7. Aldo holds the ball (different, differently) when he throws a curve.
8. The car doesn’t run as (smooth, smoothly) as it once did.
9. The new shopping center has a (real, really) good restaurant.
10. This kind of hat suits me ( perfect, perfectly).
11. Fannie Lou Hamer worked ( persistent, persistently) as a civil rights activist.
12. Grandma seemed (tired, tiredly) after her aerobics class.
13. The Soufrière Hills volcano behaved ( peaceful, peacefully) today.
14. Our old lawn mower doesn’t start as (easy, easily) as it once did.
15. Please ask (nice, nicely) if you want a favor.
16. A bowl of won-ton soup tastes (delicious, deliciously) on a cold day.
18. Vernon tiptoed (soft, softly) into the baby’s room.
19. How (careful, carefully) did you listen to her story?
20. Chris’s change of mind came (sudden, suddenly).
21. The pueblo corn pie smelled so (delicious, deliciously) that we could hardly wait.
22. A nearsighted person can’t see things at a distance very (clear, clearly).
23. A good bicyclist rides through traffic (real, really) cautiously.
24. Kenesha spoke (knowledgeable, knowledgeably) about the candidate.
25. Ginny looked (careful, carefully) before crossing the street.
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17. These low-heeled sandals fit (comfortable, comfortably).
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WORKSHEET 2
Using Modifiers with Linking Verbs
Exercise A In each of the following sentences, underline the correct modifier in
parentheses and circle the word it modifies.
EXAMPLE
1. Lisa Fernandez pitched ( good, well ) to help Team USA win the
1991 Pan American Games.
1. Our old toaster works as ( good, well ) as a new one.
2. Eggplant caponata tastes ( good, well ) as part of a traditional Italian dinner.
3. I can’t type very ( good, well ) on this computer.
4. A little hardship is ( good, well ) for one’s character.
5. This lawn mower doesn’t cut ( good, well ) anymore.
6. Some light cars don’t handle ( good, well ) on rough roads.
7. A quick review would be ( good, well ) for all of us.
8. The doctor said that I was ( good, well ) enough to leave the hospital.
9. Brush your teeth ( good, well ) after eating.
10. School courses are easier if one can read ( good, well ).
Exercise B In each of the following sentences, underline the correct modifier in
parentheses and circle the word it modifies.
EXAMPLE
1. Asian music sounds ( different, differently) from Western music
because of the scales and instruments used.
1. The driver of the other car looked (angry, angrily) at me.
2. Shirley Chisholm feels (strong, strongly) about the need for political reform.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
3. The air smelled very ( fresh, freshly) after the rain.
4. Ralph reacted ( foolish, foolishly) to his friend’s suggestion.
5. This poem by Leslie Marmon Silko can be read aloud (beautiful, beautifully).
6. This sandpaper feels too (rough, roughly) to use on this delicate wood.
7. What smells more ( pleasant, pleasantly) than a Mexican bakery?
8. We could now smell smoke very (distinct, distinctly).
9. How (different, differently) this room looks with the new sofa!
10. Wendy felt (ridiculous, ridiculously) in her clown costume.
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WORKSHEET 3
Using Different Forms of Modifiers
to Show Comparison
Exercise A On the line provided, write the comparative and superlative forms of each of
the following modifiers.
EXAMPLE
1. foolish ___more foolish, most foolish
________________________
1. carefully
________________________________________________________________________
2. skillful
________________________________________________________________________
3. good
________________________________________________________________________
4. abruptly
________________________________________________________________________
5. long
________________________________________________________________________
6. bad
________________________________________________________________________
7. romantic
________________________________________________________________________
8. gentle
________________________________________________________________________
9. much
________________________________________________________________________
10. happy
________________________________________________________________________
Exercise B
In each of the following sentences, underline the correct form of the modifier
in parentheses.
EXAMPLE
1. After cutting the pita sandwich into two pieces, I gave Henry the
(larger, largest) piece.
1. Leah has seen (more, most) of Steven Spielberg’s films than I have.
2. Which is (more difficult, most difficult) to make, the vegetarian fajitas or the stuffed bell
peppers?
4. Yesterday felt like the (most hot, hottest) day of the summer.
5. That is the (most beautiful, beautifullest) pottery I have ever seen.
6. If the choice is between those two restaurants, I’d rather go to the (nearest, nearer ) one.
7. Mauna Loa, located on the island of Hawaii, is the (larger, largest) volcano in the world.
8. Mountain lions are (more common, commoner) in Mexico than in the United States.
9. Both of those plants are pretty, but the peace lily looks (healthier, healthiest).
10. Out of all of Toni Morrison’s novels, which one is the (more famous, most famous)?
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3. When choosing a dog, remember that large dogs are (expensiver, more expensive) to feed
than smaller dogs.
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WORKSHEET 4
Using Different Forms of Modifiers to Show
Comparison
Exercise A On the line provided in each of the following sentences, write the form of the
modifier in parentheses that will correctly complete the sentence.
EXAMPLE
1. Elvin is the ___taller___ of my two brothers. ( tall )
1. Of all the skaters in the competition, Michelle Kwan has received the ____________________
score so far. (high)
2. That hurricane was the ____________________ one to hit the Florida coast in over thirty
years. (bad )
3. The second game of the tournament was ____________________ than the first. (exciting)
4. The no play is the ____________________ form of traditional Japanese drama. (old )
5. After much deliberation, Mom chose the ____________________ of the two cars. ( practical )
6. I voted for Bianca because I thought she spoke ____________________ than the other
candidate. (honestly)
7. Reiko responded ____________________ to my offer than Carmen did. (enthusiastically)
8. Which of the three poems did you find ____________________? (inspirational )
9. During the morning rush hour, the southbound traffic moves ____________________ than the
northbound traffic. (quickly)
10. My younger brother can dribble the basketball ____________________ than I can. (well )
Exercise B Most of the following sentences contain errors in the use of modifiers. If a
sentence contains an error, draw a line through the incorrect modifier and write the correct form
on the line provided. If a sentence is already correct, write C.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLES
___friendliest___ 1. Hisoka’s cat, Buttons, is one of the friendlier cats
I have met.
________C_______ 2. Mother says her hair was darker when she was
younger.
______________ 1. Can that company prove that its towels are most absorbent than the others?
______________ 2. Joe’s argument was the more convincing of all the arguments presented.
______________ 3. Chim is the fastest sprinter on our track team.
______________ 4. Which is most likely to be aggressive toward strangers, a Great Dane or a
Rottweiler?
______________ 5. Use the most thick board you have as the base and build from there.
______________ 6. Dad seems to think losing a close game is worst than losing by a large margin.
______________ 7. The second movie we saw was more funny than the first.
______________ 8. Who was one of the earliest explorers of the southwestern United States?
______________ 9. The jury might look more favorably upon the defendant if he shows remorse.
______________ 10. Ms. O’Connell is wise, but I think my grandmother is wisest.
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WORKSHEET 5
Using Modifiers in Comparisons
Exercise Each of the following sentences contains an error in the use of a modifier.
On the lines provided, rewrite each sentence, correcting the error.
EXAMPLE
1. The carpet in the living room looks cleaner than the dining room.
The carpet in the living room looks cleaner than the carpet in the dining room.__
1. The plot of the movie version is less intriguing than the novel.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
2. The controls on my new wheelchair are easier to use than my old one.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
3. My father has read more Isabel Allende novels than anyone in our family.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
4. Then Tanya made the most wittiest remark.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
5. My dog Ginger is smarter than any dog I know.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
6. Gigi Fernandez played more harder than her opponent and eventually won the match.
__________________________________________________________________________________
7. Marini probably studied longer than anyone in her class.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
8. I talk to Ella more often than Anne.
__________________________________________________________________________________
9. My neighbor’s son, Cameron, is the most calmest toddler I’ve ever met.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
10. The kitchen will look so much more cleaner with a fresh coat of paint.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 6
Avoiding Double Negatives
Exercise On the line provided, answer the following questions negatively in complete
sentences, without producing any double negatives.
EXAMPLES
1. Did you hear anything?
I didn’t hear anything. __________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Does George own a car?
George doesn’t own a car.
________________________________________________________________
1. Did you like either picture?
2. Has he ever had an accident?
3. Is Raul a senior?
4. Did they catch anything?
5. Did Rita go anywhere?
6. Have you seen Marshall?
7. Did you tell anybody?
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
8. Should I say anything to Jacy?
Use hardly or scarcely in your answers to 9 and 10.
9. Can you see the sign?
10. Could you get to sleep?
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WORKSHEET 7
Avoiding Dangling Modifiers
Exercise A Some of the following sentences contain dangling modifiers. If a sentence has
a dangling modifier, write DM on the line provided. If a sentence is already correct, write C.
EXAMPLES
__DM__ 1. Right after vacuuming the living room, the dog tracked mud all
over the clean carpet.
___C___ 2. To become a great athlete, one must build up excellent
endurance.
__________
1. Looking through the binoculars, the falcon could be seen in more detail.
__________
2. To earn spending money, a job at the laundromat was suggested.
__________
3. To make this jalapeño corn bread, you will need a mixing bowl and a baking pan.
__________
4. Pointing the telescope at the moon, the crater Tycho appeared in the viewfinder.
__________
5. Now filled with sand, the pail was too heavy for the child to carry.
__________
6. Napping peacefully, the loud knock on the door was startling.
__________
7. After spending the whole day tending the garden, we had little energy left for
cooking.
__________
8. Listening to her grandmother’s stories, Annie learned that some of her Sioux
ancestors had practiced the Ghost Dance religion.
__________
9. To learn to use a sewing machine, patience must be abundant.
__________ 10. While mowing the lawn this morning, a rash developed on my legs.
Exercise B
On the line provided, rewrite each of the following sentences to correct the
dangling modifier.
EXAMPLE
1. To travel to Italy, a passport will be needed.
1. Looking through the family album, my great uncle Otis was seen in many of the photographs.
2. Immediately after giving the dog a bath, the doorbell rang.
3. To relive a part of Chinese American history, Angel Island in California can be visited.
4. Sitting in the fifth row of the stadium, the action could be seen clearly.
5. After jogging barefoot on the beach, Jason’s leg muscles were sore.
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To travel to Italy, you will need a passport. ______________________________
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WORKSHEET 8
Avoiding Misplaced Modifiers
Exercise In each of the following sentences, underline the misplaced word, phrase, or
clause. Then, draw an arrow to indicate where the misplaced modifier should be placed to make
the sentence clear and correct.
EXAMPLES
1. The chair suddenly collapsed that Phil was sitting on.
2. His mother read the theme he had written after he had gone to sleep.
1. Many important musicians played in Earl Hines’s band, such as Charlie Parker.
2. The lamp stands next to the sofa that I usually study by.
3. I salvaged a radio from the wrecked car that was in perfect condition.
4. The mail carrier has to walk all morning without sitting down to rest in the slushy snow.
5. American Indian religious leaders sing songs as they treat the sick called medicine men and
medicine women.
6. I saw the note that Miss White Feather will send to Bill’s parents accidentally.
7. The mayor announced that she plans to resign last week.
8. Salim was given the part in the school play of the grandfather.
9. The lake was surrounded by sand dunes in which we went swimming.
10. Grace couldn’t say goodbye to her cousin who was leaving for Alaska because of her cold.
11. He sold a car to a used-car dealer that had a cracked cylinder head.
12. Al went to the kitchen when Gloria phoned to say that she was bringing home a puppy to
cook the dinner.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
13. Andrea walked into the museum where the statue was on exhibit with her two brothers.
14. The matzo ball soup had too much salt in it that was served at the Passover meal.
15. These coins are very old and rare ones that you gave to me.
16. Some dangerous chemistry supplies are lying in the corner that must be cleared away
immediately.
17. We watched sailboat after sailboat go by sitting on the shore of the river that afternoon.
18. Gan and Eloise were each served a sandwich by the harried waitperson with mustard and onions.
19. Rafael found a most unusual pet shop wandering around the streets of the old town.
20. Elizabeth rearranged the flowers that the cat had knocked over very carefully.
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WORKSHEET 9
Revising Misplaced Modifiers
Exercise On the line provided, revise each of the following sentences by moving the
misplaced phrase or clause so that it is near the word or words it modifies.
EXAMPLE
1. Ruben listened attentively as Ms. Fox read the poem with his eyes shut.
With his eyes shut, Ruben listened attentively as Ms. Fox read the poem.
1. We bought a lamp at the souvenir stand made of pink shells.
__________________________________________________________________________________
2. Grandmother gave a ring to one of my sisters that was a hundred years old.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
3. Miguel cleaned the carpet after eating his breakfast with a vacuum cleaner.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
4. Mother served the Vietnamese shrimp toast to the guests that had not burned.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
5. Clean the pan after you cook the fish with a strong detergent.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
6. I turn on the radio whenever I wash dishes for entertainment.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
8. My aunt flew to Florida after Claudia went to college to enjoy the warm, sunny weather.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
9. Derek rented a tape on how to make Hawaiian leis at the video store.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
10. You can see Yolanda washing the car through the kitchen window.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
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7. I found a ticket for the Friday night dance in the telephone booth.
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Test
WORKSHEET 10
Exercise A Most of the following sentences contain errors in the use of modifiers. Draw a
line through each error and, if necessary, write the correct word or words on the line provided.
Use a caret (^) to show where the added word or words belong in the sentence. If a sentence is
already correct, write C on the line.
EXAMPLES
____else____ 1. Samuru knows more about astronomy than anyone I know.
^
_____more____ 2. Of the two proposed solutions, the second would
probably be most effective.
__________
1. At the recital Liang played the piano nice.
__________
2. Of the two veterinarians at that clinic, Dr. Lopez is the most experienced.
__________
3. Chelsea should be more respectfuller of other people’s privacy.
__________
4. The Sparks won their first game easy, by a score of 85 to 62.
__________
5. Mr. Yellowhair is one of the most patient people I’ve ever met.
__________
6. The summers here are hotter than Minnesota.
__________
7. Scott dances better than anyone in his ballet class.
__________
8. Mount Everest is higher than any place on earth.
__________
9. Michael beamed proudly as he told us about his Chinese heritage.
__________ 10. We can access the Internet much more faster on our new computer than on the old
one.
Exercise B In each of the following sentences, underline the correct modifier in
parentheses and circle the word it modifies.
EXAMPLE
1. Laurie smiled (cheerful, cheerfully ) as she greeted her guests.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
1. The chances of our team’s winning the science fair this year look (excellent, excellently).
2. Did you analyze the reasons that some previous teams did ( poor, poorly)?
3. If we act (quick, quickly), we might be able to get concert tickets.
4. Despite his slow start, Neal was (absolute, absolutely) determined to do well in the race.
5. Was Christie’s research on global warming (thorough, thoroughly), or did she check only a
few sources?
6. Alfonso looked (sad, sadly) at his crumpled manuscript.
7. The cough medicine tasted (terrible, terribly) to Mario.
8. Mr. Toyama looked very (anxious, anxiously) at the snail on his plate.
9. The team felt too (confident, confidently) about winning the game.
10. Almost anything tastes ( good, well) when you’re hungry.
Continued
Using Modifiers
☞
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Exercise C Most of the following sentences contain dangling or misplaced modifiers. On
the line provided, revise each faulty sentence so that its meaning is clear. If a sentence is already
correct, write C.
EXAMPLE
1. Touring the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga, many of the
species of fish were fascinating to Evan.
Touring the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga, Evan found many
of the species of fish fascinating. ____________________________
1. Falling on the fifth of May each year, Koreans and Korean Americans celebrate Children’s Day.
2. We saw some paintings at the Philadelphia Museum of Art by José Luis Cuevas.
3. Please tell Kareem when he gets home from soccer practice that Mom wants him to clean the
bathroom.
4. At the meeting the city council discussed the cost of repairing the bridge with city planners.
5. To avoid serious injury, helmets should always be worn when bicycling.
6. Near the bottom of the pond, Lynn spotted a small tadpole.
8. While going through some boxes in the garage, my father’s old bat and glove were found.
9. Unprepared for the coming storm, our hike had to be cut short.
10. The lotion she had applied protected her from the sun’s harmful rays.
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7. Looking out the window, I noticed that the rain had turned to hail.
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WORKSHEET 1
Identifying Prepositional Phrases
Exercise In each of the following sentences, underline each prepositional phrase and circle
each object of a preposition. Note: A sentence may contain more than one prepositional phrase.
EXAMPLE
1. Yoko’s jogging route takes her past the church and
behind the playground.
1. A large crowd has already gathered outside the courthouse.
2. All pest control products will be on sale for the next two weeks.
3. According to Tom, the picture of the governor in the newspaper was not flattering.
4. The jeweler showed the beautiful pearl necklace to Luisa.
5. Is their plane supposed to take off at noon?
6. Tourists may pick up a free city map at the Visitors’ Center.
7. The harvest festival of Sukkot begins five days after Yom Kippur.
8. At the Chaco Culture National Historical Park are numerous prehistoric ruins of the Anasazi.
9. Can begonias and geraniums be grown outdoors in containers?
10. If we don’t leave right now, we’ll be late for the movie.
11. Is that your notebook on the floor in the cafeteria?
12. In addition to swimming and cycling,Ted enjoys ice skating.
13. Couscous is a common dish in much of northern Africa.
14. The Painted Desert extends nearly two hundred miles along the Little Colorado River in
northern Arizona.
15. On special occasions, some Japanese women wear kimonos.
16. For my birthday Aunt Maisie gave me a subscription to a monthly gardening magazine.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
17. Mrs. Brown and the children left for Norfolk two hours ago.
18. Roscoe crawled under the deck and suddenly found himself covered with spider webs.
19. Next to the fireplace sat a large marble sculpture of a collie.
20. Find out if there is enough space between the rows of seats in that music hall.
21. According to this article, the Navajo earn money through coal mining.
22. Jay leaned against the freshly painted wall and ruined his favorite shirt.
23. As soon as we felt the first raindrops, we headed toward home.
24. Can I prepare the soil without a good garden hoe?
25. Andy agreed with little hesitation to attend the ceremony.
Phrases
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WORKSHEET 2
Exercise A
DATE
Using and Identifying Adjective Phrases
On the line provided, add an adjective phrase to each of the following
sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. A large flock ___of Canada geese___ passed overhead.
1. Did you find any books ____________________________?
2. Someone ____________________________ called Dad at the office.
3. The peaches ____________________________ should be eaten soon.
4. Tamara saw a raccoon ____________________________.
5. The woman ____________________________ is running for mayor.
6. Most citizens can clearly see the need ____________________________.
7. The trees ____________________________ will need to be pruned soon.
8. The bicycle shop ____________________________ has an excellent selection.
9. Many fish ____________________________ are dying because of water pollution.
10. Manchu enjoys reading in the garden ____________________________.
Exercise B In the following paragraphs, underline each adjective phrase once and the
word or words it modifies twice. Note: Some sentences do not contain adjective phrases.
EXAMPLE
[1] Pueblo de Los Angeles, or “Town of the Angels,” lies northeast of
the Civic Center in downtown Los Angeles.
[1] This area of Los Angeles contains many of the city’s oldest buildings. [2] In this area a group
of settlers from Mexico founded Los Angeles more than two hundred years ago. [3] The area looks
trees. [5] Running north from the plaza is Olvera Street, one of the oldest streets in the city.
[6] Colorful stalls along Olvera Street sell Mexican handicrafts. [7] Adobe buildings from the early
nineteenth century, housing restaurants and crafts shops, line the street.
[8] The downtown area also includes an interesting shopping district. [9] Many of the shops in
this district are owned by immigrants from Mexico and Central America. [10] Here, shoppers can
listen to the sound of modern Mexican music as they pass the cafes and record stores.
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like a village of old Mexico. [4] It includes a delightful public square with century-old magnolia
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Exercise A
DATE
Using and Identifying Adverb Phrases
On the line provided, add an adverb phrase to each of the following sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. Most of the fans sat ____near center court____.
1. ____________________ the children took turns trying to break the piñata.
2. The hikers set up camp ____________________.
3. We walked ____________________ for a strawberry smoothie.
4. ____________________ the chef will clean the kitchen.
5. ____________________ Luanne developed an interest in nature.
6. Our newspaper is delivered ____________________.
7. Ms. Garza will ride the train ____________________.
8. The squirrel climbed ____________________.
9. Everyone stayed indoors ____________________.
10. ____________________ Edmund will study veterinary medicine.
Exercise B In the following paragraphs, underline each adverb phrase once and the word
or words it modifies twice. Note: Some sentences do not contain adverb phrases.
EXAMPLE
[1] After much discussion, my parents finally agreed to let me
buy a pet budgie.
[1] I had wanted a pet for a long time. [2] For several weeks, at the library and on the World
Wide Web, I researched various small pets. [3] My reading eventually led me to the parakeet. [4] For
the most part, parakeets make clever, affectionate pets. [5] The budgie, the most common type of
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
pet parakeet, is native to Australia. [6] According to several articles, these birds live well in captivity
and become very tame. [7] Most of them can even be trained to talk.
[8] With my parents’ permission, I went to the pet store and chose my new pet, whom I
named Perry. [9] Perry lives in a nice, big cage and is always playing on his toy ladders and seesaw.
[10] After some intensive training, he has even learned to say “Hello” and “Cracker, please.”
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WORKSHEET 4
Identifying Participles and Participial Phrases
Exercise A In each of the following sentences, underline the participle or participial
phrase used as an adjective and circle the word it modifies. On the line provided, identify the
participle by type.Write PAST for past participle or PRES for present participle.
EXAMPLEs
PAST
1. What do you want to do with this chipped mug?
PRES
2. Leaping onto my lap, the cat began to purr.
__________
1. Grinning from ear to ear, the winner graciously accepted her trophy.
__________
2. Hiding under the sofa, the ferret continued to ignore its owner’s commands.
__________
3. The overloaded car could not make it up the steep hill.
__________
4. Sifting through the bargain bin at the bookstore, Botan found a good Japanese
cookbook.
__________
5. Stage B will feature sets by some widely known musical artists.
__________
6. The chosen lookout point proved to be inaccessible, so we had to alter our plan.
__________
7. Impressed by Jan’s talent and perseverance, the conductor granted her a second
audition.
__________
8. Chi Chen wrapped the blanket around the shaking puppy and placed it in
the box.
__________
9. The startled cat screeched, jumped over the fence, and disappeared.
__________ 10. In my opinion, singer Aretha Franklin is nothing less than a living legend.
Exercise B In each of the following sentences, underline each participial phrase and circle
the word it modifies. Note: Not every sentence contains a participial phrase.
1. The poetry reading scheduled for Wednesday at 1:00 has been canceled.
1. Students interested in volunteering for the Red Cross should pick up an application outside
the cafeteria.
2. The form of light opera known as zarzuela was created in the 1700s by Spanish composers.
3. Gazing intently at the painting, Abdul did not notice when I returned.
4. The construction work, creating an unpleasant din from morning to evening, greatly annoyed
the neighbors.
5. Arabic, spoken by almost all the people of Libya, is that country’s official language.
6. The weather report indicates that the cold front is moving slowly.
7. Leaving the party early, Leta ran a couple of errands and then went home.
8. Samuel, elected by a landslide, has done a fine job as class treasurer.
9. The sound of wolves howling in the distance was eerie yet somehow peaceful.
10. Fascinated by the intricate plot, Latisha could not put the novel down.
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WORKSHEET 5
Identifying Gerunds, Gerund Phrases, Infinitives,
and Infinitive Phrases
Exercise A Underline the gerunds or gerund phrases in the following sentences. Then, on
the line provided, identify how each gerund or gerund phrase is used by writing S for subject, DO
for direct object, PN for predicate nominative, or OP for object of a preposition.
