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BRITISH STANDARD
Structural use of
steelwork in building —
Part 1: Code of practice for design —
Rolled and welded sections
ICS 91.080.10
12&23<,1*:,7+287%6,3(50,66,21(;&(37$63(50,77('%<&23<5,*+7/$:
BS 5950-1:2000
Incorporating
Corrigenda Nos. 1
and 2 and Amendment
No. 1
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BS 5950-1:2000
Committees responsible for this
British Standard
The preparation of this British Standard was entrusted by Technical
Committee B/525, Building and civil engineering structures, to Subcommittee
B/525/31, Structural use of steel, upon which the following bodies were
represented:
British Constructional Steelwork Association
Building Research Establishment Ltd
Cold Rolled Sections Association
Confederation of British Metalforming
DETR (Construction Directorate)
DETR (Highways Agency)
Health and Safety Executive
Institution of Civil Engineers
Institution of Structural Engineers
Steel Construction Institute
UK Steel Association
Welding Institute
This British Standard, having
been prepared under the
direction of the Civil
Engineering and Building
Structures Standards Policy
Committee, was published
under the authority of the
Standards Committee
on 15 May 2001. It comes into
effect on 15 August 2001
(see foreword).
© BSI 2008
The following BSI references
relate to the work on this
standard:
Committee reference B/525/31
Draft for comment 98/102164 DC
ISBN 978 0 580 62542 8
Amendments issued since publication
Amd. No.
Date
Comments
13199
May 2001
Corrected and reprinted
17137
31 August 2007
See foreword
C2
31 March 2008
Correction to equation in G.4.3
Corrigendum No. 1
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Fillet welds — Directional method
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The start and finish of text introduced or altered by Amendment No. 1 is
indicated in the text by tags !".
© BSI 2008
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This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a
contract. Users are responsible for its correct application.
Compliance with a British Standard cannot confer immunity from
legal obligations.
5
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© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
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!NOTE 1 The imposed loads are the imposed floor loads and the imposed roof loads.
NOTE 2 The crane loads are the self-weight of the crane, the lifted load and the allowances for dynamic effects."
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e) be taken to contribute to the net reactions !of the structure as a whole on its" foundations.
© BSI 2008
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is the notional horizontal deflection of the top of the storey relative to the bottom of the storey,
due to !horizontal forces equal to 0.5 % of the factored vertical dead, imposed and crane loads
applied to the frame at each storey level".
!2.4.2.7.1 General"
should be classed as “sway-sensitive” !and the secondary forces and moments should be allowed for.
NOTE Either elastic or plastic analysis may be used."
!2.4.2.7.2 Elastic analysis
Provided that 2cr is not less than 4.0, the secondary forces and moments should be allowed for by using one
of the following methods:
a) Effective length method: This method applies to cases where the resistance to horizontal forces is
provided by moment-resisting joints or cantilever columns. Sway mode in-plane effective lengths should
be used for the columns, see 4.7.3 for simple structures or E.2 for continuous structures. The beams
should be designed to remain elastic under the factored loads.
b) Amplified sway method: The sway effects (see 2.4.2.8) should be multiplied by the amplification factor
kamp determined from the following:
1) for clad structures, provided that the stiffening effect of masonry infill wall panels or diaphragms of
profiled steel sheeting (see 2.4.2.5) is not explicitly taken into account:
k amp
λ
cr
- but k amp ≥ 1.0
= ---------------------------1.15 λ – 1.5
cr
2) for unclad frames, or for clad structures in which the stiffening effect of masonry infill wall panels
or diaphragms of profiled steel sheeting (see 2.4.2.5) is explicitly taken into account:
k amp
λ
cr
= -------------λ cr – 1
c) Analytical method. A rigorous form of second order elastic analysis should be used.
If 2cr is less than 4.0, method c) should always be used.
2.4.2.7.3 Plastic analysis
If plastic analysis is used, reference should be made to 5.5 for portal frames or 5.7 for multi-storey frames.
