Uploaded by akshata Bilagi


Identify Competencies & Create Competency
• Job Definition – It describes each of the key elements of
the job
• A comprehensive job study as follows, helps to define
- Input (resources, triggers for action)
- Processes (the actions taken to create the outputs)
- Outputs (deliverables such as products or services)
- Consequences (desired results for client/organization/
- Feedback (communication about the work)
Identify Competencies & Create
Competency Model (Contd.)
• Identification of Competencies
• Competency identification directly follows the
definition of job content.
• If the job-study focused on 6 elements of work, then
identification of competencies will be based on
competencies required for 6 elements
• If the job study method focused on duties & tasks,
then the identification begins with first task and
continues through the last task
Identify Competencies & Create
Competency Model (Contd.)
• Assemble the Competency Model
• Cluster similar knowledge, skills, abilities & personal
characteristics together to avoid creating an extensive list
• The objective is not to create an exhaustive list of
competencies for research purposes
• The goal is to create a list of most critical competencies
for everyday application in training & personnel
• This set of competencies, with a clear definition for each,
constitutes the competency model.
• To remain manageable, the number of competencies
should be 20 or less
Identify Competencies & Create
Competency Model (Contd.)
• Review by Subject Matter Experts
• Draft lists of competencies & their definitions should be
reviewed by subject matter experts (SMEs)
• SMEs should have extensive experience with the target job
and knowledge of the job content
• Ideal SME is a superior performer who previously functioned
in the job, but was promoted to a higher level
Identify Competencies & Create
Competency Model (Contd.)
• Develop Behavioral Examples
• To complete the competency model, behavioral examples
should be developed for each competency
• Behavioral examples can be based on information
collected while defining job content & identifying
• Job incumbents & their supervisors can be asked to
provide examples of how the competencies are applied on
the job
• The purpose of these behavioral examples is to illustrate
how competencies are actually demonstrated
Application of Competency Mapping
& Selection
And Pay
Training &
• It reduces the chances of a costly hiring mistake
and increase the likelihood of identifying and
selecting the right person for the right job
• Competencies enable establishment of clear high
performance standards .Conduct of objective feedback
meetings direction with regard to specific areas of
• Opportunity to identify/ develop specific training
programs Focused Training enabling improvement
in specific technical and managerial competencies
• Competencies enhances the understanding of
‘development’ and the individual gets the necessary tools
to take responsibility for their own ‘development’ give
the managers a tool to empower them to develop people
• Provide an incentive for employees to grow
and enhance their capabilities
• In Physical terms “to slow a process down”
or to “put obstacles in the way of goal
• Resistance to change thus refers to an
expression of reservation that arises as a
response or reaction to change .
Factors affecting change
• Individual factors: Personality factors such as high
need for control, need for achievement etc, attitudes
based on previous experiences of change.
• Economic loss: loss of job, reduction in earnings or
less opportunity for economic growth.
• Inconvenience : more work for the same pay, more
effort for the same output, greater responsibility and
no additional rewards.
• Threats : increased insecurity, anxiety or worry
• Power: loss of control having inferior knowledge or
levels of competence
• Social disruption: Group cohesiveness, reduced
contact with trusted friends or family
• Losing face: the fear of appearing foolish in the face
of new demands.
Successful change
• It can be described as the flexibility that organizations show
to be able to proactively respond to changes in the market or
external environment
Characteristics crucial for successful change:
1. Overcoming managerial resistance to change
2. Business case for change
3. Focus on the customers
4. Effective communication
5. People development
6. Structured implementation of change
7. Effective monitoring and control
8. Structure to support strategy achievement
9. Mutually agreed performance goals
Issues related to developing Competency Models
 Firms should construct well-defined competency models, and then use those models
to guide talent management and leadership development processes, including
performance evaluation, coaching, and succession planning.
 In many large organizations, there many highly flawed competency models. What's
the major weakness of these models? Complexity! Too many firms have developed
a giant laundry list of competencies.
 Leaders throughout the organization cannot even remember the list, never mind alter
their behavior appropriately. People need to understand clearly the organization's
Senior executives have to boil down their expectations to a simple list of behaviors
and capabilities that they value and wish to cultivate in aspiring leaders.
 Simplicity and brevity will breed behavioral change much more quickly and
effectively than complexity and comprehensiveness
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