EXAMPLE
__OP__ 1. Harriet Tubman is famous for helping hundreds of slaves
escape to freedom.
__________
1. Learning a foreign language is a goal of many people.
__________
2. The children enjoy skating.
__________
3. Seeing the giant sculpture of Chief Crazy Horse was the highlight of our trip to
South Dakota.
__________
4. Your mistake was enclosing money in a letter.
__________
5. There are several methods of broiling vegetables.
__________
6. Saving precious topsoil is one of the aims of conservation.
__________
7. His greatest pleasure is helping other people.
__________
8. You can’t learn to spell by pressing a button.
__________
9. We always avoided driving at night.
__________ 10. Camels may go for weeks without drinking.
Exercise B Underline the infinitive or infinitive phrase in each of the following sentences.
Then, on the line provided, tell how the infinitive or infinitive phrase is used by writing S for
subject, DO for direct object, PN for predicate nominative, ADJ for adjective, or ADV for adverb.
EXAMPLEs
___DO___ 1. I have always wanted to travel around the world.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
___ADJ__ 2. I have always had a desire to travel around the world.
__________
1. To write an informative report takes considerable effort.
__________
2. To turn back now would be foolish and risky.
__________
3. Kiyoshi and Tony appreciated the opportunity to go to the concert.
__________
4. The goal in a chess game is to checkmate the opponent’s king.
__________
5. The Spingarn Medal is awarded to honor African Americans for high achievement.
__________
6. The governor can’t hope to please everyone in the state.
__________
7. In my opinion, spring is the best time to visit Washington.
__________
8. Harriet Tubman’s purpose was to help others.
__________
9. Everyone entered in the contest has an equal chance to win.
__________ 10. A good citizen does not refuse to be a witness in court.
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WORKSHEET 6
Identifying Gerunds, Gerund Phrases, Infinitives,
Infinitive Phrases, and Infinitive Clauses
Exercise A Underline the gerund or gerund phrase in each of the following sentences. On
the line provided, tell how the gerund or gerund phrase is used in the sentence.Write S for
subject, DO for direct object, PN for predicate nominative, or OP for object of a preposition.
EXAMPLE
OP
1. In the summer Kassie earns her spending money by
mowing lawns in her neighborhood.
__________
1. Painting a house requires a great amount of time and patience.
__________
2. After shopping for hours, we were tired and hungry and wanted to go home.
__________
3. Mr. Kilpatrick enjoys making customized scrapbooks as gifts for family and
friends.
__________
4. One of the highlights of Anne Tyler’s career was winning the Pulitzer Prize in
fiction in 1989.
__________
5. Aunt Rosalinda’s favorite pastime is fishing, and she has taught me a lot about the
sport.
__________
6. On rainy weekend afternoons, I like going to the movies by myself.
__________
7. Although Derrick has tried skiing, he says he doesn’t really like it.
__________
8. Researching the backgrounds of potential candidates is one responsibility of the
nomination committee.
__________
9. The flight attendant asked the passengers to fasten their safety belts in
preparation for landing.
__________ 10. In northern Africa, some women follow the Islamic tradition of covering the face
with a veil.
EXAMPLE
__N _ 1. Jake plans to study two hours for the biology exam.
__________
1. Hakeem Olajuwon sunk the winning basket with one second to go.
__________
2. If you want to get to the game on time, you should leave by 6:00.
__________
3. Her mother told Tamiko to wear her helmet when she rode her bike.
__________
4. To score a goal in ice hockey can be extremely difficult.
__________
5. Please let me know when you are ready to leave.
__________
6. Juanita’s long-term goal is to graduate from law school.
__________
7. When you get to the game, remember that the player to watch is number 32.
__________
8. We asked Mimi to make her special banana bread.
__________
9. Melvin’s dream has always been to become an animal behaviorist.
__________ 10. We went to the town meeting to voice our opinions about the new highway.
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Exercise B Underline the infinitive, infinitive phrase, or infinitive clause in each of the
following sentences. On the line provided, tell how the infinitive, infinitive phrase, or infinitive
clause is used in the sentence.Write N for noun, ADJ for adjective, or ADV for adverb.
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WORKSHEET 7
Identifying Appositives and Appositive Phrases
Exercise In each of the following sentences, underline the appositive or appositive phrase
and circle the word or words it identifies or explains.
EXAMPLEs
1. The storm, a treacherous blizzard, hit the Chicago area early
Monday morning.
2. “Mending Wall,” a poem by Robert Frost, is the story of two
neighbors.
1. My friend Willis and I would like to travel to Brazil and Argentina one day.
2. José Ortega y Gasset, an essayist, was one of Spain’s leading writers of the twentieth century.
3. I heard that Mrs. Price’s desk, a beautiful antique, was destroyed in the fire.
4. Peking duck, a specialty in northern China, consists of slices of crisp roast duck and thin,
rolled pancakes.
5. Will you get to see your cousin Kerry when you go to Salt Lake City?
6. Hiram L. Fong, a U.S. Senator from Hawaii, served in Congress from 1959 to 1977.
7. A dedicated worker, Ms.Walker is the first to arrive at the clinic each morning.
8. The flowers on the table are from our neighbor, Mr. Durand.
9. The green turtle, a species of sea turtle, can swim as fast as twenty miles per hour for
brief periods.
10. One of the most difficult strategy games, Go originated more than two thousand years
ago in China.
11. This figurine, a gift from my grandmother, is one of my most cherished possessions.
12. At home Tranh usually speaks Vietnamese, his first language.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
13. Did you know that my brother Steve works as a computer programmer for a large software
company?
14. The stage manager,Vicente Diaz, has worked hard day after day to help make the school play
a success.
15. Katherine has read every published work of her favorite author, N. Scott Momaday.
16. Nathan’s newest painting, the one with the beach in the background, is one of his best so far.
17. A talented graphic artist, Coretta hopes to work for a magazine or book publisher.
18. The instructor and his partner were demonstrating the tarantella, a regional folk dance of
southern Italy.
19. My report is on Charles Drew, a physician who is known for his research on blood plasma
and who organized many blood bank programs during World War II.
20. The adviser for the drama club, Mr. Hill, is going to retire next year.
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WORKSHEET 8
Test
Exercise A Underline the prepositional phrases in the following sentences. Above each
prepositional phrase, write ADJ if it is an adjective phrase and ADV if it is an adverb phrase.
Note: Some sentences contain more than one prepositional phrase.
EXAMPLE
ADV
ADJ
1. Mr. Itoh planted marigolds along the front edge of his garden.
1. I found the information for my biology paper at the library.
2. Chris has gone to Shawnee, Oklahoma, to attend the Potawatomi Powwow.
3. Maureen and I studied the book about the history of mathematics.
4. Behind the church lies an old cemetery surrounded by a wrought-iron fence.
5. The construction company claims the bridge over the ravine will be finished by June.
6. Use the large saucepan for the rice, and stir-fry the vegetables in the wok.
7. The painting above the mantel was a gift from a dear friend.
8. We left after the first act because my little sister was not feeling well.
9. During his trip to Ghana, Mr. Brooks expanded his knowledge of the Ashanti people.
10. Michael Boyd, a reporter from the school newspaper, interviewed the office staff of the
high school.
Exercise B Identify the italicized phrase in each of the following sentences. On the line
provided, write PART for participial phrase or GER for gerund phrase.
_PART_ 1. Walking along the beach, Kim and Jerry noticed many
fascinating creatures.
__________
1. Paul Robeson had a long, successful career, performing on stage, on radio, and
in motion pictures.
__________
2. The children, exhausted after their day at the fair, slept all the way home.
__________
3. Watching television can be educational and worthwhile if you choose the right
kinds of programs.
__________
4. Hurrying to catch the bus, Harry tripped and twisted his ankle.
__________
5. Mastering parallel parking can be difficult, especially in a large vehicle.
__________
6. When it is not too cold outside, Ms. Chiago likes jogging with her two
greyhounds.
__________
7. I stopped for a moment to watch the children sledding down the slick, white hill.
__________
8. The watercolor set lying on the table belongs to my brother.
__________
9. I promised not to reveal the secret, so you might as well stop asking me.
__________ 10. Bill Cosby’s book on parenting, published in 1987, is titled Fatherhood.
Continued
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EXAMPLE
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(continued)
Exercise C Identify each of the numbered, italicized phrases in the following paragraph.
On the line provided, write PREP for prepositional phrase, PART for participial phrase, GER for
gerund phrase, INF for infinitive phrase, or APP for appositive phrase.
EXAMPLE
[1] Vacationing in Oklahoma __PART__, my family visited that state’s first
intertribal Native American complex.
Standing Bear Native American Memorial Park, [1] located in Ponca City, Oklahoma ________,
opened in 1996.The eight-acre park and cultural center is dedicated to six Plains Indian peoples—
[2] the Kaw, Osage, Otoe-Missouri, Pawnee, Ponca, and Tonkawa ________.Travelers [3] visiting
the park ________ can learn about the many cultures of the Plains Indians.
The centerpiece [4] of the complex ________ is a huge bronze statue of Standing Bear,
[5] a Ponca chief ________. In 1996 more than 5,000 people attended the [6] unveiling of the
statue ________. It is the creation of Oreland Joe, Sr., [7] an award-winning sculptor ________.
Joe worked almost a year [8] to complete this 3,500-pound monument ________, which is the
tallest statue in Oklahoma. [9] At the statue’s base ________ are an eternal flame and a reflecting
pool.The seals of the six peoples that assisted in [10] making the park a reality ________ encircle
the pool.
Exercise D Following the directions in each of the following items, write an original
sentence on the line provided.
EXAMPLE
1. Use sorting the recycling as a gerund phrase.
Sorting the recycling is one of my regular household chores._
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
1. Use under the table as an adjective phrase.
2. Use strolling through the mall as a participial phrase.
3. Use making costumes for the play as a gerund phrase.
4. Use to get to school on time as an infinitive phrase that functions as an adverb.
5. Use my favorite singer as an appositive phrase.
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WORKSHEET 1
Identifying Independent and Subordinate Clauses
Exercise A Identify each of the following clauses as independent or subordinate. On the
line provided, write IND for independent clause or SUB for subordinate clause.
EXAMPLEs
___IND___ 1. Nikki Giovanni will be speaking
___SUB__ 2. before the awards are presented
__________
1. the carburetor was adjusted
__________
2. when the carburetor was adjusted
__________
3. the other car was insured
__________
4. if the other car was insured
__________
5. because we needed a larger apartment
__________
6. each applicant is thoroughly tested
__________
7. imitation is the sincerest form of flattery
__________
8. although the plot was very original
__________
9. the cha-cha is a Cuban dance
__________ 10. unless the circulation of our paper increases
Exercise B In each of the following sentences, identify the italicized clause as independent
or subordinate. On the line provided, write IND for independent or SUB for subordinate.
_SUB_ 1. Ms. Maskewit, the volleyball coach, was thrilled when her
team made the state semifinals.
__________
1. In 1887 Granville T.Woods invented a telegraph system that allowed railroad
crew members to communicate with each other and with railroad stations.
__________
2. The cheetah, which can run as fast as fifty to seventy miles per hour over short
distances, is the fastest land mammal.
__________
3. Hanukkah usually comes in December, and it lasts for eight days.
__________
4. What did you do with the map that I gave you?
__________
5. For the party everyone dressed up as famous movie characters they admired.
__________
6. While Mr. Foster was in Puerto Rico, he visited the Ponce Art Museum.
__________
7. Because guinea pigs seldom bite and are easy to take care of, they make good
pets.
__________
8. The bulletin board is covered with notices, but many of them are for past events.
__________
9. Mary McLeod Bethune was an educator who worked to improve opportunities
for African Americans.
__________ 10. The band that will play at the spring dance is a local favorite among high school
students.
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WORKSHEET 2
Identifying Adjective Clauses
Exercise A In each of the following sentences, underline the adjective clause and draw a
second line under the relative pronoun. Then, circle the noun or pronoun the adjective clause
modifies.
EXAMPLE
1. The students who went to the science museum came back with
some amazing stories.
1. We go to movies at the Orpheum Theater, which was renovated several years ago.
2. Frida Kahlo, whose paintings often contain autobiographical subject matter, was an influential
Mexican artist.
3. My family is going to Fiesta® San Antonio, which is held in San Antonio each spring.
4. Camels, whose humps carry built-in food supplies, can travel great distances with little food or
water.
5. Mom searched the local shelters until she found the puppy that she wanted to adopt.
6. Anyone who wants to go to college should study hard during high school.
7. Ms.Wong is the botanist who will be our guest speaker tomorrow.
8. The blinds that we ordered for the living room turned out to be too short.
9. Mr. Serrano is the teacher whom I most admire.
10. Yvonne had recommended the movie that we rented last night.
Exercise B In each of the following sentences, underline the adjective clause and draw a
second line under the relative pronoun.Then, on the line provided, write the noun or pronoun that
the adjective clause modifies. Note: The relative pronoun may sometimes be left out of an adjective
clause. If so, write the relative pronoun in parentheses after the sentence.
EXAMPLES
___life___ 1. The life that you save may be your own.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
___life___ 2. The life you save may be your own. (that)
1. The horse that Christine rode was very spirited.
2. The money that was missing was found under the counter.
3. Brian was one of the players whom the coach depended on the most.
4. An elderly woman who reminds you of your grandmother turns out to be
the villain.
5. Mr. Ignacio anxiously checked the pocket that contained his wallet.
6. This soap is for people whose skin is irritated by ordinary soap.
7. We can’t believe everything that we see in print.
8. The tree my grandfather planted still bears apples.
9. John Valadez is the artist whom my mother most admires.
10. Wole Soyinka is a Nigerian writer who is best known for his plays.
Clauses
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WORKSHEET 3
Identifying and Using Adverb Clauses
Exercise A In each of the following sentences, underline the adverb clause and draw a
second line under the subordinating conjunction.
EXAMPLE
1. Whenever I lose my temper, I am sorry afterward.
1. I wrote myself a note so that I would be sure to remember.
2. When labor and management disagree, the two sides seek a mediator.
3. These trees will grow where almost nothing else will survive.
4. Elliot, who is the free safety, intercepts passes as if they were intended for him.
5. Unless we understand the past, we cannot understand the present.
6. A dog has many friends because it wags its tail instead of its tongue.
7. Whenever I find out that I have misspelled a word, I write it in my notebook.
8. Before you criticize modern art, you should try to understand it.
9. While we were vacationing in New York, we visited the Iroquois Indian Museum.
10. I’d like to try the Kung Pao shrimp if it’s not too spicy.
Exercise B On the line provided in each of the following sentences, write a subordinating
conjunction that clearly shows the relationship between the two ideas. Avoid using the same
subordinating conjunction more than once.
EXAMPLEs
1. __When__ we visited New Orleans, we tried several different
Cajun dishes.
2. She has been interested in big-band music __as long as__ I have
known her.
2. __________ ability is a factor in success, character is even more important.
3. Countee Cullen began publishing poetry __________ he was still in high school.
4. __________ we neared the port, the ship became a beehive of activity.
5. Our parents always spoke to us __________ we were adults.
6. __________ the tank is full, the pump automatically shuts itself off.
7. He gave us his picture __________ we would always remember him.
8. __________ we saw Connie at the park, she waved to us.
9. An idea is not true merely __________ it is repeated.
10. __________ you sign a contract, you should be sure to read the fine print.
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1. The program will not survive __________ the producers improve it.
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WORKSHEET 4
Using Adverb Clauses
Exercise Combine each of the following pairs of sentences. Change one sentence into an
adverb clause by placing a subordinating conjunction before it.Then, insert the adverb clause into
the other sentence. Be sure to select the subordinating conjunction that will best express the
relationship between the two sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. My pen ran out of ink. I finished the outline in pencil.
After my pen ran out of ink, I finished the outline in pencil.
1. Anzu jogged along the river. She saw an empty raft.
2. Our refrigerator broke down.We stored our food in our neighbor’s refrigerator.
3. Dwayne pressed the dough into six-inch circles. He cooked the tortillas on the griddle.
4. I had run out of blue paint. I finished the closet in yellow.
5. The names were being read.We each held our breath.
6. Everyone goes through this room.We call it Grand Central Station.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
7. The curtain rose.The stagehand was asleep on the couch.
8. Venus’ flytrap is an unusual plant. It is able to catch and digest insects.
9. Japanese art was strongly influenced by the Chinese. It has its own, distinctive Japanese
quality.
10. The lizard’s tail broke off. It grew another one.
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Identifying Noun Clauses
Exercise A Underline the noun clause in each of the following sentences.Then, on the line
provided, tell how the noun clause is used in the sentence. Use the following abbreviations: S for
subject, PN for predicate nominative, DO for direct object, IO for indirect object, or OP for object
of a preposition.
EXAMPLE
__S__ 1. What I really need is a day at the beach.
__________
1. Dad asked the desk clerk when the Field Museum of Natural History would
be open.
__________
2. The server brought a glass of water for whoever asked for one.
__________
3. This has been a close race, and no one knows who will win the election.
__________
4. Why Ricky is playing catcher instead of first base is a mystery to me.
__________
5. The problem is that we don’t have all the necessary tools.
__________
6. Kenneth has not yet told me what he wants for Christmas.
__________
7. That a turtle’s shell has two layers was news to me.
__________
8. Give whoever stops at the booth a pamphlet and a calendar of events.
__________
9. Jerome understands that the cat’s wounds will not heal properly.
__________ 10. The article I’m reading is about how Hector Elizondo’s acting career began.
Exercise B Underline the noun clause in each of the following sentences.Then, on the line
provided, tell how the noun clause is used in the sentence. Use the following abbreviations: S for
subject, DO for direct object, PN for predicate nominative, and OP for object of preposition.
__DO__ 1. Miss Brodsky told us that most Yurok Indians still live in
northern California.
__________
1. Where Captain Kidd hid his treasure remains a mystery.
__________
2. The speaker merely repeated what everybody knows.
__________
3. The patient told her story to whoever would listen.
__________
4. Most people will deny that they have any prejudices.
__________
5. The mechanic finally discovered what caused the rattle.
__________
6. How penicillin was discovered is a fascinating story.
__________
7. My problem is that I have no patience.
__________
8. Pete hasn’t the slightest idea of what he wants to do later.
__________
9. That the dog had been well treated was obvious.
__________ 10. One African American folk tale explains why the possum’s tail has no hair.
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EXAMPLE
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WORKSHEET 6
Identifying Clauses
Exercise Underline the subordinate clause(s) in each of the sentences in the following
paragraphs. Identify each clause by writing N for noun, ADJ for adjective, or ADV for adverb above
the clause.
ADJ
EXAMPLE [1] A person with visual impairments who wants to read books can
use Louis Braille’s system.
[1] This is the story of Louis Braille, the Frenchman who invented a system of reading and
writing for people who cannot see. [2] When Louis was three years old, he was playing one day in
his father’s saddle shop. [3] While he was trying to pierce a piece of leather with an awl, the tool
slipped and struck his eye. [4] Eventually, his injury led to an infection that caused him to lose his
sight in both eyes. [5] At the age of ten, Louis asked whether he could attend the Royal Institution
for Blind Youth in Paris. [6] He was sent to this school, where the students learned to read by
feeling letters formed with twigs. [7] The school had only three books, which were printed in large
raised letters. [8] Because each sentence took a page or two, the books contained only a few
paragraphs. [9] Louis was disappointed when he tried to use the books. [10] What Louis wanted
was a way to read more easily.
[11] One day inventor Charles Barbier, who had been a captain in the army, visited the school.
[12] What he had invented was a new writing system called “nightwriting.” [13] The writing was
done by using a sharp tool that made ridges on heavy paper. [14] This writing, which could be read
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
without striking a light, was safe to read on a battlefield. [15] Louis believed that this system could
be adapted for people with visual impairments. [16] He spent three years working out an alphabet
of raised dots that could be read with the fingers. [17] Although he demonstrated his method to
group after group, the government did not immediately support it. [18] He continued to work on
the system and to explain it to whoever would listen. [19] For years he had suffered from
tuberculosis, however, which killed him at the age of forty-two. [20] After his death, Louis’s system,
which was called Braille after its inventor, was widely adopted.
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WORKSHEET 7
Test
Exercise A In each of the following sentences, identify the italicized clause as independent
or subordinate. On the line provided, write IND for independent or SUB for subordinate.
EXAMPLE
__SUB__ 1. Lila can still remember visiting Hawaii when she was a small child.
__________
1. Yoshiro gave me a photograph of the marching band, but I cannot find it.
__________
2. Pancho Gonzalez, who started playing tennis at the age of twelve, became one
of the greatest players in tennis history.
__________
3. When Aunt Chloe comes to visit, we usually take her to the antique shops
downtown.
__________
4. While Oscar hung the decorations, Naomi made the dip and prepared the table.
__________
5. Pixilation is a type of animation that makes human figures look cartoonlike.
__________
6. How will I know when it is time to take the barbecued tofu out of the oven?
__________
7. Anita has watered the houseplants faithfully; nevertheless, they are not growing.
__________
8. Vernon feeds all the family pets as soon as he gets home from school.
__________
9. Before he entered the house, Monroe removed his muddy boots.
__________ 10. That Colin Powell has agreed to speak at the university’s commencement
ceremony is very exciting.
Exercise B In each of the following sentences, identify the italicized clause as independent
or subordinate by writing IND or SUB on the line provided. Then, classify each subordinate clause
according to its use in the sentence.Write ADJ for adjective, ADV for adverb, or N for noun.
__SUB, ADJ__ 1. Many hearing ear dogs are mixed breeds that have been
selected from animal shelters.
__________
1. You probably know all about seeing eye dogs, but have you ever come across a
hearing ear dog?
__________
2. A hearing ear dog, or hearing dog, is a specially trained dog that can alert a
person with hearing impairments to important sounds.
__________
3. Before a hearing dog can begin training, it must demonstrate good
temperament, intelligence, physical fitness, and responsibility.
__________
4. Most of these dogs begin training when they are between eight and sixteen
months old.
__________
5. They learn basic obedience, and they also learn to alert their owners to certain
sounds.
Continued
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EXAMPLE
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(continued)
__________
6. For instance, a hearing dog will let its owner know when the alarm clock,
doorbell, or telephone rings.
__________
7. It will also alert its owner to certain sounds, such as smoke alarms, that may
indicate danger.
__________
8. When training is completed, the dog’s trainer teaches the new owner how to
care for the dog and keep it well trained.
__________
9. In most states, people who are deaf or hard of hearing may bring their hearing
dogs with them when they enter stores, restaurants, hotels, and other public
places.
__________ 10. A hearing dog usually wears a bright orange or yellow collar and leash, which
identify the dog as a worker.
Exercise C Underline each subordinate clause in the following sentences.Then, classify
the subordinate clause according to its use in the sentence. On the line provided, write ADJ for
adjective clause, ADV for adverb clause, or N for noun clause. If a sentence does not have a
subordinate clause, write NONE.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLE
__ADJ__ 1. My friend Han-Ling and her family observe the Chinese New Year,
which begins with the second new moon of the winter solstice.
__________
1. As the Chinese New Year approaches, the Tengs pay off debts, clean and repair
their house, and stock up on food.
__________
2. They have lots of oranges, which are thought to bring good luck for the new year.
__________
3. Han-Ling always tries to avoid conflict at this time because she wants the new
year to be one of harmony and prosperity.
__________
4. As a preliminary to the New Year’s celebration, her family honors the kitchen god
as he departs for heaven.