The secondary forces and moments should be allowed for by using second order elastic–plastic analysis.
Simple plastic theory should not be used for second order analysis."
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!Alternatively, the value of t1 may be determined from the following:
— if Tmin U T27J p 20 ºC:
t 1 = 50 ( 1.2 )
N
355-----------Y nom
1.4
— if T27J p 20 ºC > Tmin U T27J p 35 ºC:
t 1 = 110 ( 1.8 )
N
355
------------Y nom
1.4
— if Tmin < T27J – 35 ºC:
t1 = 0
in which:
"
!T27J is the test temperature or equivalent test temperature (in °C) for a minimum
Charpy impact value Cv of 27 J as specified in the relevant product standard,
see Table 7;"
n
!Detail" in tension due to
Welded connections to unstiffened flanges,
see 6.7.5 !, and tubular nodal joints"
!NOTE 4 Where abrupt changes in cross-sections coincide with the detail, (other than those covered by descriptions above), e.g.
service openings, notched cut-outs, etc., the general stress levels should take into account the additional stress concentration effect.
NOTE 5 The stress considered is the stress excluding residual stresses and stresses from structural integrity checks to 2.4.5."
© BSI 2008
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!
Product standard, steel grade and quality
Maximum thickness t1 (mm) when K = 1 according to
minimum service temperature
Normal temperatures
BS EN 10025-2:
S 275 JR
S 275 J0
S 275 J2
S 355 JR
S 355 J0
S 355 J2
S 355 K2
S 450 J0
BS EN 10025-3:
S 275 N
S 275 NL
S 355 N
S 355 NL
S 460 N
S 460 NL
BS EN 10025-4:
S 275 M
S 275 ML
S 355 M
S 355 ML
S 460 M
S 460 ML
BS EN 10025-5:
S 355 J0W or S 355 J0WP
S 355 J2W or S 355 J2WP
S 355 K2W
BS EN 10025-6:
S 460 Q
S 460 QL
S 460 QL1
a
b
Internal
External
−5 °C
−15 °C
Lower temperatures
−25 °C
−35 °C
−45 °C
36
65
94
25
46
66
79
33
20
54
78
14
38
55
66
27
—
36
65
—
25
46
55
18
—
20
54
—
14
38
46
10
—
—
36
—
—
25
38
—
113
162
79
114
55
79
94
135
66
95
46
66
78
113
55
79
38
55
65
94
46
66
32
46
54
78
38
55
26
38
113
162
79
114
55
79
94
135
66
95
46
66
78
113
55
79
38
55
65
94
46
66
32
46
54
78
38
55
26
38
46
66
79
38
55
66
25
46
55
14
38
46
—
25
38
46
66
95
38
55
79
32
46
66
26
38
55
18
32
46
The values in this table do not apply if the thickness of the part exceeds the relevant limiting thickness for validity of
the standard Charpy impact value for that product form, see Table 6.
The inclusion of a thickness in this table does not necessarily imply that steel of that thickness can be supplied to that
grade in all product forms.
"
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!
Product standard, steel grade and quality
Maximum thickness t1 (mm) when K = 1 according to
minimum service temperature
Normal temperatures
BS EN 10210:
S 275 J0H
S 275 J2H
S 275 NH
S 275 NLH
S 355 J0H
S 355 J2H
S 355 K2H or S 355 NH
S 355 NLH
S 460 NH
S 460 NLH
BS EN 10219:
S 275 J0H
S 275 J2H
S 275 MH or S 275 NH
S 275 MLH or S 275 NLH
S 355 J0H
S 355 J2H
S 355 K2H or S 355 MH or S 355 NH
S 355 MLH or S 355 NLH
S 460 MH or S 460 NH
S 460 MLH or S 460 NLH
BS 7668:
S 345 J0WH or S 345 J0WPH
S 345 GWH
Internal
External
−5 °C
−15 °C
Lower temperatures
−25 °C
−35 °C
−45 °C
65
94
113
162
46
66
79
114
55
79
54
78
94
135
38
55
66
95
46
66
36
65
78
113
25
46
55
79
38
55
20
54
65
94
14
38
46
66
32
46
—
36
54
78
—
25
38
55
26
38
65
94
113
162
46
66
79
114
55
79
54
78
94
135
38
55
66
95
46
66
36
65
78
113
25
46
55
79
38
55
20
54
65
94
14
38
46
66
32
46
—
36
54
78
—
25
38
55
26
38
48
62
40
52
26
43
15
36
—
20
"
© BSI 2008
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!