__________
5. Traditionally, Chinese families believed that the kitchen god would report the
activities of the household to the emperor.
__________
6. To help the kitchen god on his way, Han-Ling’s family burns incense and candles.
__________
7. On New Year’s Eve the family has a big meal, and then Mr. and Mrs.Teng give HanLing and her brother red envelopes that contain “lucky money.”
__________
8. Mrs.Teng lights a candle and asks that the heaven, the earth, and the ancestors
bless her family in the coming year.
__________
9. There is no Chinese New Year Parade in our city, but many large cities in the
United States have one.
__________ 10. The highlight of every Chinese New Year Parade is the ceremonial dragon, which
symbolizes strength and longevity.
Continued
Clauses
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(continued)
Exercise D The subordinate clause in each of the following sentences is italicized. First,
classify each subordinate clause by writing ADJ (adjective clause), ADV (adverb clause), or N (noun
clause) on the line provided.Then, for each adjective or adverb clause, write the word or words the
clause modifies. For each noun clause, tell how the clause functions in the sentence:Write S for
subject, PN for predicate nominative, DO for direct object, IO for indirect object, or OP for object of
a preposition.
EXAMPLEs
___ADJ, daffodils____ 1. The daffodils that I planted along the sidewalk
add a splash of bright color to the front yard.
________________
1. Yesterday my mother got to meet Garrett Hongo, who was giving a
reading of his poetry at the university.
________________
2. Mr. Evans told us he was pleased with our performance during the dress
rehearsal.
________________
3. Ms. Miller, my history teacher, is always interested in what we students
have to say.
________________
4. When I received a postcard from my old friend Priscilla, I wrote back to
her right away.
________________
5. The girls’ softball team, which has been plagued by injuries, has not had
a successful season so far.
________________
6. Whoever wants to audition for the play should pick up a script from
Mrs.Yoshiro.
________________
7. Percy Julian was a famous research chemist who owned more than one
hundred patents.
________________
8. Mother does not understand why the peach tree in our back yard does
not produce any fruit.
________________
9. The manager of the music store will give whoever wins the contest a free
Mariah Carey CD.
________________ 10. Although I have rearranged my room several times, it still looks
cluttered.
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_______N, DO_______ 2. I’m hoping that my parents will let me have a
slumber party.
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WORKSHEET 1
Identifying Sentences and Fragments
Exercise A Identify each of the following items as a sentence or a sentence fragment. On
the line provided, write S for sentence or F for fragment.
EXAMPLEs
__F__ 1. Although Joaquin plays point guard on the basketball team.
__S__ 2. Motorists must be cautious on icy bridges.
__________
1. Writing is Paule Marshall’s profession.
__________
2. In the winter, when a blanket of snow covers the hillside.
__________
3. Taking her time between pitches.
__________
4. Imala will play the solo in the concert.
__________
5. The new social studies teacher who will also coach the tennis team.
__________
6. While Claude sets up the bookshelves.
__________
7. Tulips, lilies, and crocuses all grow from bulbs.
__________
8. Which came as a great surprise to my aunt Wilma.
__________
9. While we were in Greece, we ate a lot of feta cheese.
__________ 10. These pagodas, many-storied towers built by the Chinese.
Exercise B Identify each of the numbered word groups in the following paragraph as a
sentence or a fragment. On the line provided after each item number, write S for sentence or
F for fragment.
EXAMPLEs
[1] __F__ Born in Saginaw, Michigan. [2] __S__ Stevie Wonder has
been unable to see almost since birth.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
[1] _____ Stevie Wonder, a popular composer, singer, and musician. [2] _____ Since he
recorded his first hit,“Fingertips,” at the age of thirteen. [3] _____ Wonder has developed into a
mature, versatile artist. [4] _____ Who has received abundant praise. [5] _____ Stevie Wonder has
written in a wide range of styles. [6] _____ From the rhythmic, soulful sound of “Superstition” to
the melodic, romantic sound of “You Are the Sunshine of My Life.” [7] _____ He has created music
for two motion pictures. [8] _____ The Woman in Red and The Adventures of Pinocchio.
[9] _____ Wonder often incorporates Jamaican and African rhythms. [10] _____ Into the music
that he writes and performs.
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WORKSHEET 2
Identifying Subjects and Predicates
Exercise A On the line provided, label each italicized word group in the following
sentences.Write S for complete subject, P for complete predicate, or SP for complete subject and
complete predicate.
EXAMPLEs
__P__ 1. Sharla often used okra pods in the gumbo.
__SP__ 2. Above the belltower, the spire rose another forty feet.
__________
1. The tornado suddenly changed its course.
__________
2. During the storm, the condition of the roads continued to worsen.
__________
3. We followed its tracks in the snow.
__________
4. This morning, the headline on the front page was two inches high.
__________
5. The water in the dog’s bowl froze.
__________
6. The current sponsor of this program signed a contract for another year.
__________
7. My brother likes to try unusual foods.
__________
8. The guitar is a musical instrument.
__________
9. The population of our town grew five percent last year.
__________ 10. Our guest speaker began her talk with an amusing story.
Exercise B In each of the following sentences, draw a vertical line between the complete
subject and the complete predicate. Underline the simple subject or subjects once and the verb or
verbs—including helping verbs—twice. Be careful not to select an object of a preposition as the
simple subject, and not to include an adverb when you underline a verb.
EXAMPLE
1. The province of Ontario | attracts many tourists from the United States.
2. My parents worked for several weeks on the preparations.
3. We packed our large tent and the dining canopy.
4. The camp stove and the lantern were also included.
5. Much of our food supply filled our packs.
6. My brother and I carefully packed our fishing gear.
7. We visited Ottawa on the way to our campsite.
8. The Canadian national holiday is Canada Day.
9. All of the stores in Ottawa observed the holiday by closing.
10. A parade of men in kilts came down the street.
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1. We hiked and fished on our vacation in Ontario.
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Identifying and Using Compound Subjects and
Compound Verbs
WORKSHEET 3
Exercise A
In each of the following sentences, underline the subject or subjects once and the
verb or verbs twice.
EXAMPLE
1. Rosa will clean the gerbil’s cage and put in fresh wood shavings.
1. Angelo took his biology book home but did not finish all of the reading.
2. Harriet Tubman escaped slavery and then worked on the Underground Railroad.
3. By tradition, kimonos are tied around the waist with a sash and worn with sandals.
4. My sister and I take swimming lessons together every summer.
5. Either Hector or Rudy will lead tomorrow’s class discussion.
6. The Buffalo Soldiers caught outlaws, protected pioneers, and patrolled the border.
7. Thomas Kyd and Robert Green were Elizabethan playwrights.
8. The bird fluffed its feathers, took a few hops, and flew away.
9. The girl and her dog ran and played for hours in the spacious, open park.
10. Mr. Elizondo cleared his throat and stepped up to the podium.
Exercise B Complete each of the following sentences by writing one part of a compound
subject or compound verb in each of the blanks.You may add modifiers if you wish.
EXAMPLE
1. Rachel ___peeled___ the potatoes and then ___sliced___ them.
1. ____________________ and ____________________ have already visited the new art museum.
2. Liz ____________________ and ____________________ her theme paper.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
3. ____________________ or ____________________ will help the student committee plan the
Earth Day festival.
4. Julio will either ___________________ or ___________________ his bike to the softball game.
5. ___________________ or ___________________ will call the restaurant to make a reservation.
6. All day long the canary just ____________________ on its perch and ____________________.
7. Tamara __________________ the silk blouse but ___________________ the rayon one instead.
8. ___________________ and ___________________ will meet us at the entrance to the stadium.
9. During class Mr. Herrera ____________________ their papers and ____________________ two
selections from the literature book.
10. Was ____________________ or ____________________ injured in the accident?
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WORKSHEET 4
Finding the Subject and the Predicate of a Sentence
Exercise In each of the following sentences, underline the subject once and the verb
twice. (Remember to underline helping verbs.) If the subject you is understood, write you in
parentheses after the sentence.
EXAMPLEs
1. There will be a Peoria stomp dance at the community center on
Saturday.
2. Please shut the refrigerator door. (you)
1. Have you seen the Northern Lights?
2. In the United States live many Spanish-speaking people.
3. Please read The Rough-Face Girl by storyteller Rafe Martin.
4. Seldom have I seen such a colorful sunset!
5. Here stood Abraham Lincoln’s first home.
6. Down this narrow street can be found Betsy Ross’s house.
7. Does our vacation include the day of Washington’s Birthday?
8. Where was Marian Anderson born?
9. Here is the team’s football equipment.
10. Why didn’t you bring a note for your absence?
11. From the bakery came the mouthwatering smell of fresh bread.
12. Always put a collar with identification tags on your dog.
13. May I spend the money on a new tennis racket?
14. Down the stairs rushed the girl with her school books.
15. Does your sister baby-sit for the Martins?
17. Practice your free-throw shooting on your own.
18. Around the town square are planted hundreds of cherry trees.
19. Will you get here early with the food?
20. Never had she run so fast.
21. Camille, please wash the lettuce and the tomatoes for our salad.
22. Where are the nine planets of our solar system in relation to the sun?
23. Platters of appetizing food covered the long buffet table.
24. There is a corn picker in the Mitchells’ southernmost field.
25. Kevin, please bring a bucket of cool water for the horse.
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16. There is an old rowboat at the river landing.
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Identifying and Using Complements
Exercise A In each of the following sentences, a complement is printed in italics. In the
space above each complement, write PN for predicate nominative, PA for predicate adjective,
DO for direct object, or IO for indirect object.
EXAMPLE
PN
1. Independence Hall is an excellent example of Georgian architecture.
1. I mended the broken vase with glue.
2. A thoroughbred horse is often sensitive.
3. Sarah Vaughan was a famous jazz singer.
4. The mechanic showed us where the brakes were worn.
5. Lauro Cavazos became secretary of education in 1988.
6. Mrs. Jensen’s hobby became a profitable business.
7. Carl receives a high price for his ship models.
8. I often give the dog its bath on Saturday.
9. The younger children sometimes feel lonesome for a day or two.
10. Harpists don’t use their little fingers.
Exercise B Underline each complement in the following sentences. Then, in the space
above each complement, write PN for predicate nominative, PA for predicate adjective, or DO for
direct object. Note: A sentence may have more than one complement.
EXAMPLE
PN
1. Sand paintings are part of many Navajo ceremonies.
1. A few voters can change the outcome of an election.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
2. The new weather forecaster is my cousin!
3. A library contains the memories of the human race.
4. Traveler’s checks are acceptable almost anywhere in the world.
5. This television program brings a great university into your home.
6. Jennifer could have been the woman in the first act of the play.
7. Amtrak’s Metroliners speed passengers from Washington, D.C.,
to New York City in less than three hours.
8. The first television broadcasts were flickery and dim.
9. The dominant color in Gail’s painting is green.
10. The pork chow mein at this restaurant is delicious.
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WORKSHEET 6
Identifying Direct and Indirect Objects
Exercise In the following sentences, underline the direct objects once and any indirect
objects twice. Note: Not every sentence has an indirect object.
EXAMPLE
1. Lucy gave me that article by Daniel Garza.
1. The coach offered Diane a place on the team.
2. Valerie Brisco won three gold medals at the 1984 Olympics.
3. In Caddo tales, Coyote plays the role of the trickster.
4. The state gives a test to each new driver.
5. We then told Mrs. Rivera our side of the story.
6. Ms. Meyer gave herself the smallest portion of the pie.
7. The little girl carried a bouquet of flowers.
8. This course gives you an overall view.
9. The farmer showed us the best place to plant.
10. You can’t tell my brother anything about music.
11. Members of this club read books to persons who are visually impaired.
12. Mrs. Bondy handed the shopping list to her husband.
13. Did Mrs. Carney offer Jill another job yesterday?
14. You should give your speech more expression.
15. The dog found itself a warm place in the kitchen.
16. The Parents’ Club bought a videotape machine for the school.
17. The druggist sold me some sunblock.
18. A slight blur gives a picture the effect of real action.
20. Will you serve Mandarin pancakes with the Moo Shu chicken?
21. Jonathan, please offer Grandmother Lenz your chair.
22. A volcanic eruption throws lava, cinders, and ash into the air.
23. Would you please show me the pictures of your vacation?
24. Meteorologists can give us only short-term weather predictions.
25. At the banquet, the mayor presented the head of the chamber of commerce a plaque for
outstanding service.
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19. The Kings are selling Sonia their old car.
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WORKSHEET 7
Classifying Sentences by Purpose
Exercise A Classify each of the following sentences by purpose. On the line provided,
write DEC for declarative, IMP for imperative, INT for interrogative, or EXC for exclamatory.
EXAMPLEs
__IMP__ 1. Please hand me a sheet of blue construction paper.
__INT__ 2. Will we have time to eat dinner before the concert?
__________
1. The ancient Romans made combs, buttons, and hair ornaments from ivory.
__________
2. Have you heard the new Sarah McLachlan CD yet?
__________
3. Russell Wong is one of Andy’s favorite movie actors.
__________
4. What an incredible view of the beach we have!
__________
5. Fold each flier twice, and place it in an envelope.
__________
6. Somebody call the rescue squad right away!
__________
7. We spent several days of our vacation in Seattle.
__________
8. How far south do the Rocky Mountains extend?
__________
9. Turn left at the next intersection.
__________ 10. How beautiful New Hampshire is in the fall!
Exercise B Classify each sentence in the following paragraph by purpose. On the line
provided, write DEC for declarative, IMP for imperative, INT for interrogative, or EXC for
exclamatory.
EXAMPLE
[1] _DEC_ My neighbor, Ginny, showed me how to make scrapbooks
using three-ring binders.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
[1] _______ What a thoughtful and lovely gift a personalized, custom-made scrapbook can be!
[2] _______ Start with a standard three-ring binder that has clear plastic sleeves on the front and
back covers. [3] _______ The binder can be any thickness. [4] _______ Decorate the cover by
making collages or drawings and slipping them into the clear sleeves. [5] _______ Can you think of
a good theme to guide the artwork for your scrapbook? [6] _______ Next, fill the binder with highquality sheet protectors. [7] _______ These can be found at office supply stores and are the perfect
way to protect your paper mementos. [8] _______ Now you can arrange your photos, menus, ticket
stubs, greeting cards, and other items on a piece of paper or card stock. [9] _______ Tack them
down lightly with tape, and slip the page into the sheet protector. [10] _______ How creative can
you be with your layouts?
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WORKSHEET 8
Recognizing Simple, Compound, Complex, and
Compound-Complex Sentences
Exercise A Classify each of the following sentences by its structure. On the line provided,
write S if the sentence is a simple sentence and CD if it is a compound sentence.
EXAMPLEs
CD
1. We passed the street, but we failed to see the sign.
S
2. We passed the street but failed to see the sign.
__________
1. The waves pound the rocks and gradually break them up into sand.
__________
2. I don’t mind washing dishes, but I don’t like to scrape pots and pans.
__________
3. Chuck missed the throw, and Masako was safe on second base.
__________
4. The works of the artist Frank Day helped preserve the traditions of the Maidu
people.
__________
5. Should I save my money for college or buy a guitar?
__________
6. Justin prepared the batter, and Nalani made the tempura dip.
__________
7. The children removed their shoes and socks and waded in the pool.
__________
8. We hired painters to paint the house, but they didn’t do the job.
__________
9. The advertising must be truthful, or the newspaper will refuse it.
__________ 10. Please thank the members for attending and for bringing sandwiches.
Exercise B On the line provided, classify each of the following sentences according to its
structure. Use these abbreviations: S for simple sentence, CD for compound sentence, CX for
complex sentence, and CD-CX for compound-complex sentence.
EXAMPLEs
__S__ 1. The Maya built magnificent stone pyramids and placed
small temples on the summits.
__________
1. The Maya lived in Central America, and they built a remarkable civilization that
flourished from about A.D. 250 to 900.
__________
2. The Maya farmed and kept bees for honey.
__________
3. Their society included two million persons, and the king of each city governed
the commoners.
__________
4. The Maya achieved outstanding success in astronomy; they also developed an
advanced arithmetic.
__________
5. Although Mayan cities were centers for religious activity, they may have had no
permanent inhabitants.
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__CX__ 2. After the Maya built magnificent stone pyramids, they
placed small temples on the summits.
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WORKSHEET 9
Test
Exercise A Some of the following items are complete sentences, and some are sentence
fragments. If an item is a complete sentence, write S on the line provided and underline the
subject or subjects once and the verb or verbs twice. If the subject you is understood, write you in
parentheses after the sentence. Note: A subject or verb may be compound. If the item is a sentence
fragment, write F on the line provided.
EXAMPLEs
S
1. We rode the donkeys to the bottom of the canyon.
F
2. When the game went into overtime.
S
3. Please shut the door. (you)
__________
1. Vicki used a pair of heavy oven mitts to remove the casserole from the oven.
__________
2. Over her desk hangs a large, framed portrait of Virginia Woolf.
__________
3. In her first full year as a professional golfer, Nancy Lopez won nine tournaments.
__________
4. Making our costumes for the Halloween party on Saturday.
__________
5. My brother and his friends have been riding their bikes all afternoon.
__________
6. The kitten with its favorite toy, a little stuffed mouse.
__________
7. There is a book about India on the bottom shelf.
__________
8. Read The Good Earth or Dragon Seed by Pearl Buck.
__________
9. When Monica Seles won the French Open championship three years in a row.
__________ 10. Uncle Ted rose early and made breakfast for the whole family.
Exercise B Most of the following sentences contain at least one complement. Underline
each complement.Then, classify the complement(s) by writing, on the line provided, PN for
predicate nominative, PA for predicate adjective, DO for direct object, or IO for indirect object.
If a sentence does not have a complement, write NONE.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLEs
PN
NONE
1. Arlene has been a member of the debate team for two years.
2. We traveled to the island and back by ferry.
__________
1. Marion has read almost all of Yoshiko Uchida’s books.
__________
2. Julie bought Wynton Marsalis’s new CD at the music store in the mall.
__________
3. Both Zuri and her brother write for the school newspaper.
__________
4. Mr. Talbot will be the host of the awards ceremony.
__________
5. With a broad smile and an exuberant gesture, Neil handed his mother the gift.
__________
6. Wendy was happy to leave early.
__________
7. The bread on the top of the refrigerator looks rather moldy.
__________
8. Karli has made her aunt a beautiful ceramic vase as a birthday present.
Continued
Sentence Structure
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(continued)
9. By the end of the game, the relief pitcher had become the team hero.
__________ 10. Vicki Manalo Draves was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame
in 1969.
Exercise C
In each of the following sentences, underline the sentence part indicated
in italics.
EXAMPLE
direct object 1. My grandparents built their own house and lived
in it for forty-eight years.
complete subject
1. That man carrying the iguana on his shoulder is a friend of my father.
complete predicate
2. At the bookstore Melinda thumbed through Isak Dinesen’s
autobiography, Out of Africa.
predicate nominative
3. Mary Tyler Moore was the cofounder of MTM, a television production
company.
predicate adjective
4. The mushroom crêpes at this restaurant are always delicious.
direct object
5. Mandy has taken both dogs for a walk at the dog park.
indirect object
6. The manager sold Lucinda the bicycle helmet at a very reasonable price.
verb
7. Barbara Kimenye has written several collections of short stories, as
well as numerous children’s books.
predicate adjective
8. Roller disco, a combination of disco dancing and roller-skating,
became popular in the 1970s.
complete subject
9. The Melbourne Cup, an annual horse race in Australia, is attended by
racing fans from all over the world.
indirect object
10. The company president sent every employee an embossed invitation
to the Christmas party.
EXAMPLE
__DEC__ 1. Jonathan planted two trees on Arbor Day.
__________
1. How beautiful the hillside looks with all those wildflowers!
__________
2. Kristi’s family has two collies and a Shetland sheepdog.
__________
3. Shut the door right now!
__________
4. How many Emmy Awards has Oprah Winfrey won?
__________
5. Read Chapter 2, and answer questions 1 through 12.
Continued
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Exercise D Classify each of the following sentences by purpose. On the line provided,
write DEC for declarative, IMP for imperative, INT for interrogative, or EXC for exclamatory.
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Exercise E Classify each of the following sentences by structure. On the line provided,
write S for simple, CD for compound, CX for complex, or CD-CX for compound-complex.
EXAMPLE
__S__ 1. Mr.Tomlin moved to Portland, Maine, fifteen years ago and
has lived there ever since.
__________
1. Kabuki plays, which feature colorful costumes and spectacular scenery, are a
traditional form of Japanese drama.
__________
2. Did Scott Joplin, a leading composer of ragtime music, gain fame for “Maple Leaf
Rag” and other songs like it?
__________
3. All plants need water, but few plants grow well in soil that is poorly drained.
__________
4. Space shuttles carry artificial satellites into orbit around the earth and can
retrieve the satellites when they need repairs.
__________
5. Max wants to have the old desk refinished by a professional, but he has to save
the money first.
__________
6. Clay animation, or Claymation, is a type of puppet animation that uses figures
made of clay.
__________
7. This is a charming old house; however, it could use a bit of work.
__________
8. When lunch was finished, Aunt Lily helped us with the dishes, and then we all
piled into the car and headed for the lake.
__________
9. For some reason that I don’t quite understand, the computer will not let me
access the program I need.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
__________ 10. Please pick up Grandmother at the airport and then go immediately to the
church.
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9 Writing Complete Sentences
WORKSHEET 1
Identifying Sentence Fragments
Exercise In some of the following items, both word groups are complete sentences. In
other items, one word group is a complete sentence and one is a fragment that should be
connected to the sentence. If an item contains only complete sentences, write C on the line
provided. If an item contains a fragment, write F and underline the fragment.
EXAMPLEs
C
1. Phyllis answered the telephone. It was her mother.
F
2. I read the list of winners. Hoping to see my name.
______
1. We tried to find something unusual. That Lydia didn’t already have.
______
2. In the middle of the night. I thought that I heard footsteps.
______
3. Andy doesn’t have to look for jobs. Jobs come to him.
______
4. Beginning next semester. Each pupil must have two study periods.
______
5. I enjoyed hearing from you. And hope you will write again soon.
______
6. At the buffet we found samosas. An Indian appetizer.
______
7. Although he often struck out. Babe Ruth was a great hitter.
______
8. Sculptor José de Rivera has won numerous awards. His work can be found in major
American museums.
______
9. Being interested in astronomy. I have ordered a telescope.
______ 10. In comparison with the ancient buildings of Europe. Our oldest buildings are young.
______ 11. We spent three days at Virginia Beach. A famous ocean resort of the South.
______ 12. The musical tribute to Jelly Roll Morton was a great success. Everyone enjoyed the
program.
______ 13. Pupils may bring their own lunches. Or eat in the cafeteria.
______ 14. Their apartment is so neat. That I don’t feel comfortable in it.
______ 16. Bianca’s family will visit Wupatki National Monument.Where they will see prehistoric
Indian dwellings.
______ 17. The crocodile spends most of its time in the water. It often looks like a floating log.
______ 18. My parents always welcome my friends. And try to make them feel at home.
______ 19. We are now ready for our next step. Rinsing the film in water.
______ 20. Guessing people’s weights.Yvonne worked at our carnival.
______ 21. Basketball is a fast game.You have to make quick decisions.
______ 22. Whenever I try to show off my dog. He refuses to perform.
______ 23. This booklet lists all bridge terms. And explains their meanings.
______ 24. Ellen was walking with her visitor. A young man from France.
______ 25. Three songs on this CD feature the Hawaiian steel guitar. This instrument was
invented by Joseph Kekuku.
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______ 15. By the number of rings in a tree’s trunk.You can tell its age.
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WORKSHEET 2
Exercise A
DATE
Identifying and Correcting Sentence Fragments
On the line provided, label each item either F for fragment or S for sentence.
EXAMPLEs
F
1. Auditioning for Rudolfo Anaya’s play.
S
2. Jahi knows how to tune a piano.
__________
1. Which was generous pay for the job.
__________
2. The pay for the job was generous.
__________
3. For the first time in my life.
__________
4. Our ancestors’ first boat was undoubtedly a log.
__________
5. Intending to complete my essay in the morning.
__________
6. Because I had forgotten to set my alarm clock.
__________
7. Which seemed to me a very feeble excuse.
__________
8. The road being too narrow for turning around.
__________
9. As though he didn’t believe my story.
__________ 10. Hula dances tell stories.
Exercise B On the line provided before or after each fragment, write an independent
clause—with a subject and a verb—to which the fragment can be attached.
EXAMPLE
1. Living near a lake, the children often went swimming.
1. _______________________________________________ although I had never played tennis on
a hard court before.
2. Glancing over her test after she got it back from the teacher, ____________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
________________________________________________________________________________________.
3. Unless I get good grades, __________________________________________________________.
4. __________________________________________________________ by a very large majority.
5. Startled by the noise, ______________________________________________________________.
6. ____________________________________________, which is a fascinating game.
7. By the look on Koko’s face, ________________________________________________________.
8. Because Silvia was absent for the entire week we studied Shakespeare, ____________________
________________________________________________________________________________________.
9. ______________________________________________ hoping to meet my friend.
10. ______________________________________________ for the rest of the week.
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WORKSHEET 3
Making Complete Sentences
Exercise The following passage is not divided into sentences, only into paragraphs. Place end
punctuation and change lowercase letters to capitals at each point where one sentence ends and
another begins.You should have twenty sentences when you are finished.
When Texans declared their independence from Mexico in 1836, the Mexican government
sent an army under the command of General Santa Anna to subdue the rebels the army crossed the
Rio Grande and marched on San Antonio, where some of the Texans had taken over the Alamo, an
old Spanish mission on February 23, 1836, the Mexican forces, which numbered several thousand,
surrounded the old mission and laid siege to it.
Inside the Alamo, the Texan forces, which included the famous frontiersmen Jim Bowie and
Davy Crockett, were under the command of Colonel William Travis they intended to defend the
Alamo as long as they could so that General Sam Houston, the military leader of the Texas
rebellion, would have time to organize an army in order to survive inside the mission, the
defenders had laid in cattle and a supply of grain they also had a couple of dozen cannons, but
the fact that not everyone knew how to fire them limited the usefulness of the weapons.
Before dawn on the morning of March 6, 1836, thirteen days after the siege had begun, the
Mexican army stormed the Alamo no one knows for sure how long the attack lasted, but finally the
Mexican army broke through a hole in the wall of the mission’s courtyard and overwhelmed the
much smaller force of Texans Santa Anna ordered that no prisoners be taken, so all of the Alamo’s
defenders were killed, although fifteen women and children who had been living in the mission
survived.
The time Santa Anna lost in defeating the troops at the Alamo and the casualties his army
suffered, which were heavy, delayed the Mexicans long enough for General Houston to organize
the Texan forces six weeks after the battle at the Alamo, Santa Anna’s army was resting in open
country near the San Jacinto River General Houston’s army, which was somewhat smaller than
Santa Anna’s, surprised the Mexican troops in broad daylight and defeated them the Texans
captured Santa Anna, who agreed to recognize the independence of Texas and to return with his
troops to Mexico although no one can ever be sure, many believe that the defense of the Alamo by
Colonel Travis and his men made Texas independence possible.
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Colonel Travis realized that they could not hold out long on their own against the Mexican
army, so he sent a courier to ask for reinforcements a few more men came to the aid of the Texans
in the Alamo, but the total number of defenders came to only 184 some say that during the siege
Colonel Travis drew a line in the sand and said that anyone who was willing to stay and defend the
Alamo should step over the line, although others say that this never happened according to the
story, everyone in the Alamo but one stepped over the line Travis sent out two more couriers to
ask for help, but no one else was able to come to the Alamo’s aid.
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WORKSHEET 4
Identifying and Revising Run-on Sentences
Exercise a Some of the following items are run-on sentences. If an item is a run-on
sentence, write R on the line provided. If the item is a correct sentence, write C.
EXAMPLE
__R__ 1. Carmen will move this summer, her mother has been
transferred.
__________
1. They did not want to move, but Mrs. Evler received a promotion.
__________
2. When they move, the Evler family will be near San Francisco.
__________
3. A famous university is in Palo Alto, it offers many opportunities.
__________
4. Carmen may visit some California vineyards, they are very interesting.
__________
5. The family can also visit Hollywood, which offers many popular sights.
__________
6. Before it was part of the United States, California was a part of Mexico, it had
many Spanish-speaking settlers.
__________
7. The mission at San Juan Capistrano is famous; swallows return there every year on
the same date.
__________
8. There are also many citizens of Chinese ancestry, San Francisco’s Chinatown is
well known.
__________
9. The state has a diverse climate, there are mountains and deserts.
__________ 10. Do I wish I were moving to California, would I like it there?
Exercise b Some of the following items are run-on sentences. If an item is a run-on sentence,
revise it by rewriting it correctly on the line provided. If an item is already a correct sentence, write C
on the line.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLEs
1. Scientists use liters to measure the volume of a liquid. C
2. A liter can be divided into 1,000 equal parts, each part is a milliliter.
A liter can be divided into 1,000 equal parts. Each part is a milliliter. ____
1. The English system of measurement is used in the United States, it is not widely used elsewhere.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Most countries use the metric system scientists everywhere use it to record experiments.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Continued
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3. In order to do their experiments, scientists need a uniform system of measurement, the metric
system enables them to communicate easily with one another. ____________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. American students are taught the metric system, they use the system in their science classes.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Although learning a new system may seem confusing at first, it is necessary. ________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
6. We are used to measuring in quarts, pounds, and feet, therefore, we think this familiar system is
easier. ________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
7. Units of the metric system can be divided by ten, the system is easy to use. __________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
8. A meter can be divided into 100 equal parts, the word for each one of these parts is called a
centimeter, which comes from the Latin words for “hundred” and “measure.” ________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
9. If you compare an inch and a centimeter, you will see that an inch is equal to about 2-1/2
centimeters. ______________________________________________________________________
10. The English system measures weight in ounces and pounds the metric system measures it in
grams and kilograms. ________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 5
Test
Exercise A On the line provided, label each item using the following abbreviations: F for
fragment; C for correct sentence; R for run-on sentence.
EXAMPLE
__R__ 1. Dog-sitting is fun, it is quite a bit of work.
__________
1. Keeping the Sanchezes’ dog, Chula, while they are away.
__________
2. They have gone to Ohio, where they will visit their relatives.
__________
3. The dog belongs to Ruben his mother usually takes care of it.
__________
4. After the sudden storm swept in over the bay.
__________
5. The dog was frightened by the thunder, she hid under the table.
__________
6. I used a dog biscuit to coax her out into the open.
__________
7. The animal is too large to sit in my lap she tried to get very close.
__________
8. When the sky cleared and the sun finally came out.
__________
9. The dog barked fiercely at the letter carrier, who doesn’t like dogs.
__________ 10. The letter carrier left my letters in my neighbor’s mailbox, no one likes to be
bitten.
__________ 11. Actually, very gentle and sweet in spite of the bark.
__________ 12. After a few days, I fixed a run for Chula in the shady part of the back yard.
__________ 13. Becoming lost since she didn’t know the neighborhood.
__________ 14. It was very hot, therefore the animal lay in the shade and panted.
__________ 15. I hadn’t realized that taking care of a dog was so much work.
__________ 16. Thinking twice about offering to dog-sit again.
__________ 17. They came back a day early I felt relieved.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
__________ 18. Chula is really a nice dog, and I shouldn’t complain.
__________ 19. I thought I wanted to own a dog, now I’m not so sure.
__________ 20. After I had fed and walked and groomed one for a week.
Exercise B On the lines provided, rewrite the following paragraphs to correct the
fragments and run-on sentences. Change the punctuation and capitalization wherever necessary.
EXAMPLE
When Heinrich Schliemann excavated a great mound of earth at Troy.
He found the ruins of nine cities.
When Heinrich Schliemann excavated a great mound of earth at Troy, he_____
found the ruins of nine cities.
Continued
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A number of ancient cities have been discovered. Completely buried many feet below the
surface of the ground. Since no one deliberately buries a city. We wonder by what process this
happens. The explanation is very simple in the case of Pompeii, an ancient Roman city. Vesuvius
erupted in A.D. 79, it poured masses of lava and ashes over the doomed city. However, such a fate
was unusual. Most buried cities were covered up by a more gradual process. Which may have taken
thousands of years.__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Nowadays when a building is torn down. Powerful trucks haul the rubble away before new
construction is started. In ancient times, however, people found it simpler to build right on top of
the rubble. Using some of the old material in the new structure. Consequently, the new structure
was at a higher level than the previous one. Often an entire city was destroyed by war, fire, or
flood, then the new city would be built on the ruins of the old. Thus the level of a city grew higher.
As time went on. Some cities were deserted because of epidemics, lack of water, or fear of
enemies. After many years, buildings would begin to collapse as a result of neglect and the effects
of wind and rain. Huge amounts of sand might be deposited by strong winds from the desert,
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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sometimes the surrounding jungle would close in, hiding the buildings for many years.
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WORKSHEET 1
Using Adjectives, Adverbs, and Prepositional
Phrases to Combine Sentences
Exercise Combine each of the following groups of sentences into one smooth sentence.
Use adjectives, adverbs, or prepositional phrases to make the combinations.
EXAMPLE
1. We wait for the announcement.
We wait impatiently.
The announcement is important. We wait impatiently for the important
announcement.
1. The river flows from the lake.
It flows northward.
It flows into the city. ______________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Dams on the river create water power.
The water power is for the paper mills.
The paper mills are along the river’s banks. ______________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Wood pulp is obtained.
The wood pulp is for making paper.
It is obtained from many kinds of trees. ________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Tiny fibers are mixed with water and squeezed.
The tiny fibers are wood fibers.
They are squeezed between rollers. ________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Paper made from wood pulp is used for newspapers.
It is used for paper towels.
It is used for other inexpensive papers. ________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 2
Using Participial Phrases to Combine Sentences
Exercise Using at least one participial phrase, combine each of the following groups of
sentences. Note: Be sure to place the participial phrase near the word it modifies.
EXAMPLE
1. The cat was frightened by the storm.
It hid under the sofa.
Frightened by the storm, the cat hid under the sofa.
1. My father found my name on the honor roll.
He was reading the newspaper. ______________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. The fans were stamping their feet and clapping.
They called the singing group back for an encore. ______________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Cars were parked on the street during street-cleaning hours.
They were given tickets by the police. ________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. The words of the song inspired me.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. The hotel is a traveler’s paradise.
It overlooks the Adriatic Sea. ________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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They were composed by Stevie Wonder. ______________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 3
Using Participial Phrases to Combine Sentences
Exercise Using at least one participial phrase, combine each of the following groups of
sentences. Note: Be sure to place the participial phrase near the word it modifies.
EXAMPLE
1. She picked up the magazine.
She looked for the article on financial aid for college.
Picking up the magazine, she looked for the article on
financial aid for college.
1. Alan delivered his oral report.
It compared American and British movies. ______________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Cynthia Kadohata writes popular stories about family relationships.
She draws from her own experiences. ________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. The commuter train crept into the station.
The train was loaded with passengers. ________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
4. Ella Fitzgerald became famous for her scat singing.
Ella Fitzgerald is considered one of the best vocalists in jazz history. ________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Reynold returned the package.
The package was filled with broken parts.
Reynold asked for a refund. __________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 4
Using Participial Phrases to Combine Sentences
Exercise A Combine each of the following pairs of sentences by changing one sentence
into a participial phrase and inserting it into the other sentence.
EXAMPLE
1. Madeleine Albright took charge of the U.S. State Department in 1997. She
became the first woman to serve as secretary of state.
Taking charge of the U.S. State Department in 1997, Madeleine Albright
became the first woman to serve as secretary of state.
1. Sharks are carnivorous. They live mainly on other fish. __________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Ruben had the evening free. He offered to baby-sit for our neighbors. ______________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. The attendance varies. It depends on the interest in the game. ____________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. The dog suffered from the heat. It lay quietly on the floor near the fan. ____________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. I spent several hours in the library. I looked up material on careers. ________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Exercise B Combine each of the following pairs of sentences by changing one sentence
into a participial phrase and inserting it into the other sentence.
EXAMPLE
1. Kachinas are carved wooden dolls.They are given to Hopi children to
teach them about ancestral spirits.
Kachinas are carved wooden dolls given to Hopi children to teach them ____
1. The class visited a bank. They were accompanied by their teacher.
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. I found my report card. It was buried under a pile of newspapers.
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. The trout were broiled over a charcoal fire. They had a wonderful flavor.
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. The article was written hastily. It contained many inaccuracies.
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. The Vikings crossed the Atlantic Ocean in open boats. The boats were propelled by sails and oars.
____________________________________________________________________________________
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about ancestral spirits. __________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 5
Using Appositives and Appositive Phrases to
Combine Sentences
Exercise Using appositives or appositive phrases, combine each of the following groups of
sentences into one sentence.
EXAMPLE
1. Only one course meets during this period.
It is journalism.
Only one course, journalism, meets during this period._
__________________
1. I set up an appointment with my guidance counselor.
She is Ms. Kosky. ______________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. I have scheduled three elective classes.
They are journalism, American history, and chemistry. ____________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Calle Ocho is held annually in Miami.
Calle Ocho is a festival celebrating Latin American culture and heritage. ____________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. The committee decided to cancel the field trip.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
The field trip was a tour of Baker’s Museum. ____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Just inside the doors there is a large abstract sculpture.
It was a gift from the school’s alumni. ________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 6
Using Appositives and Appositive Phrases to
Combine Sentences
Exercise Using appositives or appositive phrases, combine each of the following groups of
sentences into one sentence.
EXAMPLE
1. The author of the story came to speak at the university.
The author of the story was Alice Walker.
The author of the story, Alice Walker, came to speak at the university.
1. The Chinese have given the world many inventions.
The Chinese are a people with a rich and varied culture. __________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. A popular sport today is soccer.
Soccer is a game with two teams of eleven players each. __________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Solar cells and solar furnaces generate electricity.
Solar cells and solar furnaces are a unique answer to energy needs. ________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Anna Howard Shaw helped to found the women’s rights movement.
Anna Howard Shaw was a Methodist preacher.
Anna Howard Shaw was a doctor. ________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. The party-goers were waiting at the street light.
The party-goers were men in baseball uniforms.
The party-goers were women in astronaut gear. __________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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Anna Howard Shaw was a teacher.
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WORKSHEET 7
Using Subjects, Verbs, and Independent Clauses
to Combine Sentences
Exercise Combine each of the following groups of sentences by using a compound subject
or a compound verb or by writing a compound sentence. Make sure the verbs in your combined
sentences agree with their subjects.
EXAMPLE
1. Mr. Lewis is building the campfire.
His daughter is building the campfire.
Mr. Lewis and his daughter are building the campfire. _____________________
1. Balsams make good Christmas trees.
Douglas firs have also proved quite popular. ____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Some Christmas trees are cut in October.
They are loaded on big trucks. ________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Coal-burning factories may pollute the air.
Solar energy has no known polluting effects. __________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
4. The city formerly dumped its garbage in landfills.
This practice caused air pollution. ____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. To help control the pollution, the city covered the trash with dirt.
The city planted grass seed. __________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 8
Using Subjects, Verbs, and Independent Clauses to
Combine Sentences
Exercise Combine each of the following groups of sentences by using a compound subject
or a compound verb or by writing a compound sentence. Make sure the verbs in your combined
sentences agree with their subjects.
EXAMPLE
1. Mr. Tokagi grows bonsai trees.
He also tends an ornamental garden.
Mr. Tokagi grows bonsai trees and tends an ornamental garden.
1. Local citizens enjoy the Polynesian Cultural Center on Oahu and visit it often.
Tourists enjoy it, too.
Tourists visit it often. ______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Air pollution can harm city trees.
Neglect can harm them also. __________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Mrs. Hattie Carthen did not like to watch city trees die.
Her friends did not like this either. ________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. The sun dance was originally performed to give thanks.
Today the sun dance has a different meaning for each of the Plains Indian peoples. __________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. The Arapaho have long performed the sun dance.
The Cree have long performed the sun dance.
Other native peoples have also performed it. ______________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 9
Using Adjective Clauses to Combine Sentences
Exercise Combine each of the following pairs of sentences by changing one sentence into
an adjective clause and inserting it into the other sentence. Use the relative pronouns who, whom,
whose, which, and that.
EXAMPLE
1. Elizabeth Blackwell was the first woman to earn a degree from a medical
school in the United States. She was born in England in 1821. Elizabeth
Blackwell, who was born in England in 1821, was the first woman to earn a
degree from a medical school in the United States.
1. Elizabeth Blackwell wanted to practice medicine.
It was an unusual career for a woman in 1847. __________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Many physicians objected to Blackwell’s goal.
These physicians thought that women should not become doctors. ________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. In the Civil War, Elizabeth Blackwell proved her ability.
During the war she helped train thousands of nurses. ____________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Female doctors had to meet tough standards.
Blackwell trained these women in her school. ____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Blackwell’s belief changed the way doctors thought about medical treatment standards.
Her belief was that prevention is as important as cure. ____________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 10
Using Adjective Clauses to Combine Sentences
Exercise Combine each of the following pairs of sentences by changing one sentence into
an adjective clause and inserting it into the other sentence. Use the relative pronouns who, whom,
whose, which, and that.
EXAMPLE
1. The shiba inu is a small dog. It was once used by the Japanese for hunting.
The shiba inu is a small dog that was once used by the Japanese for hunting.
1. Dismal Swamp contains many animals. It lies in Virginia and North Carolina. ________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. The movie is a thriller. It is based on a true spy story. ____________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. The guinea pig is a member of the rodent order. It is not a pig at all. ________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. The mountain laurel has glossy leaves. They are poisonous when eaten. ____________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Rita saw the lightning strike. She was standing at the window. ______________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
6. The word oua-oua is French. It means “bowwow.” ________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
7. Sail and sale sound the same but have different meanings. They are called homophones.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
8. The word kosher is a Hebrew word meaning “fit” or “proper.” It usually refers to food.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
9. The crowd cheered Carrie. Her hit had won the game. ____________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
10. Count Basie influenced the “bop” and “cool” styles of jazz. These styles developed during the 1940s.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 11
Using Adverb Clauses to Combine Sentences
Exercise Combine each of the following pairs of sentences by changing one sentence
into an adverb clause and inserting it into the other sentence. Be sure to use a subordinating
conjunction that makes sense in your sentence.
EXAMPLE
1. I can begin the race. I must tighten my shoelaces.
Before I can begin the race, I must tighten my shoelaces.
1. Sammy Lee made history. He won gold medals in diving in two consecutive Olympics. __________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. You have completed this job application. Mail it in. ______________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Roberta has not yet written a thank-you note to Eloise. Eloise sent her a birthday present. ____
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Juan works on his homework in the morning. He comes to school. ________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. We were in the supermarket. Someone tripped over a basket and fell. ______________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
6. Wendy bought a new scarf in the fall. She wasn’t sure that she needed it. __________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
7. You want a different kind of cereal. You must write the name on the shopping list. __________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
8. Irene takes piano lessons every week. She wants to improve her skill. ______________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
9. Steve collects political buttons for any campaign. He can find them. ________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
10. Mr. and Mrs. Hena toured the Junipero Serra Museum. They were in San Diego. ______________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 12
Using Noun Clauses to Combine Sentences
Exercise Combine each of the following pairs of sentences by changing one sentence into
a noun clause and inserting it into the other sentence.The hints in parentheses will tell you how to
begin the noun clause.
EXAMPLE
1. Someone is knocking on my door. I don’t know the person.
( Use who.) I don’t know who is knocking on my door.
1. Can we get to the National Museum of African Art from here? I forgot to ask how. ( Use how.)
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Pilar’s father speaks four languages. I found out when I went to her house for dinner. ( Use
that.) ______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. The moon causes the tide to rise and fall. Most people know this fact. ( Use that.) ____________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. We lost the game. There is only one explanation for this fact. ( Use why.) ____________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. The shoppers had parked their cars somewhere in the mall’s parking lot. They couldn’t
remember the location. ( Use where.) ____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
6. Who has been elected class president? Mr. Clark asked me this question. ( Use who.)
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
8. The muumuu was introduced in Hawaii by early missionaries. Our hostess told us this fact.
( Use that.) ________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
9. Dangerous pollutants could have been fouling the air. We wanted to know. ( Use how.)
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
10. Susie Maroney had swum from Cuba to Florida. I could not believe it. ( Use that.) ____________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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7. Banks pay interest on savings accounts. How they do so is baffling to me. ( Use how.) ________
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WORKSHEET 13
Using Parallel Structure
Exercise a Most of the following sentences are out of balance because they lack parallel
structure. On the lines provided, rewrite each sentence, giving it parallel structure. If a sentence
already has parallel structure, write C.
EXAMPLE
1. Being compassionate and because she knows a lot about animals,
Jessica will make a good veterinarian. Because she is compassionate_
and knows a lot about animals, Jessica will make a good veterinarian.______
1. Rafael delivered his speech with confidence and enthusiastically. __________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. In 1923 Garrett Morgan patented a traffic light with red, yellow, and green lights that looked
very different from today’s traffic lights. ________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Mrs. Shapiro had heard about the new hockey league but not that there would be a team
in Greensboro. ____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. The selection at the downtown CD store is better than going to the mall. __________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. I have traveled by bus, by train, and by subway, but never by boat. ____________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
6. Thelma likes playing the clarinet, to march in the band, and watching the football games.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
7. The advertisement claims that this toothpaste kills more germs and prevents more cavities
than any other toothpaste. __________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Continued
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(continued)
8. My friend Ray is loyal, fun-loving, and shows kindness to everyone. ________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
9. The doctor told Uncle Lawrence that he should eat more healthful foods and to start an
exercise program. __________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
10. I want a new lathe, a good workbench, and to have enough time to finish making the table.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Exercise b Below each of the following incomplete sentences are two expressions.
Complete each sentence by choosing the expression that makes the sentence parallel. On the line
provided, write the letter (a or b) of the expression you choose.
EXAMPLE
1. A volcano is an opening in the earth’s crust through which
a. lava, rocks, ashes,
and gases escape
a
.
b. it throws rocks and
ashes, and lava and
gases escape
1. Volcanoes have inspired both fascination and _____.
a. people feared them
throughout history
b. fear in people throughout
history
a. partially by our inability to
control them
b. partially because we are unable
to control them
3. Not only are volcanoes very destructive, _____.
a. they provide benefits
b. they also can be very beneficial
4. Lava rock is used in building roads, and _____.
a. pumice, a glass that comes
from lava, is used for
grinding and polishing
materials
b. they use pumice, a glass
that comes from lava, for
grinding and polishing
materials
5. Countries with many volcanoes, such as Italy, Mexico, and New Zealand, use underground
steam as a source of energy, and _____.
a. homes in Reykjavik,
Iceland, are heated with
water from volcanic hot
springs
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b. Reykjavik, Iceland, uses water
from volcanic hot springs to
heat homes
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
2. This fear is caused partially by our lack of understanding of the causes of volcanoes
and _____.