Product standard
BS EN 10025-2
Steel grade
S 275 or S 355
BS EN 10025-5
S 450
S 275 or S 355
S 460
S 275, S 355 or
S 460
All
BS EN 10025-6
BS EN 10210-1
S 460
All
BS EN 10219-1
BS 7668
All
All
BS EN 10025-3
BS EN 10025-4
a
Steel quality
Sections
Plates and
flats
Hollow
sections
JR or J0
100
250
—
J2
100
400
—
K2
100
150
—
J0
All
All
All
100
250
200
150
—
250
200
120
—
—
—
—
J0WP or J2WP
J0W, J2W or
K2W
All
J0, J2 or K2
NH or NLH
All
J0WPH
J0WH or GWH
40
150
12
150
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
150
—
—
—
—
—
—
120
65
40
12
40
Maximum thickness at which the full Charpy impact value specified in the product standard applies.
(or equivalent test temperature) T27 J
Steel quality
JR
J0
J2
K2
M
ML
N
NL
Q
QL
QL1
G
a
Product standard
BS EN 10025
BS EN 10210-1
BS EN 10219-1
BS 7668
+20 °C
0 °C
−20 °C
−30 °C a
−30 °C a
−50 °C
−30 °C a
−50 °C
−20 °C a
−40 °C a
−60 °C a
—
+20 °C
0 °C
−20 °C
—
—
—
−30 °C a
−50 °C
—
—
—
—
+20 °C
0 °C
−20 °C
−30 °C a
−30 °C a
−50 °C
−30 °C a
−50 °C
—
—
—
—
—
0 °C
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
−15 °C
Equivalent test temperature for 27 J, see product standard.
"
© BSI 2008
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!Where regulations require that certain buildings should be constructed so that in event of an accident
the building will not suffer collapse to an extent disproportionate to the cause, steel framed buildings
designed as recommended in this standard (including the recommendations of 2.1.1.1) may be assumed to
meet this requirement provided that:
a) buildings of Class 1 and Class 2A are designed to conform to 2.4.5.2;
b) buildings of Class 2B are designed to conform to 2.4.5.2 and 2.4.5.3;
c) buildings of Class 3 are designed to conform to 2.4.5.2 and 2.4.5.3 in addition to resisting the design
conditions that can reasonably be foreseen as possible during the life of the buildings, identified by a
systematic risk analysis of normal and abnormal hazards such that any collapse is not disproportionate
to the cause.
where
Class 1
includes houses not exceeding 4 storeys; agricultural buildings; buildings into which people
rarely go, provided no part of the building is closer to another building, or area where people do
go, than a distance of 1.5 times the building height.
Class 2A includes 5 storey single occupancy houses; hotels not exceeding 4 storeys; flats, apartments
and other residential buildings not exceeding 4 storeys; offices not exceeding 4 storeys;
industrial buildings not exceeding 3 storeys; retailing premises not exceeding 3 storeys of less
than 2 000 m2 floor area in each storey; single storey educational buildings; all buildings not
exceeding 2 storeys to which members of the public are admitted and which contain floor areas
not exceeding 2 000 m2 floor area at each storey.
Class 2B includes hotels, flats, apartments and other residential buildings greater than 4 storeys but not
exceeding 15 storeys; educational buildings greater than 1 storey but not exceeding 15 storeys;
retailing premises greater than 3 storeys but not exceeding 15 storeys; hospitals not
exceeding 3 storeys; offices greater than 4 storeys but not exceeding 15 storeys; all buildings to
which members of the public are admitted which contain floor areas exceeding 2 000 m2 but less
than 5 000 m2 at each storey; car parking not exceeding 6 storeys.