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WORKSHEET 14
Rewriting Stringy and Wordy Sentences
Exercise A Most of the following sentences are either stringy or wordy. On the lines
provided, rewrite each sentence to make it less stringy or wordy. If a sentence does not need
improving, write C. Some sentences may be rewritten as two sentences.
EXAMPLE
1. My brother’s chemistry kit has a number of confusing directions, and
they are hard to understand. _My brother’s chemistry kit has a number of
confusing directions._
1. Earline walked into the clothing store, and she saw a blouse, and she really liked it, so she tried
it on. ______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. We woke up early, and we watched the sunrise from the balcony, and then we took a long
walk on the beach, and it was relaxing. ____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. The singer I like most and who is my favorite singer is Céline Dion. ________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Quanah Parker was a Comanche chief who led his people against white settlers to try to save
the buffalo. __________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Mr. Sanders manages a hardware store, and he usually enjoys his work, but one thing he
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
doesn’t like is taking inventory. ______________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
6. The basketball team is made up of very talented, hard-working players who are very good
players and practice hard. ____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
7. What I need to tell you is that the debate team has now won five consecutive debate
tournaments in a row. ______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Continued
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(continued)
8. The grocery store, badly damaged by the tornado, had to be closed for two months. __________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
9. The temperature was a boiling ninety degrees, and this was in the shade, and we were very
uncomfortable all afternoon. __________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
10. I wonder if you would direct me to the facility that loans out books to members of the public.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Exercise B Most of the sentences in the following paragraph are wordy. On the lines
provided, rewrite the paragraph to make it more concise.
EXAMPLE
1. From time to time throughout the year, we should take some time from
our busy schedules to think about the meaning of what patriotism
means to each of us.
1. From time to time, we should think about the meaning of patriotism.
Patriotism has existed in many countries throughout the world, and it has existed for many
centuries of time. If you take a close look at the culture of a country, you surely will find many
examples of patriotism.This patriotism is shown by many paintings by artists of the leaders of
different countries and of historical events in those countries, by the many songs written by
composers praising the different countries, by the many works of literature written to praise a
country or its activities, and by slogans created to show support for certain movements during
of a country by encouraging emotional ties to the people, the government, and the customs of
that country. ____________________________________________________________________________
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times of stress such as war and revolution.The influence of patriotism can increase the strength
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WORKSHEET 15
Varying Sentence Structures and Sentence
Beginnings
Exercise The following paragraph consists of simple sentences constructed in the basic
subject-verb pattern. On the lines provided, revise the paragraph, varying sentence structures and
sentence beginnings to make the writing smoother and livelier.
EXAMPLE
I go see the fireworks with my family every Fourth of July. This year was no
exception. Every Fourth of July I go see the fireworks with my family, and this
year was no exception.
Mom packed cheese, crackers, grapes, and iced tea to take to the park. I helped her.We picked
up my friend Emily on our way to the park.We got to the park.We found a nice level spot and
spread out the blankets. Emily and I munched cheese and crackers. Mom and Dad played word
games to pass the time. The band finally began to play. They played a medley of patriotic tunes.
They began to play the beginning of “God Bless America.” The fireworks began. The splashes of
color and constantly changing designs were beautiful against the black sky. The grand finale
mesmerized us all.We gathered our food and blankets and headed for home.We would always
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
remember the inspiring music, the crackling sounds, and the “oohs” and “aahs” of the crowd.
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WORKSHEET 16
Test
Exercise A Combine each of the following pairs of sentences by changing the italicized
sentence into the kind of phrase or clause specified in parentheses. On the lines provided, rewrite
the combined sentences, using correct capitalization and punctuation.
EXAMPLE
1. The Temple of Artemis was one of the most complicated temples. This
temple was built in ancient times. (past participial phrase) The Temple of_
Artemis was one of the most complicated temples built in ancient times.
1. Only one wonder of the ancient world survives today. This is a sad fact. (noun clause)
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. The first wonder of the ancient world is a group of pyramids. They still stand in Egypt.
(present participial phrase) __________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. The second wonder is often listed as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. They were supposedly
constructed around 600 B.C. (adjective clause) __________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. They were laid out on terraces on top of a building. The gardens stood above the ground.
(past participial phrase) ____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
participial phrase) ______________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
6. The fourth wonder, the beautiful Temple of Artemis, was destroyed in A.D. 262. The Goths
invaded. (adverb clause beginning with when) __________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Continued
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5. The third wonder was a 40-foot statue of Zeus. It was made of solid gold and ivory. (past
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(continued)
7. The British Museum owns fragments of the fifth wonder. It was a huge tomb in Asia Minor
built by a queen for her dead husband. (adjective clause) ______________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
8. The statue of Helios called the Colossus of Rhodes took twelve years to build. It took only
one earthquake in 224 B.C. to destroy it. (adverb clause beginning with although)
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
9. The seventh wonder was a great lighthouse. It was built off the coast of Egypt in the third
century B.C. (past participial phrase) __________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
10. Our teacher told us this. The Grand Canyon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Exercise B For each item below, combine the sentences, and write your combined
sentence on the lines provided. Add punctuation where necessary.
EXAMPLE
1. Gustav Holst was a composer.
He was British.
He wrote a suite for orchestra.
The suite was called The Planets.
Gustav Holst was a British composer who wrote a suite for orchestra called
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
The Planets.__
__
1. Sophomores consult the guidance department.
They consult the department regularly.
They receive information.
The information covers career choices. ________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Continued
Writing Effective Sentences
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(continued)
2. Walden is a book.
It is by Henry David Thoreau.
It tells about a year.
The year was spent in a cabin.
The cabin was near Walden Pond. ____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Galen was a famous physician.
He lived during the second century.
He added to our knowledge of the body.
He discovered facts about the arteries, the brain, and the nervous system. __________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Spinach is a hardy plant.
It originated in Asia.
It thrives in cool weather.
Spinach is rich in vitamins A and C.
It is also rich in iron. ________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
The paper had unfolded.
The paper was scattered around the yard.
The paper was scattered in pieces. ____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Continued
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5. The afternoon paper had been thrown carelessly by the news carrier.
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Exercise C On the lines provided, revise the following paragraph to improve the style. Fix
any stringy or wordy sentences and vary sentence structures and beginnings.
EXAMPLE
We moved into our new house.We had a painting party. Three of my parents’
friends came to the party, and so did my stepsister and her husband, Arturo, and
it was hard work, but it was fun, too.
When we moved into our new house, we had a painting party. Three of my parents’___
friends came to the party, along with my stepsister and her husband, Arturo. It
was hard work, but it was fun, too.
The party that began early on Saturday afternoon was continuing until seven in the evening.We
treated our guests to lunch first.The lunch was sandwiches and vegetable soup.We moved all the
furniture to the middle of the living room.We were careful.We covered the floor with dropcloths.
Each person had a specific job to do that was the certain job assigned to them. Mom and her
friend Sylvia used the roller on the walls, for instance. Arturo and I painted the trim.We finished
painting in about three hours, and Dad ordered pizza for everyone, and then we all relaxed and
had a good time together. I was exhausted but with a feeling of satisfaction and accomplishment
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
and having done a good job. ____________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 1
Exercise A
DATE
Using Capital Letters Correctly
In this exercise, circle each lowercase letter that should be a capital letter.
EXAMPLE
[1] Last night I read several walt whitman poems.
[1] dear Russell,
[2] it has taken me weeks to respond to your letter, and i apologize. [3] i guess i have been too
busy studying for my english test and reading the book of poems you sent. [4] thank you, o kind
one, for such a perfect gift. [5] so far, i think my favorite is the robert Frost poem that begins “whose
woods these are i think i know.” [6] would you believe i’ve read that one over and over again?
[7] Vernon and elizabeth are fine, but oh, how they miss you. [8] so do i, of course. [9] i hope
your family will be coming back to St. Paul for a visit soon.
[10]
your friend,
Sarah
Exercise B In the following letter, circle each lowercase letter that should be a capital and
draw a line through each capital letter that should be lowercase.
EXAMPLE
[1] we are having a great Vacation in the rocky mountains.
[1] dear Connie,
[2] I am having the most fantastic Summer! as you know, the Swanson Family and we three
Wrights decided to drive from chicago to colorado in the Swansons’ van. [3] when we got to
denver, we had to reset our watches because colorado is on mountain daylight time. [4] after a
[5] when we crossed the Continental Divide, i was excited. [6] This is the ridge of the Rockies that
separates rivers flowing west to the Pacific from rivers flowing East to the atlantic. [7] for my
favorite place, I think i’d choose the rocky mountain national Park. [8] that’s where we saw all sorts
of Wildlife and where we got to try fly-fishing for Trout! [9] we’re On the Road back now, but i’ll
mail this when we get to the next Town.
[10]
your friend,
Morgan
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couple of days in what people call the “mile high city,” we headed to the beautiful, cool Mountains.
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Capitalization
11Capitalizing
Proper Nouns, School Subjects,
WORKSHEET 2
and Titles
Exercise For the following sentences, correct each error in capitalization by drawing a line
through the lowercase letter and writing the capital letter above it. Some sentences do not require
capitals.
EXAMPLE
M
L
F
C
1. We have a cottage on moon lake in franklin county.
1. Coretta scott king is president of the king center in atlanta, georgia.
2. Several radio stations in los angeles broadcast daily in spanish.
3. Doctor daniel hale williams helped improve medical opportunities for african americans.
4. Is the latin class at the community college taught by professor acevedo?
5. Several inviting lakes and parks are within easy reach of our city.
6. On the weekends sofia helps mr. nakano in his garden.
7. A number of chinese christians worship at the first united methodist church.
8. Start at glen park and travel north on curtis avenue.
9. The librarian gave me a list of books by asian authors.
10. Most of the students found art class very worthwhile.
11. Great numbers of swedes and norwegians emigrated to the northwest.
12. The population of India includes people of the muslim, hindu, and sikh religions.
13. Does the restaurant on quincy street specialize in italian foods?
14. Ulani and luisa will be taking algebra II and biology.
15. The ohio river is one of many rivers that flow into the mississippi.
16. The last queen of hawaii was lydia kamekeha liliuokalani.
17. The panama canal was started by the french but completed by the americans.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
18. Do the chief mountain ranges of our continent run north to south or east to west?
19. The people of puerto rico are american citizens.
20. This caribbean island was discovered by christopher columbus in 1493.
21. Are you going to take introduction to computers I and beginning chemistry next year?
22. We celebrate the anniversary of the adoption of the declaration of independence with the
fourth of july holiday.
23. Is doctor irma martin a family physician or a specialist?
24. Please set the recorder for 7:00–10:00 P.M. central daylight time to videotape the pbs program
on the civil war.
25. When you went to new york, did you see the statue of liberty and the empire state building?
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WORKSHEET 3
Using Capitals Correctly
Exercise A For the following sentences, correct each error in capitalization by drawing a
line through the lowercase letter and writing the capital letter above it.
EXAMPLE
B
B
B
N
B
T
S
1. The better business bureau is in the nash building on third street.
1. The Ward memorial church is the only lutheran church on Pierson boulevard.
2. Does the Northville power company buy its gas from a canadian company?
3. The Hillside hospital has a chapel equipped for catholic, protestant, and jewish religious services.
4. After easter the Rufferts plan to tour the south in their new honda.
5. The colonists who signed the declaration of independence would have been arrested as
traitors by the british if the american revolution had failed.
6. The Wilsons recently visited the george washington carver national monument in missouri.
7. The Pacific ocean is over six-and-one-half miles deep near the Philippine islands.
8. The purpose of the expedition by Lewis and Clark was to chart a path to the Pacific coast
through lands acquired in the Louisiana purchase.
9. Did you know that the 1964 nobel peace prize was awarded to martin luther king, jr.?
10. Civil War soldiers from both the north and the south are buried in Arlington national cemetery.
11. Chicago’s north michigan avenue reminds me of New York’s fifth avenue.
12. The Superior appliance company is offering a year’s supply of jiffy soap with each apex
washer purchased during the month of march.
13. The Kansas historical society will show a color film of the great european cathedrals built
during the middle ages.
14. The first ten amendments to the constitution are known as the bill of rights.
16. On Saint patrick’s day, New York city police officers march in the parade.
17. The oldest known Inuit site is in the aleutian islands, across the bering strait from asia.
18. Did you know that the Atlas theater features french, chinese, and other foreign films?
19. Our high school opens in september right after labor day.
20. The space probe pioneer 11 arrived at the planet saturn in 1979 and was renamed pioneer-saturn.
Exercise B For the following sentences, correct each error in capitalization by drawing a
line through the lowercase letter and writing the capital letter above it.
EXAMPLE
TM
A
A
1. Patsy t. mink was the first asian american woman to serve in Congress.
1. Please welcome tonight’s speaker, professor Evelyn Shaw of Ohio state university.
Continued
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15. In september 1992, astronaut mae jemison made an eight-day flight on the spacecraft endeavor.
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(continued)
2. Neal Stephenson’s novel snow crash is an acclaimed science-fiction fantasy.
3. Standing thirty miles off the shore of lake Superior, the lighthouse at Stannard rock is
maintained by the national data buoy center.
4. Our high school library has a framed letter from the white house, written by Eleanor Roosevelt
during world war II.
5. The Ace appliance company in the Gardner building is having a sale on the following brandname appliances: speedo washers, whirlwind vacuum cleaners, and globe television sets.
6. The famous venezuelan pianist Teresa Carreño performed Edvard Grieg’s piano concerto with
the Philadelphia orchestra in April 1901.
7. All my uncles, aunts, and cousins plan to attend my grandmother and grandfather’s wedding
anniversary celebration the first sunday in june.
8. As I beheld the grand canyon in arizona for the first time, a sense of the majestic power of
nature swept over me.
9. Our textbook has a copy of a painting by the french artist Marc Chagall; it shows a jewish
wedding procession in a russian village.
10. Nancy Bergman, a graduate of the Curtis institute, will play one of Liszt’s “hungarian
rhapsodies” with the Lewiston symphony orchestra next friday in the auditorium of the King
high school.
11. Is the capital of north carolina raleigh or durham?
12. The desert area known as death valley extends into both california and nevada.
13. The netherlands, belgium, and luxembourg are known as the low countries.
14. The new testament of the bible tells of the life and teachings of Jesus and his disciples.
15. My spanish teacher, Mr. Montoya, studied in madrid, spain, this summer.
16. Did you know that the secret service is a part of the U.S. treasury department?
17. The author of the poem “the raven” is Edgar Allan Poe.
18. My dad drove aunt Lois, my sister, and cousin Larry to springfield today.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
19. Has professor Murphy seen the painting mona lisa at the Louvre?
20. The robotic planetary rover sojourner, which explored Mars, is about the size of a microwave
oven.
21. Did you know that kristen named her new Dalmatian puppy “fireman”?
22. The corn belt region of the midwest extends from western ohio to kansas and nebraska.
23. Much of Kathryn’s family lives in East baton rouge parish in louisiana.
24. Tim O’Brien’s short story “where have you gone, charming billy?” focuses on a young soldier’s
feelings about combat.
25. The lake of the woods is a large lake, extending from canada into the united states.
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WORKSHEET 4
Test
Exercise In the following letter, correct the errors in capitalization by drawing a line through
each incorrect letter and writing the correct form above it. Some capitals need to be changed to
lowercase letters and some lowercase letters to capitals. Not every item contains an error.
EXAMPLE
N
O
m
L
[1] new orleans is the birthplace of the jazz Musician louis Armstrong.
[1] Dear edwin,
[2] When we returned from the Rackham theater monday night, we found “Aunt”Ada on our
porch with her suitcase, which had stickers from Mammoth Cave and Mexico city.
[3] She has much to tell about New Orleans, where she spent two weeks this fall. [4] She
especially enjoyed All Saints’ Day, which is celebrated on November 1. [5] when I asked her why
she didn’t prefer to visit the city during Mardi Gras, she said that she plans to return to enjoy those
festivities also. [6] Next time, she might ride the train known as the city of New Orleans.
[7] She apparently saw many of the sights around there—the French Quarter, Audubon park,
Tulane university, and Lake Pontchartrain. [8] While visiting the city’s famous Saint Louis Cathedral,
she met an elderly Catholic Priest, father Pernet, who proved to be an Encyclopedia of unusual
information about the early history of the city. [9] He told her that many people from different
ethnic groups live in New orleans, including African americans, Irish Americans, and Creoles.
[10] She is still opposed to movies and urged us not to take six-year-old Jerry to see Fire On
Wheels, even though Cyclist magazine listed it as suitable for young children. [11] Just as Jerry was
about to protest, she produced a handful of little gifts from one of the Royal street antique shops.
a “real”Aunt? [13] Her husband, captain Carey, was a great friend of my Mother’s father from their
boyhood days when they used to fish for Catfish on the Mississippi River.
[14] By the way, does this letter smell of rhubarb? [15] Aunt Ada is still convinced that Rhubarb
is the tonic that keeps her young, and we are eating it with her at every meal. [16] If we served her
cauliflower, she would phone amtrak to find out when the next train leaves for the good old south.
[17] My family is calling me to join them on aunt Ada’s daily sightseeing tour, which is to include
Greenfield Village and the Ford Motor Company, not far from the village. [18] Write me when you can.
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[19]
sincerely,
[20]
Jane
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
[12] Have I ever told you that not until I was in High School did I realize that Aunt Ada wasn’t
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WORKSHEET 1
Exercise A
EXAMPLE
Using End Marks
Insert an appropriate end mark at the end of each of the following sentences.
?
1. Where is the nearest reputable breeder of English springer spaniels
1. August Wilson, a leading playwright, won Pulitzer Prizes in 1987 and 1990
2. Please be careful as you step onto the escalator
3. Did you do much reading and research before you set up your aquarium
4. My older brother, Fernando, has taken several computer engineering classes at the
community college
5. What an incredible poet Anne Sexton is
6. Please get out of the way
7. What time of year is best for planting broccoli
8. Set the thermostat at sixty-eight degrees, and keep it there
9. What kinds of trees are found on the lower slopes of the Southern Rockies
10. My uncle Dwayne’s CD collection includes a broad selection of reggae music
Exercise B Proofread the following sentences for the correct use of end marks. Insert end
marks at the ends of sentences and periods after abbreviations as needed. If a sentence is
punctuated correctly, write C on the line provided.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLE
.
__________ 1. Please submit your application to Mr Robert Pierce at
202 Sycamore St
.
__________
1. Who will be the new president of Sunshine Industries, Inc
__________
2. Our honored guest this evening is Dr Patrick N Morgan
__________
3. The meeting will be held at the community center on Locust St and will be led
by Ms. Cynthia Jee
__________
4. Did you see the booth with all the beautiful Zuni jewelry at the arts and crafts fair?
__________
5. For my birthday, Mrs Crane gave me a book by N Scott Momaday.
__________
6. Kenesha said she would meet us at the corner of Pleasant Ave and Fifty-first St at
exactly 3:45 P M
__________
7. As I crossed the street, I spotted Donald Ramsey, Jr., leaving the Kensington Corp
building.
__________
8. Is it true that your parents are both originally from Boston, Mass
__________
9. What an unusual cat you have
__________ 10. Are you familiar with any literature from the fourth century B C ?
Punctuation
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WORKSHEET 2
Using Commas in Series
Exercise Add commas where they are needed in the following sentences. If a sentence is
correct, write C on the line provided.
EXAMPLE
,
_____ 1. Spoon bread is a puddinglike bread made of cornmeal milk
eggs and other ingredients.
,
,
__________
1. Beautiful homes attractive city squares and a mild climate are characteristics of
Savannah, Georgia.
__________
2. Shops and restaurants have transformed the old warehouse area.
__________
3. Tourists enjoy shopping visiting historic homes and sampling Southern cuisine.
__________
4. Sea Islands’ beaches Fort Stewart and the Atlantic Ocean are not far away.
__________
5. Other beautiful Southern cities are Charleston New Orleans and Beaufort.
__________
6. Sally yelled and screamed and jumped up and down when she learned she had won.
__________
7. She had been sure her slow start her stumble on the third lap or her late dash
had kept her from winning.
__________
8. Do traditional African music Jamaican folk music and North American popular
music form the roots of reggae?
__________
9. My favorite foods include macaroni and cheese peanut butter and jelly and bread
and butter.
__________ 10. Students must turn in their locks empty their lockers and account for all
textbooks before leaving school.
__________ 11. The ice storm canceled flights slowed trains and brought traffic to a standstill.
__________ 12. Chi Wan plays volleyball Roland plays softball and Dennis runs track.
__________ 13. Is Maine known for its pine forests cool lakes and rugged coastline?
__________ 15. Sidney Poitier was born in Miami grew up in the Bahamas and studied acting in
New York City.
__________ 16. The dog’s nose tail and bark were most like a collie’s.
__________ 17. Sportsmanship and effort and a good sense of humor are assets on a team.
__________ 18. They were looking for a car with good gas mileage and adequate room.
__________ 19. The roses laurel lilacs lilies and rhododendron are all blooming at once.
__________ 20. At the Cinco de Mayo festival, we enjoyed folk dancing speeches and Mexican
music.
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__________ 14. Henry dusted Elia vacuumed Victor scrubbed the kitchen and Tamisha cleaned the
bathroom.
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12UsingPunctuation
Commas to Separate Adjectives and to Join
WORKSHEET 3
Independent Clauses
Exercise A Add commas to the following sentences as needed. If a sentence is punctuated
correctly, write C on the line provided.
EXAMPLE
,
,
_________ 1. Soup and salad can make a light tasty nutritious meal.
__________
1. Jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald was known for her pure beautiful tone and her flawless
intonation.
__________
2. Did the large classified ad in Sunday’s paper catch Rita’s attention?
__________
3. My cousin Rhonda is a sensitive warm thoughtful person; I am very fond of her.
__________
4. At the end of our long and tiring bike ride, we were ready for a good meal.
__________
5. The bright wrapping paper made the gift look festive and inviting.
__________
6. Marlene’s winning basket put an end to an exciting high-scoring game.
__________
7. It’s time to replace this old worn-out pair of shorts with a new pair.
__________
8. Do you like kimchi, a spicy tasty relish that accompanies many Korean meals?
__________
9. My great-grandmother’s wedding ring, a beautiful and cherished family heirloom,
has been lost.
__________ 10. Father placed several steaming heaping colorful dishes on the table and called us
to dinner.
Exercise B Add commas where they are needed in the following sentences. If a sentence
is correct, write C on the line provided.
,
1. The breeze suddenly died down and the sailboat scarcely moved.
EXAMPLES
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
C
2. Students may buy season tickets or pay for each ballet
separately.
__________
1. Dad liked the chiles rellenos but Mother found them too spicy; I’ll make some
mild ones next time.
__________
2. The late Arthur Ashe retired from professional tennis in 1980 and wrote A Hard
Road to Glory.
__________
3. Arctic icebergs are rough but antarctic icebergs are rather flat and smooth.
__________
4. The Swedish pioneers built a town and named it after their leader.
__________
5. Everyone either likes or dislikes this movie intensely.
__________
6. Did Rita make this cabinet herself or did her teacher help her?
__________
7. I respect your opinion yet I cannot agree with it.
__________
8. The painting that we saw is valued at a million dollars yet it is really priceless.
__________
9. The train we were on had started to move and we couldn’t find Sofia anywhere.
__________ 10. Does he always rush around like that or is he really late for something?
Punctuation
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Commas to Distinguish Essential from
WORKSHEET 4
Nonessential Clauses
Exercise A Add commas where they are needed in the following sentences. If a sentence
is correct, write C on the line provided.
EXAMPLES
C
1. I have never known any other child who is as precocious as
Jenny.
,
,
2. Crater Lake which is almost 2,000 feet deep has no inlet or
outlet.
__________
1. Anthony who won the race became the first one in our class to receive a trophy.
__________
2. My left ankle which I broke last winter is still too weak for track.
__________
3. The teacher was annoyed when Hillary who lives right across the street from
school was late.
__________
4. The cats sitting in the window are called Tiger Lily and Sam.
__________
5. Our City Hall which was built in 1912 is now too small.
__________
6. Mahalia Jackson who grew up singing in a church choir became a famous gospel
singer.
__________
7. Children who get everything they want often appreciate nothing.
__________
8. Anita who has no sense of humor couldn’t see what made the joke funny.
__________
9. Some people don’t enjoy any game that they don’t win.
__________ 10. Have you heard of Lorraine Hansberry who was a famous playwright?
__________ 11. Were Daniel’s directions which were very brief clear to you?
__________ 12. Mark Twain who tried a dozen different types of jobs became a writer.
__________ 13. Few people who claim to be able to predict the future can actually do so.
__________ 15. Have you listened to comedians who use satire to make fun of social customs?
__________ 16. Why didn’t the Brahman suspect that the tiger which was in a cage was trying to
trick him?
__________ 17. The Titanic which was the largest vessel of its time generated an enormous
amount of publicity about its maiden voyage.
__________ 18. The author Doris Lessing grew up in the African country Zimbabwe which was
then called Southern Rhodesia.
__________ 19. Did you know that the high-wire aerialist who is very talented has performed
with the same group for ten years?
__________ 20. Evan’s new job which is far more challenging than his previous job pays well and
provides good benefits.
Continued
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__________ 14. Shakespeare’s father who was a merchant in Stratford served for a time as “high
bailiff,” or mayor, of the town.
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(continued)
Exercise B The subordinate clause in each of the following sentences is printed in italics. If
the clause is essential, circle E. If the clause is nonessential, circle N and set the clause off with commas.
EXAMPLES
,
,
E N 1. The Netherlands which has a low illiteracy rate has a high
standard of living.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
E N 2. Most sentences that ask a question require a question mark.
E
N
1. I just finished reading Gary Soto’s story “The Jacket” which describes a painful
time in his early life.
E
N
2. We need a girl who can speak with a Southern accent to play the part.
E
N
3. The store pays the parking fee of any customer who makes a purchase of twenty
dollars or more.
E
N
4. It was the responsibility of Stacy Kerwin who should have counted the tickets
herself.
E
N
5. Ten points are given for any question that stumps the experts.
E
N
6. Most of the things that we worry about never happen.
E
N
7. We lived on Oxford Drive which is close to the airport.
E
N
8. Any person who was born on February 29 has a birthday only once every four
years.
E
N
9. Buffalo Bill whose real name was William F. Cody was a famous frontier scout.
E
N
10. Many Scottish names begin with the prefix “Mac” which means “the son of.”
E
N
11. Mrs. Miltos is not a person with whom you can argue.
E
N
12. Grasshoppers which are one of our most destructive insect pests can leap nearly
twenty times the length of their bodies.
E
N
13. We will usually accept harsh criticism from a person whom we consider a true
friend.
E
N
14. Cindy who had struck out in the third inning hit a long drive.
E
N
15. Is it true that people who are good at math often make good scientists?
E
N
16. The moon which had been shining brightly suddenly disappeared behind a
heavy cloud.
E
N
17. Britain which was busy with a European war paid little attention to the War of
1812 until Napoleon was defeated.
E
N
18. “Green Willow” which I am reading for English class is a Japanese folk tale.
E
N
19. Michael Jordan is the athlete whom I would most like to meet.
E
N
20. Many Arawaks died of diseases that European explorers brought to the West
Indies.
Punctuation
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WORKSHEET 5
Using Commas
Exercise A Add commas where they are needed in the following sentences. If a sentence
is correct, write C on the line provided.
,
1. In such short stories as “The Guest ”Albert Camus explores
the topic of human freedom.
EXAMPLES
C
2. Did you see the statue of Kamehameha I when you went to
the Capitol?
__________
1. Yes I would love to go see Los Lobos with you.
__________
2. The plain was covered with red flowers as far as I could see.
__________
3. When we finally made up our minds the car had been sold.
__________
4. Stumbling down the ravine Dale lost his shoe as well as his compass.
__________
5. No one may enter the auditorium while the orchestra is playing.
__________
6. After a breakfast of pancakes and fruit we were ready for the hike.
__________
7. They would not have believed this if they hadn’t seen it for themselves.
__________
8. Next add potting soil to make sure the roots are completely covered.
__________
9. With money in their hands they headed for the popcorn stand.
__________ 10. Losing patience with the dough Miwa added more flour and rerolled the noodles.
__________ 11. I found the lost ring at the bottom of the wastebasket.
__________ 12. Starting in a pile of oily rags in the basement the fire traveled up the stairway to
the first floor.
__________ 13. Early in her career in the 1970s Martina Arroyo was the first soprano in thirty
years to perform the opening night at the Metropolitan Opera for three
consecutive years.
__________ 15. Will the family give a dinner in honor of their grandparents’ golden wedding
anniversary?
__________ 16. For the rest of our trip to Ohio the baby behaved well.
__________ 17. Well we could either go see the Frank Romero exhibit or go shopping
downtown.
__________ 18. By keeping the car at home and fixing the motor ourselves we saved more than a
hundred dollars.
__________ 19. Whenever it hears a siren our dog begins to howl.
__________ 20. Upon graduating from Spelman College Belinda became a reporter.
Continued
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__________ 14. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution some workers feared that machines
would take away their jobs.
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Exercise B Add commas where they are needed in the following sentences. If a sentence
is correct, write C on the line provided.
EXAMPLE
,
,
_____ 1. Karamu the feast near the end of Kwanzaa features traditional
African food and ceremonies.
__________
1. A white dove the symbol of peace appears on the stamp.
__________
2. Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales a poet and activist has been at the forefront of the
Chicano movement.
__________
3. In this book for example all the characters are animals.
__________
4. Hollywood the movie capital of the world is a part of Los Angeles.
__________
5. The gas from a car’s exhaust contains carbon monoxide a deadly poison.
__________
6. The prefix in– makes the word incompetent negative.
__________
7. My lunch usually a sandwich and a glass of milk costs about four dollars.
__________
8. At any rate a hammer and a screwdriver are all you need for this job.
__________
9. Tom did you know that the game drew a crowd of nearly a thousand the largest
attendance this year?
__________ 10. Estevanico a black slave from Morocco became one of the first explorers of the
southwestern United States.
__________ 11. Lake Louise one of the beautiful lakes in the Canadian Rockies attracts many
visitors.
__________ 12. It is considered careless Marcia to confuse the adverb there with the pronoun
their.
__________ 13. Jane Goodall the famous ethologist will address the group.
__________ 14. The fox trot I believe was named after Harry Fox a vaudeville dancer.
__________ 15. Williamsburg as I recall has been rebuilt to look just as it did before the American
Revolution.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
__________ 16. The snake dance a sacred ceremony of the Hopis is held each August.
__________ 17. Blondin a Frenchman walked a tightrope across Niagara Falls in 1859.
__________ 18. My friend Cynthia showed us Pickfair the home of Mary Pickford.
__________ 19. The electric eel a South American fish generates enough electricity to stun people
and kill small fish.
__________ 20. In 1898, working with her French husband, Marie Curie a Polish scientist
discovered radium a previously unknown element.
__________ 21. Your suggestion is I believe a good one, but I must consider the alternatives.
__________ 22. Please set the table for dinner Jenny and call your sister to come downstairs.
__________ 23. Did you know that Reid the captain of the football team made the honor roll?
__________ 24. The Parkers’ house an ornate Victorian structure is costly to paint.
__________ 25. When will the veterinarian a graduate of Texas A&M University begin work?
Punctuation
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WORKSHEET 6
Using Commas Correctly
Exercise A Insert commas where they are needed in the following sentences. If a sentence
is correct, write C on the line provided.
EXAMPLE
_____ 1. For more information, write to the Native American Heritage
Association 2475 W. Chicago St. Rapid City South Dakota 57702-2467.
,
,
,
__________
1. Our records show that you made a call from Dallas Texas to Buffalo New York on
May 3 2000.
__________
2. Viswam flew from Seattle to Bombay on June 12.
__________
3. Virgil Dunning Jr. made a presentation to our class.
__________
4. Send your application to Ms. Michelle Kawamoto 1300 Stratton Avenue before
September 1.
__________
5. Our store at 520 Dwyer Street opened on Monday August 2 1999.
__________
6. Frances A. Burns of 246 Salem Road is often confused with F. A. Burns of
129 Winthrop Avenue.
__________
7. The American Library Association (50 E. Huron St. Chicago Illinois 60611)
distributes these pamphlets.
__________
8. Marconi transmitted the letter s by wireless from Cornwall England to St. John’s
Newfoundland on December 12 1901.
__________
9. On September 30, 1972, Roberto Clemente became the eleventh man in the
history of major league baseball to get 3,000 hits.
__________ 10. The geographic center of the United States is in Butte County South Dakota.
Exercise B Proofread the following letter for the correct use of commas, adding and
deleting commas as necessary. Draw a delete mark ( ) through unnecessary commas.
[1] Aunt Linda, I would love to see a production of the Seattle Repertory
Theatre, or the Pacific Northwest Ballet.
[1] Dear Uncle Jack
[2] Thank you, for your letter. [3] It is nice of you, to invite me to spend a week with you, and
Aunt Linda, this summer. [4] I talked to Mom and Dad, about the idea, and they are in favor of it.
[5] I have, also, been talking to a friend’s father, Mr. Sidney Price Jr. about your fine city. [6] He
lived in Seattle, for many years. [7] Uncle Jack if there is time during my stay, maybe, we could visit
the Woodland Park Zoo. [8] Mr. Price recommended it, as an enjoyable place to spend a day, in Seattle.
[9] I look forward to talking to you, soon, about the details, of my visit.
[10]
Sincerely
Anthony
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EXAMPLE
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WORKSHEET 7
Exercise A
Using Commas, Semicolons, and Colons
Proofread the following letter, inserting commas, semicolons, and colons as needed.
EXAMPLE
:
,
[1] We arrived in Toronto at about 3 00 P.M. on Tuesday June 2.
[1] Dear Pauline
[2] Well, we have been here in Toronto Ontario since June 2. [3] So far we are having a great
time however, I do miss you and all my other friends back in Huntsville. [4] We have visited the Art
Gallery of Ontario, the Ontario Science Centre, and the Metro Toronto Zoo and Aunt Stephanie
even took Bill Elizabeth and me to see a Blue Jays game at the SkyDome.
[5] We have met a very interesting man, Howard Jordan M.D. he is a friend of my uncle
Vincent’s. [6] Dr. Jordan has traveled to so many different places Madrid, Spain Lima, Peru and
Anchorage,Alaska, just to name a few. [7] He is never at a loss for an entertaining story. [8] He even
had an article published in a travel magazine it is titled “Madrid’s Museums A Guided Tour.”
[9] Remember, I’ll be getting back home at around 8 30 on Saturday June 20 and I can’t wait to
tell you all about our vacation.
[10] Your friend
Alice
Exercise B Insert semicolons and colons where they are needed in the following
sentences. In some cases, you will need to delete an incorrect comma and replace it with a
semicolon. Draw a delete mark ( ) through each incorrect punctuation mark.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLE
;
1. Tara collects maps and globes, she owns thirteen globes in various
styles and sizes.
1. Ms. Zacharias is an excellent music teacher, in fact, I don’t think I’ve ever had a better teacher.
2. We will have short quizzes in class on the following dates Monday, February 9,Wednesday,
February 25, and Monday, March 16.
3. Misty read Luke 10 1–27 in preparation for her Sunday school class.
4. Tomorrow in class we will be discussing “America The Multinational Society,” an essay by
Ishmael Reed.
5. Gloria is a talented painter she won a blue ribbon in the district art contest.
6. My whole family, along with the Drapers, is going to a powwow in Celilo, Oregon, we will be
gone all weekend.
7. The speech is officially scheduled to begin at 7 30, however, it would be wise to arrive early in
order to get a good seat.
Continued
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8. In one scene in the film, the main character rests by a sparkling stream and recites Psalm 104
1–35.
9. Some of the faraway cities Mrs. Simmons has visited include Tokyo, Japan, Sydney, Australia,
and Bombay, India.
10. I always keep my dog on a leash when we are outside I don’t want him to run into the street
and be hit by a car.
Exercise C
Proofread the following letter, inserting semicolons and colons as needed.
EXAMPLE
;
[1] Photography is my hobby in fact, I hope to have a career as a
portrait photographer one day.
[1] Dear Ms. Endo
[2] I am a student at Lakewood High School as a member of the newspaper staff, the yearbook
staff, and the Camera Club, I have been developing my photography skills for several years. [3] Mr.
Daniel Ferguson, advisor for the Camera Club, suggested I write to you he said you may need some
extra help in your studio this summer.
[4] I hope you will consider hiring me. [5] You would not be sorry in fact, I believe you would
find me to be a reliable and efficient employee. [6] As a sample of my technical abilities, I have
enclosed the following items an artistic portfolio, prints of some of my yearbook photographs, and
several informal portraits of friends. [7] In addition, Mr. Ferguson has agreed to send you a
recommendation letter on my behalf it should arrive within days of this packet.
[8] You can reach me at 555-0110 weekdays between the hours of 6 00 and 10 00 P.M. or on
weekends at almost any time of day. [9] Thank you for your time I will look forward to hearing
[10]
Sincerely,
Ted Bennett
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from you.
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WORKSHEET 8
Test
Exercise A Add periods after abbreviations, end marks, and commas where they are
needed in the following sentences. If a sentence is correct, write C on the line provided.
EXAMPLES
,
,
_____ 1. I wonder Pete if Ralph Foster passed biology.
,
?
_____ 2. Pete did Ralph Foster pass biology
__________
1. To tell the truth I was really disappointed.
__________
2. The cabin I suppose has a fireplace.
__________
3. Watch out for the icy sidewalk
__________
4. Our treasury fellow members is in urgent need of your dues.
__________
5. I guess Lena will let me know when she is well enough to have visitors.
__________
6. You’ll be feeling like new in just a few days my friend.
__________
7. My dear Janis all of us make mistakes once in a while.
__________
8. Dr Draper you know has met Colin Powell.
__________
9. The rain I believe lasted only a few minutes.
__________ 10. What experience have you had that would qualify you for this job
__________ 11. You know Kareem how eager we are to see you.
__________ 12. I believe Sandra Cisneros will be speaking at my sister’s graduation.
__________ 13. Maxine does Samuel Cabrera or Carol Milner ever write you?
__________ 14. Please tell me the number of years you have lived at this address
__________ 15. It was your encouragement Mother that helped me succeed.
__________ 16. I’m afraid Mr Dale that you lack experience for this type of job.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
__________ 17. Lila has just taken a new job at Howard University by the way.
__________ 18. Some birds for example have better vision than humans.
__________ 19. Did you say you were going to call to awaken me at 6:00 or at 6:30 A M
__________ 20. Guess what I’m getting for my birthday Peggy.
__________ 21. The children of course can hardly wait for Hanukkah.
__________ 22. I have decided my friend to take your advice.
__________ 23. Children you’re ruining Mr Shapiro’s flower bed.
__________ 24. Is it true that Fred Gonzalez has joined the Navy?
__________ 25. Don’t tell me that you’re going to get up to catch your flight at 4:30 A M
Continued
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(continued)
Exercise B Insert commas where they are needed in the following paragraph. Some
sentences are already correct.
EXAMPLE
,
[1] Yes it would save us all a lot of trouble if Dad would only use his
middle name Archibald in the telephone directory.
,
,
[1] We are always getting telephone calls for Fred A. Smith the plumber. [2] My father’s name
you know is also Fred A. Smith. [3] Early in the morning late at night or on Sunday, someone is sure
to call to report that the furnace is out of order the kitchen drain is clogged up or a water pipe is
leaking. [4] Dad advised Jerry my older brother to become a plumber. [5] He could as a matter of
fact do a thriving business right from the start. [6] The other day, a truck driver tried to deliver a
load of stovepipe several water heaters and a kitchen sink at our front door. [7] They were of
course for the other Fred A. Smith the plumber. [8] Another time, a very angry man phoned to say
that we had promised to fix his washing machine on Wednesday March 4 and that we hadn’t kept
our word. [9] We also by the way received a bill for $300 from the Cadillac Plumbing Supply Co.
Kalamazoo Michigan. [10] The bill included a note reminding us that the amount was due on
June 10.
Exercise C Insert commas where they are needed in the following paragraph. Some
sentences are already correct.
[1] When I took my first regular job on June 22 1999 I was just sixteen years old. [2] I worked
for the Vine Company whose address is 73 Elk Street Buffalo New York 14210. [3] During the first
few weeks of my employment I was given the job of unpacking sorting and checking stock in the
basement a rather dreary and cheerless place.
[4] After I had been doing this work for several weeks you can imagine how pleased I was
glassware counter upstairs and I’ve decided to give you a try.”
[5] The glassware counter was difficult for me a new employee to handle. [6] I would get
very nervous when children would brush recklessly up against glassware that was on display.
[7] My most frustrating customers were usually the ones who couldn’t make up their minds.
[8] One such customer for example told me that she wanted six blue-flowered glasses. [9] As soon
as I had wrapped them she said in a pleading voice,“I hate to bother you my dear but would you
mind giving me three blue and three yellow glasses instead?” [10] What could I do but smile and
agree to the customer’s whims begin the wrapping process all over again and hope that she
wouldn’t see anything that she liked better?
Continued
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one day to hear Mrs. Cartwright the manager of the store say,“Helen we need someone for the
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Exercise D Draw a delete mark ( ) through any commas that should be omitted from
the following sentences. If a sentence is correctly punctuated, write C on the line provided.
EXAMPLES
C
1. Food, clothing, and shelter are basic necessities.
2. My uncle Bert eats no food, that contains added salt.
__________
1. We spent the afternoon at the Santa Fe Indian Market, with our cousins.
__________
2. Mrs. Kerr, Uncle Ed, and Myra, met Toni, and Diane at the airport.
__________
3. During the winter months in northern Norway, the sun rises, and sets within a
few minutes.
__________
4. Best known in Vietnam for her fiction, Nguyen Thi Vinh is also an accomplished
poet.
__________
5. Having skipped my lunch, I was famished, by the end of my program.
__________
6. Yes, I shall write to you, as soon as I receive my final grades.
__________
7. Although gulls are seabirds, they are often found inland.
__________
8. Not a thing was broken, lost, or mislaid, as a result of our moving.
__________
9. Amelia Earhart, the famous aviator, left on her final journey from Miami, Florida,
on June 1, 1937.
__________ 10. We hope to reach Northfield, Minnesota, by Friday, or Saturday.
__________ 11. The Detroit River, which connects Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair, is one of the
busiest waterways in the world.
__________ 12. It is dangerous to drink water, that has not been tested for purity.
__________ 13. The band played “Pomp and Circumstance,” as we marched.
__________ 14. When children are tired, sleepy, and hungry, they are often cross, and irritable.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
__________ 15. Montana’s Jeannette Rankin, was the first woman elected to the U.S. House of
Representatives.
__________ 16. Los Angeles, which has the largest area of any city in the United States, covers
over 466 square miles.
__________ 17. Longfellow wrote “The Wreck of the Hesperus,” while he was living in Craigie
House.
__________ 18. One of the early leaders in the struggle against racial discrimination, was Ida B.
Wells-Barnett.
__________ 19. Ynes Mexia started her botanical explorations, and plant collecting in South and
Central America at the age of fifty-five.
__________ 20. Daniel Hale Williams, a famous surgeon, performed the first successful heart
operation in 1893.
Punctuation
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WORKSHEET 1
Exercise
DATE
Using Italics
In the following sentences, underline all the words and word groups that should
be in italics.
EXAMPLE
1. Is there anyone who has not seen the movie Titanic?
1. I accidentally typed the letter o instead of the numeral 0.
2. Have you ever seen Lorraine Hansberry’s play A Raisin in the Sun?
3. The phrase shiba inu is Japanese for “brushwood dog.”
4. For his science homework, Jim had to define the words immunity, antibody, and antigen.
5. Ceremony, a novel by Leslie Marmon Silko, tells of the postwar experiences of a World War II
veteran.
6. I can never remember whether the word broccoli has one or two l’s.
7. My sister, a junior in college, is reading The Grapes of Wrath for her social psychology class.
8. Although the term repoussé is sometimes used as a synonym for embossing, the two words do
not have exactly the same meaning.
9. One of Nam June Paik’s well-known artworks,Video Fish, includes working television sets and
tanks filled with tropical fish.
10. The Mary Tyler Moore Show was one of the longest-running sitcoms on television.
11. Tamara’s mother subscribes to the magazine Native Peoples.
12. What was the first year Seventh Heaven appeared on TV?
13. Stopping at a small newsstand, Susanna bought the latest issue of Entertainment Weekly.
14. Last night the entire family watched a documentary about the sinking of the Lusitania.
15. Space shuttles such as Endeavour make it possible for astronauts to retrieve and repair broken
satellites.
17. The phrase c’est la vie is French for “that’s life.”
18. Scott wrote the word illusion where he meant to write allusion.
19. Cole Porter wrote the music and lyrics for the musical High Society.
20. You left out the second n in the word beginning.
21. Aren’t the special effects in the movie Armageddon spectacular?
22. Alfred Hitchcock’s movie The Birds was based on Daphne du Maurier’s story with the
same title.
23. The American composer Leonard Bernstein wrote the musical West Side Story in 1957.
24. Lydia, did you mean to write the word affect instead of the word effect?
25. Don’t call me on Tuesday evenings; I’ll be watching Nova, my favorite television program.
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16. The movie The Buddy Holly Story tells the life story of musician Buddy Holly.
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WORKSHEET 2
Punctuating Direct Quotations
Exercise Read each of the following items to determine whether it contains a direct or an
indirect quotation. If an item contains a direct quotation, rewrite it on the line provided, using
correct punctuation and capitalization. If the sentence is an indirect quotation, write indirect
quotation on the line.
EXAMPLES
1. The customer complained my soup is too salty.
, “My soup is too salty.”
The customer complained
2. The customer complained that the soup was too salty.
indirect quotation
1. We bake all our own tortillas said the waitperson.
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. The waitperson said that they bake all their own tortillas.
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Jody said let’s listen to the Emilio Navaira CD next.
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Have you ever seen a germ little Viola asked challengingly.
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. The fortune cookie was actually invented in San Francisco, explained Lien.