Class 3
includes all buildings defined above as Class 2A and 2B that exceed the limits on area or number
of storeys; grandstands accommodating more than 5 000 spectators; buildings containing
hazardous substances or processes.
NOTE For steel beams supported by other materials, reference should be made to BS 5628 for masonry, BS 5268 for timber,
BS 8110 for concrete and BS 5950-5 for cold-formed steel."
2.4.5.2 !Minimum requirements"
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!Where precast concrete or other heavy floor or roof units are used, the bearing details should conform
to BS 8110."
Column ties
Edge ties
Re-entrant corner
Tie anchoring
re-entrant corner
Edge ties
A
Tie anchoring
column A
Edge ties
Beams not used as ties
2.4.5.3 !Limiting the effects of accidental removal of supports"
!Where regulations require certain buildings to be specially designed to limit the effect of accidental
removal of supports, steel-framed buildings designed as recommended in this standard (including the
recommendations of 2.1.1.1 and 2.4.5.2) may be assumed to meet this requirement provided that the
following five conditions a) to e) are met."
22
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— for internal ties: !0.5(1.4gk + 1.6qk)stLn" but not less than 75 kN;
— for edge ties: !0.25(1.4gk + 1.6qk)stLn" but not less than 75 kN.
!n
is a factor related to the number of storeys in the structure as follows:
Number of storeys:
Value of factor, n:
5 or more
4
3
2
1
1.0
0.75
0.5
0.25
0
"
This may be assumed to be satisfied if, in the absence of other loading, the member and its end
connections are capable of resisting a tensile force equal to its end reaction under factored loads
!multiplied by n", or the larger end reaction !multiplied by n" if they are unequal, but not less
than 75 kN.
resisting a tensile force equal to the largest !total factored vertical dead and imposed load" applied
to the column at a single floor level located between that column splice and the next column splice
down.
e) Heavy floor units. Where precast concrete or other heavy floor !, stair" or roof units are used they
should be effectively anchored in the direction of their span, either to each other over a support, or
directly to their supports as recommended in BS 8110.
time, of each column !and each beam supporting one or more columns". If condition d) is not met, a
check should be made in each storey in turn to ensure that disproportionate collapse would not be
precipitated by the notional removal, one at a time, of each element of the systems providing resistance to
horizontal forces.
© BSI 2008
23
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All beams designed
to act as ties
Tie anchoring
column A
A
24
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
25
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26
blank
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© BSI 2008
27
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28
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29
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Back mark
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A
30
B
s1
s2
C
g1
b
g2
s1
Direction of
direct stress
g1
s2
Back mark
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b1
d
t
b
=
© BSI 2008
=
T
d
d
t
t
b
b
= =
T
d
t
b2
T2
T
D
d
t
B
b
T1
T
d
D
D
t
b
b
t
d
b
= =
T
T
D
t
t
b
D
t
B
31
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b
d
t
32
b
t
b
t
T
d
b
d
b
t
b
b
T
b
b
T
t
d
t
© BSI 2008
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a rolled !or welded" I- or H-section should take account of the width-to-thickness ratios shown in
Figure 6 as follows:
b
b
T
T
bp
© BSI 2008
tp
bo
tp
33
34
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Web
© BSI 2008
35
36
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Tension Compression
_
© BSI 2008
+
d
!but Sy,eff
Tension Compression
f1
_
f2
+
f1
d
f2
Sy "
37
38
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15Tε 15Tε
20tε
20tε
13Tε 13Tε
13Tε 13Tε
20tε
1.5t
20tε
20tε
15Tε 15Tε
20tε 1.5t
2.5t
1.5t
20t ε
20t ε
17.5tε
17.5tε 2.5t
Class 1, 2 or 3 outstand
2.5t
20tε
20Tε
17.5tε
17.5t ε
2.5t
1.5t
© BSI 2008
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15Tε 15Tε
15Tε
15Tε
Compression
flange
Centroidal axis
of the gross
cross-section
13T ε
13Tε 13Tε
13T ε
Centroidal axis
of the effective
cross-section
Tension flange
1.5t
20t ε
20t ε
1.5t
2.5t
17.5tε
17.5t ε
2.5t
Compression
flange
20Tε
20Tε
Centroidal axis
of the gross
cross-section
Centroidal axis
of the effective
cross-section
Tension
flange
40
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f cw
Compression flange
0.4 beff
Non-effective zone
Elastic neutral axis
of gross section
0.6 b
eff
t
f tw
© BSI 2008
Elastic neutral axis
of effective section
Tension flange
41
42
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!4.2.1.4 Curtailment of flange plates
In a beam of compound section, see 3.5.3, each additional flange plate should be extended beyond the point
at which the cross-section is sufficient without it. The extension beyond the theoretical cut-off point should
be long enough for its connecting welds to transfer the longitudinal force in the plate. This force should be
calculated from the moment at the theoretical cut-off point, based upon the properties of the compound
section."