____________________________________________________________________________________
6. What a funny name for a cat exclaimed Jerry.
____________________________________________________________________________________
7. The driver of a passing car called to us your tire is flat!
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
____________________________________________________________________________________
8. The officer asked the crowd whether anyone had seen the accident.
____________________________________________________________________________________
9. I get tired of being asked is it hot enough for you? every August.
____________________________________________________________________________________
10. A sign on the lawn says your feet are killing me.
____________________________________________________________________________________
11. The salesclerk said that there is no better tire made.
____________________________________________________________________________________
12. There is no better tire made said the salesclerk.
____________________________________________________________________________________
Continued
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(continued)
13. The parking attendant shouted look out for the child!
____________________________________________________________________________________
14. The officer said to Pilar let me see your driver’s license.
____________________________________________________________________________________
15. Have you ever had the measles asked Dr. Murray.
____________________________________________________________________________________
16. The ad said that all alterations would be free.
____________________________________________________________________________________
17. Dr. Iris Murray asked have you ever had measles?
____________________________________________________________________________________
18. Education is much more than just studying books began the speaker.
____________________________________________________________________________________
19. Bertha stated that she would like to study astronomy.
____________________________________________________________________________________
20. Didn’t Rudolph Fisher write that story asked Mrs. Sheldon.
____________________________________________________________________________________
21. Ms. Scovil asked who will come to the board and work this math problem?
____________________________________________________________________________________
22. Gregory declared to Ms. Scovil that he could work the problem.
____________________________________________________________________________________
23. The news anchor said that it’s going to rain tonight.
____________________________________________________________________________________
24. Didn’t Patricia go to the coast this weekend inquired Vickie.
25. The clerk in the computer store warned me not to spill liquids on the keyboard.
____________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 3
Punctuating Split Quotations
Exercise On the lines provided, rewrite each of the following divided quotations, using
correct punctuation and capitalization.
EXAMPLE
1. Spaying and neutering explained the vet help curb pet overpopulation
“Spaying and neutering,” explained the vet, “help curb pet overpopulation.”
1. Where are you going Jean asked dressed up in your vest and tie
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Where are you going Jean asked I thought you expected company
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3. I will be glad to help you he replied after I finish this problem
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. My rough draft is almost finished Leon said the topic is Acoma myths
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. No parking the sign warned violators will be towed away
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
6. To keep the sauce smooth cautioned Miss Teng stir constantly
____________________________________________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
____________________________________________________________________________________
7. Because of the cold spring explained the professor the water temperature is below normal
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
8. Be sure to take an umbrella Mother added the forecast is for rain
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
9. Please Maria begged let me have just a bite of your empanada
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Continued
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(continued)
10. You must pull out the choke Father said or the lawn mower won’t start
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
11. This is an old radio the clerk grumbled I don’t carry the parts
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
12. On our trip to California Ramona began we had dinner one night in Little Saigon
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
13. I’m sorry the waitperson apologized that I mixed up your order
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
14. Strike three shouted the umpire you’re out
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
15. Hey, Amy Fred whispered are you going to the party Saturday night
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
16. My aunt is teaching me how to make latkes Bruce said they are a traditional Hanukkah dish
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
17. The meeting has been postponed he announced until Monday
____________________________________________________________________________________
18. Hello the tour guide said welcome to historic Natchez
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
19. Genius is one percent inspiration said Thomas Edison and ninety-nine percent perspiration
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
20. Is this the house she inquired where they’re giving away kittens
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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WORKSHEET 4
Punctuating Dialogue
Exercise Rewrite the following dialogue, using quotation marks, other marks of punctuation,
and capitalization correctly. Remember to begin a new paragraph each time the speaker changes.
EXAMPLE
[1] How many different kinds of cats are there? Mika asked. [2] Laura replied
well, I can think of a few, such as the Manx and the Persian.
“How many different kind of cats are there?” Mika asked.
Laura replied, “Well, I can think of a few, such as the Manx and
the Persian.”
[1] Your cat looks awfully skinny Mika said. [2] Doesn’t it like its food? [3] Laura chuckled and
responded haven’t you ever seen a Siamese cat? [4] Yes, I’ve seen them, but I guess I’ve never seen
one this close Mika replied. [5] Siamese are usually slender and long, just like my little Princess
here Laura explained [6] They always have blue, almond-shaped eyes.
[7] Oh, I see, said Mika. [8] Do these cats make good pets? [9] While I can’t speak for all
Siamese owners Laura said I really enjoy Princess’s company. [10] She can be rather loud
sometimes, but she’s extremely smart, playful, and sociable. [11] Sometimes I even take her for
walks on a leash. [12] That’s funny said Mika I never heard of walking a cat. [13] Well, I guess
Siamese are a little unusual Laura responded. [14] Another good quality about them is that they
don’t have to be brushed very often because their fur is so short and fine.
[15] Where do Siamese cats come from Mika asked. [16] It’s impossible to tell the exact history
of the breed Laura answered although its origin is Asian. [17] Legend has it that the ancestors of
today’s Siamese were kept by the kings and priests of Siam, which is known as Thailand today.
[18] Some say they were trained to guard the royal palaces and temples.
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[19] Wow, you sure know a lot about cats said Mika. [20] Thanks for educating me.
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Using Quotation Marks
WORKSHEET 5
Exercise A Insert quotation marks and single quotation marks where they are needed in
the following paragraphs.
EXAMPLE
[1]
“ Did I hear you say, ‘ The paper ran an announcement about our
concert ’ ?” asked Glen.
[1] Glen finally found the announcement about the Spring Concert at the end of the
newspaper feature About Town. [2] On Friday,April 10, at 8:00 P.M., the announcement read, the
Central High Choral Society will present its annual Spring Concert. [3] The Central Songsters, as
they are commonly called, will perform a wide range of entertaining selections, the announcement
continued. [4] Mrs. Maxine Arroyo, director of the Songsters, would not reveal the opening number
but did hint, It is one of my favorite tunes, and it was popularized by Van Morrison. [5] However,
Mrs.Arroyo did tell us the names of some of the other titles that will contribute to the eclectic
mix. [6] They include Oh, Pretty Woman, Big Yellow Taxi, and Misty.
[7] Advance tickets for the event are on sale now, Glen read. [8] They can be purchased through
the school (555-0180). [9] Tickets will also be available at the box office the night of the show.
[10] The announcement concluded,The box office will open in the Central High lobby at 7:00 P.M.
Exercise B In each of the following sentences, add quotation marks, single quotation
marks, and other marks of punctuation as needed.
EXAMPLE
1.
“ I thought you asked,‘ How many musicians are in a quartet?’ ” Sylvia said.
1. The witness told the police officer, I heard a woman’s voice crying Stop, thief!
3. For tomorrow’s class said Mrs. Mayer please read Toni Cade Bambara’s short story Raymond’s Run.
4. What does Aunt Connie mean Allen asked when she says something is just ducky?
5. Byron, said Sharon, when I told you your book report was killer, I meant that it was very
impressive.
6. Didn’t Chuck Berry write the song Johnny B. Goode Monique asked.
7. At her job, John explained, my mother tests computer software and fills out bug reports.
8. Lisa noted, Mending Wall is one of the poems I need to study for the test.
9. Did I hear someone say This game is over already yelled Brian.
10. Read Chapter 3,The Digestive System, and answer the mastery questions Ms. Rhodes
instructed.
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2. My uncle Ross, Miriam said is fond of saying It’s all relative.
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WORKSHEET 6
Test
Exercise A Most of the following sentences contain direct quotations. Add quotation
marks and other marks of punctuation to each sentence as needed. If a lowercase letter should be
a capital, cross it out and write the capital letter above it. If a sentence is already punctuated and
capitalized correctly, write C on the line provided.
EXAMPLE
_____ 1.
“ WherePdid you learn to make such beautiful jewelry?” Teresa
asked. “please take me with you next time you go.”
________ 1. We should have left earlier; we’re going to miss the beginning of the movie said George.
________ 2. Bethany told Angela that the Taj Mahal blues concert was sold out already.
________ 3. How many centimeters asked Nash are in a meter?
________ 4. Wait for me yelled Janet I’ll be there in a second.
________ 5. Martha said earnestly the test is on Friday. I think we should start studying tonight.
________ 6. Grandma wished us a safe trip and told us to call her when we got home.
________ 7. The attorney asserted that his client had a good case.
________ 8. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is in Cleveland, and I believe said Randy the
building was designed by I. M. Pei.
________ 9. Mr. Sata asked can anyone tell me what a molecule is?
________ 10. Painting said Ms. Johnson is more than just a hobby to me.
Exercise B In the following sentences, underline all the words or word groups that should
be in italics and insert quotation marks where they are needed.
EXAMPLE
1. Inspired by the movie The Right Stuff, Paul plans to enter his essay,
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
“ Learning to Dream,” in the scholarship contest.
1. Origami is a Japanese word meaning folded paper.
2. This year’s school play will be The Sound of Music.
3. The audience cheered when Céline Dion began singing Because You Loved Me, one of her
most popular songs.
4. Are you watching another All in the Family rerun? Gerald asked.
5. I just finished reading All Things Bright and Beautiful, a book by James Herriot, said Yokio.
6. The xiao and the di are two kinds of Chinese flutes.
7. Mike left out the second l in the word illegible.
8. My aunt Louise still sometimes uses old slang terms like groovy and far out.
9. Yesterday in English class, we discussed Audre Lorde’s poem Hanging Fire.
10. I believe, said Eric, that both Tom Hanks and Tim Allen provided voices for the movie Toy Story.
Continued
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Exercise C Proofread the following sentences for correct punctuation, adding or deleting
quotation marks, single quotation marks, underlining (for italics), and other punctuation marks
wherever necessary. Draw a delete mark ( ) through incorrect punctuation marks.
EXAMPLE
1.
Congratulations on an excellent game, and a very important win,”
“said
the coach.
1. “In football, Kerry explained, the shotgun is an offensive formation in which the quarterback
lines up several yards behind the line of scrimmage.”
2. Sometimes when my dad is working around the apartment, I’ll hear him break into his own
rendition of the song Mona Lisa.
3. Did Ms. Levine really say Be prepared for a quiz asked Donna?
4. Braly Street, a poem by Gary Soto, is in my sister’s literature textbook.
5. Have you read this article, How to Make Your Own Sushi?
6. Before Lou could yell “Watch out, the ball hit Mark right on the shoulder.”
7. Please remember to take out the trash tonight, Mom told Chico.
8. For Friday, Mrs. Harrison said, read “The Enchanted Garden. It’s a short story by Italo Calvino,
and we’ll be discussing it in class.”
9. ‘I distinctly heard him say I have seen this movie five times.” repeated Cynthia.
10. ‘Responsibility, said Uncle Bart is something you must earn.’ Be careful how much you earn,
though, because you’ll probably be stuck with it.
11. I’m pleased that you’ve raised your grades from seven C’s to five B’s and two C’s, said Terry’s
mother.
12. According to my music teacher, “Leonard Bernstein wrote the composition Mass to celebrate
the opening of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C.”
13. Since the radio announcer said that there is an accident on Loop 360, we should take
Route 620 this morning said Marie.
15. There are many works of art portraying Don Quixote, said Raquel but my favorite is Francisco
Torrome’s painting Don Quixote and the Windmill.
16. Have you seen the incredible photographs of tigers in the latest issue of National Geographic
inquired David.
17. The stockbroker who spoke to our math class Friday said “that we should read The Wall Street
Journal every day to learn about the world of finance.”
18. Jerry complained I have trouble remembering whether the last four letters of the word
proceed are ceed or cede.
19. I have that problem, too, said Samantha, and I can’t remember if the word niece is spelled with
an ie or an ei.
20. Don’t you remember that Ms. Majors said,The dictionary is your most reliable friend, asked
Jeffrey.
Continued
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14. Anna Akhmatova, the poet who wrote Lot’s Wife, believed that poetry should be free of
ambiguous symbolism stated Suzanne as she began her interpretation of the poem.
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Exercise D On the lines provided, rewrite the following dialogue, using quotation marks,
other marks of punctuation, and capitalization correctly. Remember to begin a new paragraph each
time the speaker changes.
EXAMPLE
[1] So, are you going to join the team or not Van asked. [2] I don’t know Gary
said. [3] I’ve talked to Mr. Fuentes about it, but I still can’t decide.
?” Van asked.
“
[2] “I don’t know,” Gary said. [3] “I’ve talked to Mr. Fuentes about it,
but I still can’t decide.”
[1] So, are you going to join the team or not
[1] Being on the swim team is a big commitment Van said, but it’s worth it. [2] I’ve learned a
lot from Mr. Fuentes, and the conditioning has helped me so much. [3] Yes, Mr. Fuentes seems like a
great coach Gary responded [4] I know I would like being on the team. [5] Still, I’m worried that I
don’t really have the time for another activity. [6] What are you talking about Van pleaded. [7] We
practice only three days a week. [8] Gary sighed, but there are the meets themselves to think
about, too. [9] I don’t want my grades to start falling. [10] Well Van conceded, It’s your decision, but
it would be great to have you on the team.
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WORKSHEET 1
Using Apostrophes to Form Possessives
Exercise For each of the following items, add either an apostrophe or an apostrophe and
an s (’s) in the blank to make the correct possessive form.
EXAMPLES
1. the children
2. some boys
’
’s
ward
voices
1. one man _____ score
2. two men _____ scores
3. each kitten _____ weight
4. some children _____ faces
5. the Plumbers _____ Union
6. the people _____ choice
7. Mary _____ locker
8. both boys _____ grades
9. the girls _____ gym
10. the boss _____ desk
11. some workers _____ offices
12. this woman _____ office
13. several doctors _____ files
14. a child _____ bicycle
15. a pet owners _____ magazine
16. these clerks _____ jobs
18. the Tallchiefs _____ terrace
19. a dog _____ footprints
20. the Women _____ Band
21. this store _____ policy
22. both clerks _____ wages
23. those gentlemen _____ cars
24. two mothers _____ children
25. a person _____ umbrella
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17. Miss Tallchief _____ house
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WORKSHEET 2
Placing Apostrophes
Exercise Each of the following sentences requires at least one apostrophe. Add
apostrophes where they are needed.
EXAMPLES
’
’
1. A child s interests are different from an adult s.
’
’
2. This store s policy is to check other stores prices.
1. The governors speech gained her many womens votes.
2. The young womans actions won both teachers admiration.
3. The parents club cooperated with our head principals plans.
4. After a long search we found the Kawamotos parakeet.
5. Have you seen the museums new exhibit of Zuni jewelry?
6. Binti knows all her customers names.
7. The seminar on womens concerns was reported in the News.
8. I have chosen Stevie Smiths poem “Not Waving but Drowning” as the topic for my paper.
9. The McGeorges dog is always tearing up our flower beds.
10. Benjamin Bannekers almanacs included calculations about eclipses.
11. Mrs. Barrys young daughter knows all the players batting averages.
12. The Peoples Market is not responsible for articles left in patrons cars.
13. All graduates records are kept permanently in the secretarys file.
14. We left the mices food just inside the door of their cage.
15. Sandras notebook contains all the members names and addresses.
16. Our guests cars were blocking the Baranskis driveway.
17. This companys policy is to give a year of free service with each appliance.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
18. Myra has worked for five years in several doctors offices.
19. Mens coats button on the right, but womens coats button on the left.
20. In Japan the New Years festival lasts three days.
21. Illinois capital is Springfield, and Iowas capital is Des Moines.
22. Langston Hughes poem “Mother to Son” describes a mothers determination in the face
of difficulty.
23. The air conditioners cool breeze provided relief to Nicholas furry dog.
24. Have you read Mondays assignment, Amy Tans story “Two Kinds,” which is a tale of the
conflicts between a mother and her daughter?
25. The Spencers fortieth wedding anniversary will be celebrated at North Lake Seafood,
their eldest sons well-known restaurant in Port Washington.
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WORKSHEET 3
Identifying Where Apostrophes Are Needed
Exercise A Add apostrophes where they are needed in the following sentences. If a
sentence does not require apostrophes, write C on the line provided.
EXAMPLE
’
_____ 1. The stops and starts of city driving decrease your car s gas mileage.
__________
1. Juans dog left its toy on our front steps.
__________
2. Malcolms father buys and sells Chinese antiques.
__________
3. The sign in their front yard read “The Joneses.”
__________
4. The Burgesses have gone fishing in their new boat.
__________
5. Andre and Phil both have made the boys swimming team.
__________
6. Wordsworths and Coleridges poems mean a great deal to me.
__________
7. Roberto did the puzzle in the waiting room of his mother-in-laws office.
__________
8. Since the dog was wagging its tail, I thought it was friendly.
__________
9. Marias father came here from Puerto Rico.
__________ 10. His mother was upset at his breaking the vase.
Exercise B In the following story, some necessary apostrophes are omitted, some are
misplaced, and others are used where none are required. Underline each word that has an error, and
write the correct form in the space above the word.
EXAMPLE
Felicia’s
[1] My uncle repaired Felicias CD player.
[1] “Over thirty years’ of service I gave them—never took longer than two weeks for a
vacation!” Uncle Bevan says with feeling’s of both pride and regret. [2] “They are just plain crazy
[3] That is what Uncle Bevan say’s when you take him your father’s electric razor or your
mothers’ hedge trimmer to be fixed. [4] Since the company’s rule’s forced him to retire as J. E.
Porter Company’s chief maintenance worker, his and my aunts house has become known as
Mr. Fixit’s place. [5] The garages shelves, as well as it’s floor, are cluttered with neighbors’ broken
articles, ranging from babies’ toys to peoples’ vacuum cleaners.
[6] My aunt Martha serve’s as a secretary. [7] She answers question’s on the telephone as to
whether Uncle Bevan can fix a boy’s bicycle, a womans’ electric toothbrush, or the Jones’es TV set.
[8] She complains that the customers’ appliances work better than her’s.
[9] What is Uncle Bevan’s reward for his helpful services to the folk’s of the neighborhood? [10] He
gets not only countless hours worth of fun but many mens’, womens’, and children’s friendly gratitude.
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if they think a persons motor run’s down at sixty-five.”
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Apostrophes in Possessives and in
WORKSHEET 4
Contractions
Exercise A Most of the following sentences contain incorrect possessive forms. Draw a
line through each error, and write the word correctly on the line provided. Note: A sentence may
have more than one error. If a sentence is correct, write C.
EXAMPLE
someone’s
1. Victor found someones notebook lying on the floor
of the bus.
__________
1. Wyatt borrowed his brother’s-in-law’s camera to take on the trip to Washington, D.C.
__________
2. Once she had everyones attention, the instructor began the silk-screening lesson.
__________
3. Anne Sexton’s and Leroy Quintana’s poems appeal to me for a number of
different reasons.
__________
4. The Manheim Markets produce selection is vast enough to cover anyones grocery list.
__________
5. Both Sabrina and Lucy’s dinners included refried beans and Spanish rice.
__________
6. How long this rain will last is anybody’s guess.
__________
7. Both Kathleen Battle and Jessye Norman’s voices are familiar to most opera fans.
__________
8. Ted’s and Betty’s project for history class was a huge success.
__________
9. I thought the Humane Society’s volunteers were friendly and helpful.
__________ 10. His mother’s-in-law trailer has traveled through thirty-two different states in the
past nine years.
Exercise B
For each of the following sentences, choose the correct word from the choice
in parentheses.
EXAMPLE
1. (Our’s, Ours) is an earlier model than (theirs, their’s).
1. (Its, It’s) just a matter of time until (its, it’s) coat begins to shed.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
2. Those glasses are different from (your’s, yours).
3. Amy put (her’s, hers) in with (their’s, theirs).
4. (Its, It’s) delicious when (it’s, its) ripe.
5. These dishes are just like (our’s, ours).
6. (It’s, Its) hiding behind the bushes.
7. (Our’s, Ours) escaped from (its, it’s) cage.
8. (Its, It’s) hair rises when (it’s, its) frightened.
9. One of those coats might be (your’s, yours).
10. (It’s, Its) not in (its, it’s) usual place.
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WORKSHEET 5
Using Apostrophes for Contractions
Exercise A Write the contraction form for each of the following word groups.
Remember that the apostrophe shows where a letter or letters have been omitted.
EXAMPLES
1. they are
they’re
2. does not
doesn’t
1. where is
11. what is
2. let us
12. they would
3. cannot
13. were not
4. she would
14. of the clock
5. we are
15. will not
6. that is
16. 1999
7. was not
17. is not
8. they have
18. he will
9. who is
19. are not
10. I am
20. it is
Exercise B
In the following sentences, choose the correct word from each pair in
parentheses.
EXAMPLE
1. (They’re, Their) having guests over to try (they’re, their) vegetable curry.
1. (It’s, Its) sharp claws are (it’s, its) only defense.
2. (It’s, Its) collecting material for (it’s, its) nest.
3. (You’re, Your) expression shows ( you’re, your) bored.
5. Don’t offer (you’re, your) advice if (it’s, its) not asked for.
6. They make (they’re, their) friends feel that (they’re, their) welcome.
7. (They’re, Their) practicing hard for (they’re, their) aikido tournament.
8. (They’re, Their) much better when (they’re, their) baked.
9. (Who’s, Whose) the player (who’s, whose) violin was out of tune?
10. In (who’s, whose) class is the girl (who’s, whose) speaking?
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4. (You’re, Your) not making the most of ( you’re, your) opportunities.
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WORKSHEET 6
Hyphens, Dashes, and Parentheses
Exercise A Proofread each of the following sentences for the correct use of hyphens.
Circle each word that has a hyphenation error, and write the word correctly on the line provided.
Note: A sentence may have more than one error. If a sentence is correct, write C.
EXAMPLE
Sixty-seven
1. Sixty seven students, approximately one third of the
students, participated in the Red Cross blood drive.
_______________ 1. Heather’s birthday gift was a gorgeous, fully lined wool coat.
_______________ 2. The mayor elect will not officially take office until midJanuary.
_______________ 3. With his usual self confidence, Nathan plunged into his job as stage manager.
_______________ 4. Mr. Morrison, the expresident of the PTA, is a well respected community leader.
_______________ 5. As the goalie, Ronnie has a clearly-defined role on the hockey team.
_______________ 6. Harmful substances such as ammonia, drain-cleaners, and medications should always be stored out of the reach of small children.
_______________ 7. As Ramona thought about the eighty seven people waiting for her to take
the stage, she was momentarily stricken with stage fright.
_______________ 8. Alan used two-thirds of the okra in the gumbo and placed the rest in the freezer.
_______________ 9. Three fourths of the council voted, and the proposal passed by an eight
tenths majority.
_______________ 10. Ladysmith Black Mambazo is a well-known singing group from South Africa.
Exercise B
Insert dashes or parentheses where they are needed in each of the following
sentences.
EXAMPLE
—
1. I can’t remember where I put my oh, there it is.
^
1. Is that lady over there the one wearing the blue sweater the new gym teacher?
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
2. The next ingredient and this is what gives this dish its distinctive flavor is ground cumin.
3. Manuel Gamio 1883–1960 has often been called the father of Mexican anthropology.
4. Andy rehearsed his part for two hours sometimes longer every night for three weeks.
5. The contents of the shopping bag four coffee mugs wrapped in tissue paper, a pepper mill,
and three large cookbooks spilled onto the sidewalk.
6. Bake the bread in a very hot oven about 450 degrees for thirty-five minutes.
7. “Don’t you think oh, I just don’t know how to put it,” Peter stammered.
8. The Pomeranian see photo on page 34 would be a good dog for someone who lives in an
apartment.
9. George Takei he played Mr. Sulu in the original Star Trek series has a place on Hollywood’s
Walk of Fame.
10. The Blue Ridge Mountains in Virginia, which separate the Piedmont Region from the Great
Valley, are 12 to 14 miles 19 to 23 kilometers wide.
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WORKSHEET 7
Test
Exercise A Each of the following sentences contains one or more errors in the use of
apostrophes or hyphens. Draw a line through each incorrect word, and write the word correctly
on the line provided.
EXAMPLE
nobody’s, yours
1. The accident was nobodys fault, least of all your’s.
_________________ 1. Both Roys and Theo’s presentations were about pre Enlightenment England.
_________________ 2. The Spiffy Uniform’s Companys van is in the shop for repairs, and it wont
be ready till next week.
_________________ 3. It’s almost time to leave, and the childrens bags still hav’ent been packed.
_________________ 4. According to Jody and Yori’s survey, about forty eight percent of the
students at our school participate in at least one sport.
_________________ 5. If you’re going to get a hamster as a pet, dont forget the all important
exercise wheel.
_________________ 6. Her parents emphasis on self discipline has been a factor in Phoebe’s success.
_________________ 7. Gustav Mahler’s partially-completed tenth symphony is one of his bestknown works.
_________________ 8. I just started my part time job at Mom’s and Dad’s flower shop.
_________________ 9. Nearly one-third of the students in Mr. Griffen’s class chose to write about
the Diane Glancy poem.
_________________ 10. “As long as you have you’r self-respect,” Mother said,“youll know you did
the right thing.”
Exercise B
Insert dashes or parentheses where they are needed in each of the following
sentences.
—
1. I told Todd to meet oh, here he comes now.
^
1. Whitney Houston she is the greatest! is giving a concert in Chicago next month.
2. “All I’m trying to say” Rudy began as the phone rang.
3. Ernesto Galarza 1905–1984 was not only a writer but also an educator and labor leader.
4. Mrs. Betz she coaches the girls’ softball team grew up in Annapolis, Maryland.
5. The extreme heat it was 102 degrees in the shade kept many people away from the afternoon
concert in the park.
6. Before she began work on her garden,Tiwa gathered her equipment garden hose, rake, hoe,
shovel, and spading fork.
7. Alaska see map on page 103 is the largest state in the United States but has a relatively small
population.
8. The Rocky Mountain chain extends more than 3,000 miles 4,800 kilometers and is about
350 miles 563 kilometers wide in places.
Continued
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EXAMPLE
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(continued)
9. Our dog Becky she’s been in the family for almost nine years isn’t as playful and energetic as
she used to be.
10. Now stir the mixture oops, be careful until it becomes smooth and creamy.
Exercise C Each of the following sentences contains at least one error in the use of
apostrophes, hyphens, dashes, or parentheses. On the lines provided, rewrite each sentence using
these marks of punctuation correctly.
EXAMPLE
1. Because shes talented and works hard, Christys dreams of becoming an
all star basketball player are bound to come true.
Because she’s talented and works hard, Christy’s dreams of becoming an
all-star basketball player are bound to come true.
1. Both Ralph and Jennas papers’ were on preRevolutionary Virginia.
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2. After the game go Bears! Ill meet you at the concession stand.
____________________________________________________________________________________
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3. Kirk hes an all American wrestler has won twenty two matches this year.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Thirty two freshly groomed poodles entered the showroom in two single file groups.
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© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
5. Joanna’s parents’ enjoyed they’re workshop in ikebana the Japanese art of arranging cut
flowers.
____________________________________________________________________________________
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6. This years debate team an award-winning team has gotten everyones attention.
____________________________________________________________________________________
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7. For you’re biographical sketches, you may choose from this list of thirty-five well known artists.
____________________________________________________________________________________
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Continued
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(continued)
8. The unseasonably cold weather nighttime temperatures were as low as twenty five degrees
kept most people indoors.
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9. Our governor elect ran a well organized campaign.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
10. Leontyne Price the world-famous soprano has a brilliant voice with an unusually-wide range.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Exercise D Insert apostrophes, hyphens, dashes, and parentheses where they are needed in
the following sentences.
EXAMPLE
—
1. Turtles like all reptiles are cold-blooded their temperature stays
^
about the same as that of the air or water around
them.
(
)
1. Turtles cant live in areas that are cold all year long.
2. They can, however, live almost anywhere else in deserts, forests, grasslands, lakes, rivers, and
the sea.
3. The leatherback turtle it is the largest turtle species can be from 4 to 8 feet 1.2 to 2.4 meters
long.
4. The common bog turtle, on the other hand, is only about 4 inches 10 centimeters long.
6. When it was discovered that many of these turtles carried bacteria that caused salmonella
poisoning a serious illness in humans, the sale of most pet turtles was banned.
7. A turtles shell has two layers an inner layer, made up of bony plates, and an outer layer, usually
consisting of hard, calloused structures called scutes.
8. In some turtles soft shelled turtles and leatherback turtles, to be exact the outer layer consists
of tough skin rather than scutes.
9. The carapace the part of the shell that covers the turtles back and the plastron the part that
covers the turtles belly are joined by a bony structure called the bridge.
10. Turtles senses of sight and touch are well developed, and they can hear low pitched sounds
about as well as humans can.
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5. Pet shops used to sell thousands of painted turtles and red eared turtles each year.
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15 Spelling
WORKSHEET 1
Using Word Parts
Exercise Use a good dictionary to look up the separate parts (prefixes, roots, and suffixes)
of the following words, and then write a definition based on the meanings of the parts.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLE
1. person + al _having to do with a person____________________________
1. micro + scope
________________________________________________________________
2. re + vision
________________________________________________________________
3. over + look
________________________________________________________________
4. aud + ible
________________________________________________________________
5. warm + ish
________________________________________________________________
6. con + cise
________________________________________________________________
7. lazi + ness
________________________________________________________________
8. chrono + meter
________________________________________________________________
9. hyper + sonic
________________________________________________________________
10. contra + dict
________________________________________________________________
11. inter + lace
________________________________________________________________
12. para + graph
________________________________________________________________
13. re + coil
________________________________________________________________
14. inter + connect
________________________________________________________________
15. bi + lateral
________________________________________________________________
16. mis + advise
________________________________________________________________
17. prince + dom
________________________________________________________________
18. joy + ful
________________________________________________________________
19. trans + act
________________________________________________________________
20. un + equal
________________________________________________________________
21. stress + ful
________________________________________________________________
22. un + necessary
________________________________________________________________
23. en + light + en
________________________________________________________________
24. sad + ly
________________________________________________________________
25. bi + cycle
________________________________________________________________
Spelling
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15 Spelling
WORKSHEET 2
Exercise A
EXAMPLE
Using Spelling Rules
Fill in the blanks with the correct letters: ie, ei, cede, ceed, or sede.
1. w__ei__rd
1. rel_______ve
11. pat_______ntly
2. ac_______
12. con_______
3. br_______fcase
13. b_______ge
4. se_______
14. repr_______ve
5. rev_______w
15. p_______rce
6. super_______
16. pro_______
7. n_______ghborhood
17. c_______ling
8. pre_______
18. inter_______
9. for_______gner
19. prem_______r
10. n_____ther
20. w_______ghtless
Exercise B Some of the following sentences contain spelling errors involving the use of ie,
ei, cede, ceed, and sede. For each sentence, cross through the misspelled word and write the word
correctly on the line provided. If a sentence is correct, write C.
__pieces__ 1. Maya sculptors created peices that have great power and beauty.
__________
1. The wieghts of the Olmec sculptures in Mesoamerica are astounding!
__________
2. Using water wastefully sometimes causes river levels to receed.
__________
3. The theives were caught carrying all they had stolen.
__________
4. The new game rules superseded the ones we’d always used.
__________
5. Kim pateintly showed me how to prepare moo goo gai pan.
__________
6. Jovita interceeded for me after a misunderstanding in Spanish class.
__________
7. I can’t concieve of a better career than being an archaeologist.
__________
8. Mel has niether the interest nor the time for soccer.
__________
9. Has anyone found the heifers that escaped from Ralph Baker’s pasture?
__________ 10. Gwendolyn Brooks’s novel Maud Martha tells of an African American girl who
succedes in attaining her dream.
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EXAMPLE
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15 Spelling
WORKSHEET 3
Exercise A
Adding Prefixes and Suffixes
On the line provided, spell each of the following words with the given prefix
or suffix.
EXAMPLE
1. thought + ful =
thoughtful
1. tardy + ness =
11. trace + able =
2. derange + ment =
12. in + direct =
3. lap + ing =
13. dye + ing =
4. pre + bake =
14. gay + ly =
5. wary + ly =
15. spin + ing =
6. un + caring =
16. defame + ed =
7. admit + ance =
17. hover + ing =
8. spy + ing =
18. true + ly =
9. case + ment =
19. silly + ness =
10. simple + est =
20. thirty + eth =
Exercise B Some of the following sentences contain spelling errors involving the use of
prefixes or suffixes. For each sentence, cross through the misspelled word and write the word
correctly on the line provided. If a sentence is correct, write C.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLE
argument
1. There was no arguement when the field trip was
extended to include a trip to the art museum.
__________
1. After the fees were payed, the band uniforms were ordered.
__________
2. The teacher was conveying the message about the approaching storm when we
heard the wind blow down the tree outside the classroom.
__________
3. We replaid the tape so many times everyone was tired of the music.
__________
4. The brightly painted cloth will be drapped above the stage during the
celebration.
__________
5. Corrina didn’t realize she was singeing her hair when she sat by the fire.
__________
6. The dancers did the waltz beautifully, without a mistep.
__________
7. It was an outragous price to pay to camp at a park that was flooded.
__________
8. In English we are revaluating the poetry of Emily Dickinson.
__________
9. Pat’s help was not uneeded; in fact, we couldn’t have finished the science project
without him.
__________ 10. The squirrels scurryed away from the bird feeder when we went outside.
Spelling
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15 Spelling
WORKSHEET 4
Exercise A
Forming Plurals of Nouns
On the line provided, spell the plural form of each of the following nouns.
EXAMPLE
1. shelf
shelves
1. patio
11. quantity
2. class
12. i
3. sister-in-law
13. chief of police
4. goose
14. Vietnamese
5. phenomenon
15. woman
6. box
16. 10
7. enchilada
17. bookmark
8. cello
18. board game
9. Martinez
19. hero
10. monkey
20. bleach
Exercise B Some of the following sentences contain spelling errors involving the plurals
of nouns. For each sentence, cross through the misspelled word and write the word correctly on
the line provided. If a sentence is correct, write C.
analyses
1. All of our analysis of “Everyday Use” by Alice Walker
were put on the bulletin board.
__________
1. The sheeps got out of the pasture and ate the lettuce and the pea plants in our
garden.
__________
2. We took many photoes of the giant stone heads on Easter Island.
__________
3. The runner-ups were applauded nearly as much as the winners were.
__________
4. Every year our family uses different colored waxs to make holiday candles to give
as gifts.
__________
5. My brother competes in rodeos in Arizona and New Mexico.
__________
6. In small towns the local newspapers are usually weeklys.
__________
7. Some people don’t cross their ts at all; they put the line above the letter.
__________
8. The Gomezs, who live next door, have a German shepherd, which is a breed of
dog that originally came from Europe.
__________
9. Why do you think hairdoes don’t ever stay popular for very long?
__________ 10. The red roofs of the town were bright in the morning sun.
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EXAMPLE
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15 Spelling
WORKSHEET 5
Exercise A
Forming Plurals of Nouns
On the line provided, spell the plural form of each of the following nouns.
EXAMPLE
1. child
children
1. fifteen-year-old
11. canoe
2. dish
12. Barry
3. kitty
13. Lebanese
4. turkey
14. poncho
5. army
15. bird feeder
6. fruit stand
16. upperclassman
7. loaf
17. &
8. two
18. veto
9. solo
19. crisis
10. tributary
20. mouse
Exercise B Some of the following sentences contain spelling errors involving the plurals
of nouns. For each sentence, cross through the misspelled word and write the word correctly on
the line provided. If a sentence is correct, write C.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLE
golf carts
1. The golfs cart were all in the parking lot.
__________
1. Beachs should be kept clean for everyone to enjoy.
__________
2. Both of my brother-in-laws were at my birthday party.
__________
3. The mouses and the squirrels ate all the birdseed.
__________
4. We read several storys about the Sioux nation.
__________
5. Some of the rooves in my neighborhood were damaged by hail.
__________
6. The dentist said none of my tooth’s had any cavities.
__________
7. The journies of early nomadic people covered amazing distances.
__________
8. The lights and sounds at the show were popular phenomenon.
__________
9. Usually Es that are given as grades stand for “excellent.”
__________ 10. The mix-ups resulted in a change in the registration procedures.
Spelling
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DATE
15 Spelling
WORKSHEET 6
Test
Exercise A Some of the following sentences contain errors in spelling. For each sentence,
cross through the misspelled word and write the word correctly on the line provided. If a sentence
is correct, write C.
EXAMPLE
dripped
1. When the roof leaked, the rain driped into the kitchen sink.
__________
1. The flower arrangment showed off the roses and lilacs perfectly.
__________
2. The indexs in the reference books were the biggest help in our research.
__________
3. The new rules for the French Club will supercede the old ones.
__________
4. Isn’t it amazing what anceint cultures achieved in architecture?
__________
5. The shabbyness of the surroundings didn’t bother them.
__________
6. Neither of the keyes would fit the lock on the Egyptian box.
__________
7. Why do some of these bags of whole wheat flour have #’s and some have pounds
written on them?
__________
8. Some silver jewelry is beautifuly inlaid with coral.
__________
9. My grandmother gave each of her grandchilds a family keepsake.
__________ 10. Sara asked,“Which citys of the world would you most like to visit?”
Exercise B The following paragraph contains spelling errors. For each sentence, cross
through the misspelled word or words and write the word or words correctly on the line provided.
EXAMPLE
[1] The Japanese are known for their beautyful gardens.
1.
beautiful
[1] My freind spent his junior year of high school as an exchange student in Japan. [2] He
learning about the culture and appreciated the kindness of the people he met. [4] He became very
interested in the plants that grow in Japan and has decideed to become a botanist. [5] He has been
triing out different plants to see what will grow here. [6] He has become very knowledgable. [7] His
Japanese trees produce fruit larger than some peachs. [8] The white flowers on one tree stand out
against the shadyness of the plant. [9] His sister-in-laws now want him to landscape their yards.
[10] They are ready to trade in their gardens of tomatos and peppers for Japanese plum trees.
1.
6.
2.
7.
3.
8.
4.
9.
5.
10.
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Language Handbook
Continued
☞
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
worked hard and succeded in learning how to speak and understand Japanese. [3] He enjoied
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15 Worksheet 6
DATE
(continued)
Exercise C Some of the following sentences contain errors in spelling. For each sentence,
cross through the misspelled word and write the word correctly on the line provided. If a sentence
is correct, write C.
EXAMPLE
rarely
1. I like concerts but am rarly able to go to one.
__________
1. Riding a horse is more than sitting in the saddle and holding the riens.
__________
2. The browness of the sofa offended my aunt, who likes pastel furniture.
__________
3. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s, peacable approach made important changes.
__________
4. We all need to reedit and rewrite our proposals for our science projects.
__________
5. The other team’s points exceded our team’s, and we lost the tournament.
__________
6. Traping animals with steel traps is illegal in many places.
__________
7. The Seneca still live cheifly in New York State, Ontario, and Oklahoma.
__________
8. The Garcias and the Trevinos are two of the familys on our block.
__________
9. “Did you see the wolfs at the edge of the woods?” asked Jason.
__________ 10. Nicky’s analyses of the plan was greatly appreciated by the panel.
Exercise D The following paragraphs contain spelling errors. For each sentence, cross
through the misspelled word(s) and write the word(s) correctly on the line provided.
EXAMPLE
[1] Some people like pets in general, and some people are wholely in
support of only one breed of cat or dog.
1.
wholly
[1] People have varyable reasons for choosing pets. [2] It has been sayed that dog people
prefer specific breeds, but cat people like all cats. [3] Of course, arguement can be made with any
generalization. [4] Breeds runing the size range from large St. Bernards that originated in the Swiss
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Alps to tiny toy breeds each have their fans. [5] Knowing the backsground of pets can be
interesting. [6] The information can add to the enjoiment of ownership.
[7] The places of origin are obvious from the names of many cats, such as Siameses, Burmese,
and Maine coons. [8] With some breeds, the historys are not in the names and must be researched.
[9] Even owners of mixed breeds consede that different breeds of dogs and cats have unique
characteristics. [10] Pet owners, however, usually veiw whatever pet they have as the best kind.
1.
6.
2.
7.
3.
8.
4.
9.
5.
10.
Spelling
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NAME
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Handbook
DATE
16 Glossary of Usage
WORKSHEET 1
Common Usage Problems
Exercise A Underline the word or expression in parentheses that is correct according to
standard, formal usage.
EXAMPLE
1. When we go to Florida, we will take a beach bag with sandals,
swimsuits, suntan lotion, (and etc., etc.).
1. This project will take ( fewer, less) hours to complete than the last one did.
2. Many people like jazz better (then, than) other kinds of music.
3. (Whose, Who’s) going to help me finish the collage for art class?
4. Jimmy Santiago Baca is (among, between) my five top favorite poets.
5. If we are (all together, altogether) satisfied with the plans, let’s go ahead with them.
6. What (kind of a, kind of) meal would you prefer for your birthday?
7. When we (broke, busted) the piñata at the party, pecans and dates fell out.
8. What did Harper Lee write (besides, beside) To Kill a Mockingbird?
9. (Anyways, Anyway), do you want to go to a movie this afternoon?
10. I feel really (good, well) any morning after I’ve had nine hours of sleep.
Exercise B Some of the following sentences contain errors in standard, formal English
usage. For each sentence, circle the error and then write the correct usage on the line provided. If
a sentence is correct, write C.
__You’re__ 1. Your going with us, aren’t you?
__________
1. There purpose is to recruit more members for the Spanish Club.
__________
2. The book what I borrowed is The House on Mango Street.
__________
3. Try and write a short story that takes place on Jupiter or Mars.
__________
4. Ellen tried to learn me some Polish phrases after she came back home.
__________
5. Where did you get them apples?
__________
6. The model planes were designed bad.
__________
7. Like I thought, Cantonese is spoken in parts of China.
__________
8. May I sit beside you during the bus ride to Cahokia Mounds?
__________
9. From her writing, we may imply that she has traveled widely.
__________ 10. Diane looked everywheres for Doofus’s dog biscuits.
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EXAMPLE
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16 Glossary of Usage
WORKSHEET 2
Common Usage Problems
Exercise A Underline the word or expression in parentheses that is correct according to
standard, formal usage.
EXAMPLE
1. We (done, did ) what we could to clean up after the flood.
1. (Being as, Because) the pond is frozen solid, it will be safe to skate on it.
2. When we climbed down (off, off of ) the cliff, Sam and Jennifer had supper ready.
3. Mark was in the hospital for a week before he felt (good, well) enough to come home.
4. Harriet Tubman is a historical figure (what, that) I greatly admire.
5. Rachael did a ( good, well) job of acting in the play Our Town.
6. (Where, Where at) did you leave the avocados for the guacamole?
7. It is (rather, kind of) intimidating to go into a new classroom for the first time.
8. Jonathan insisted on painting the garage all by (hisself, himself).
9. We (ought to, had ought to) finish our homework before we rehearse for the play.
10. Amy Tan (she tells, tells) wonderful stories in her books.
Exercise B Most of the following sentences contain errors in usage. For each sentence, circle
the error and then write the correct word on the line provided. If a sentence is correct, write C.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLE
___less___ 1. This recipe requires fewer seasoning.
__________
1. We hope the principal will leave us go to the exhibit of Incan artifacts.
__________
2. People should be proud of theirselves when they do well.
__________
3. Bette implied from the teacher’s remarks that we could bring guests to her
piano recital.
__________
4. These type of vinegars are called balsamic; they’re good on salads.
__________
5. Who’s bike trail map was left on my desk?
__________
6. Pesto is a kind of a basil and garlic sauce that originated in Italy.
__________
7. It looks like the mail will be late again today.
__________
8. George Washington Carver he was a botanist and chemist.
__________
9. We had a good time and did well at the science fair this year.
__________ 10. Between the first ladies Eleanor Roosevelt, Bess Truman, and Mamie Eisenhower,
I most admire Mrs. Roosevelt.
Glossary of Usage
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DATE
16 Glossary of Usage
WORKSHEET 3
Test
Exercise A Underline the word or expression in parentheses that is correct according to
standard, formal usage.
EXAMPLE
1. The book is better (then, than) the movie.
1. “(Its, It’s) been three weeks since our cat disappeared,”Alyssa said.
2. The songs (what, that) were sung at the folk festival all told stories.
3. We will (try to, try and) memorize the Preamble to the Constitution by Friday.
4. People who escaped from slavery by way of the Underground Railroad walked a long
(ways, way) to safety.
5. We listened to (a lot, alot) of music by American composers, and my favorite music was
written by Fats Waller.
6. (Sequoyah, Sequoyah he) was a scholar and leader who lived from about 1760 to 1843 and
created a written Cherokee language.
7. They didn’t want to learn how to play the game (anyways, anyway).
8. After you (learn, teach) them the rules of cribbage, we can all play a game.
9. (They’re, Their) the ones who hope to start a Habitat for Humanity group here.
10. I saw (where, that) starting in May the planetarium will stay open late on Thursdays.
Exercise B Most of the following sentences contain errors in usage. For each sentence,
underline the error and then correct the error on the line provided. If a sentence is correct, write C.
___Its___ 1. It’s purpose is to show the colors of the spectrum.
__________
1. We drove to Whiteface Mountain in they’re car.
__________
2. Africa is not a country; its a continent that contains many countries.
__________
3. Them grammar rules are too confusing for me.
__________
4. Mexican artists Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo both painted good.
__________
5. Which kind of a pet do you most want to have?
__________
6. It seems like we have been waiting for hours for the eclipse to start.
__________
7. Those sorts of maps show elevations and landforms but not roads.
__________
8. When the pipes froze and busted, we were without water for a week.
__________
9. We should of watered the plants before we left on vacation.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLE
__________ 10. It is some easier to learn how to cook in your own kitchen.
Continued
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Handbook
Exercise C
16 Worksheet 3
DATE
(continued)
Underline the word or expression in parentheses that is correct according to
standard usage.
EXAMPLE
1. When should we use (these, this) type of reference material?
1. Although they were working by (theirselves, themselves), they were able to relocate the
swing set.
2. If I (had of, had) studied Spanish, I could go on the trip to Machu Picchu with the club.
3. Omar Khayyám, (which, who) wrote the Rubáiyát, was a Persian mathematician, astronomer,
and poet.
4. There are (fewer, less) ducks on the pond than there were last year.
5. The book (what, that) has the pictures of René Magritte’s paintings is missing from the library.
6. (Somewhere, Somewheres) around here are the directions to my aunt’s new house in San
Antonio.
7. We came home early (being as, because) it started snowing.
8. There were many colors to choose from (besides, beside) red and blue.
9. Brandy is popular because she is beautiful and sings (good, well).
10. When we (done, did) the math problems, all of our answers were correct.
Exercise D Most of the following sentences contain errors in usage. For each sentence,
underline the error and then correct the error on the line provided. If a sentence is correct, write C.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
EXAMPLE
__between__ 1. It’s difficult to choose among two things you really want.
__________
1. Where did you leave my bike at after you borrowed it?
__________
2. Drawings of foods native to the Americas included squash, beans, corn, peanuts,
chocolate, and etc.
__________
3. When I complete my work on schedule, I feel well about myself.
__________
4. When you take time to teach someone how to do something useful, you have
given a gift that will last a lifetime.
__________
5. You’re interest in the Nez Perce encouraged me to study their history.
__________
6. The guitar music was played bad because the musicians hadn’t practiced.
__________
7. Do you like abstract art better then impressionistic art?
__________
8. Theirs no way to tell in what ways computer technology will change our lives
within the next twenty years.
__________
9. The woman which wrote “We Real Cool” is Gwendolyn Brooks, who lives in Chicago.
__________ 10. “Surely the audience could imply from my speech about recycling that I am
against wastefulness and littering,” Natasha said.
Glossary of Usage
153
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