© BSI 2008
43
44
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© BSI 2008
45
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46
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© BSI 2008
47
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48
© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
49
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L
L
L
L
50
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
51
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52
© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
53
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54
© BSI 2008
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x
© BSI 2008
x
M
x
x
x
x
=
x
=
=
x
LLT
x
βM
M
=
x
x
M
βM
L LT
L LT
x
x
x
x
βM
M
βM
LLT
L
x
=
=
LT
x
x
LLT
LLT
x
=
=
x
LLT
55
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M1
56
M2
M3
M4
M5
Mmax
M1
M2
M3
M4
M5
M max
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
57
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58
© BSI 2008
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DL
© BSI 2008
DL
D
D
59
60
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© BSI 2008
61
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62
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© BSI 2008
63
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64
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pyf
pyf
pyw
© BSI 2008
pyf
pyw
pyf
pyf
pyw
pyf
pyf
pyf
pyw
pyw
65
66
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Fv
a 4.2.5.1
Vb = Vw
b 4.4.4.2(b)
d
c H.3
c
d 4.4.5.2
0.5 Vw
c
b
0
Mf
a
M
Fv
Vb
e
a 4.2.5.1
b 4.4.4.2(b)
Vw
c H.3
c
e 4.4.5.3
0.5 Vw
c
0
© BSI 2008
b
Mf
a
M
67
68
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© BSI 2008
69
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70
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© BSI 2008
71
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72
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!but Fq
© BSI 2008
0"
73
74
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T
© BSI 2008
t
r
b1
T
t
b1
g
s
b1
b1
r
T
t
g
s
t
Dc
75
76
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© BSI 2008
77
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78
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© BSI 2008
79
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80
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© BSI 2008
81
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82
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B
B
B
U
U
U
U
U
U
B
B
B
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
83
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84
© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
85
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86
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© BSI 2008
87
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88
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© BSI 2008
89
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90
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© BSI 2008
91
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92
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© BSI 2008
93
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94
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© BSI 2008
95
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96
© BSI 2008
y
y
b
v
b
v
x
y
y
x
x
x
x
a
a v
a
a v
x
y
v
b b
v
b b
y
v
v
x
x
a
a
a
a
y
y
b
b
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© BSI 2008
97
x
x
y
y
y
y
x x
x x
y
y
y
y
x
x
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98
© BSI 2008
y
y
x
x
x
x
y
y
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© BSI 2008
99
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100
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© BSI 2008
101
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102
© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
103
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!m
104
"
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
105
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X
x
x
x
106
=
=
=
=
=
L
M
X
=
x
x
x
L
=
L
=
X
βM
X
X
M
L
L
X
βM
L
M1
M1
M2
M2
Mmax
Mmax
M3
M3
M4
M4
M5
M5
x
x
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
107
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108
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© BSI 2008
109
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2c + T
2c + t
110
2c + t
Effective portion
Stiffener
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111
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112
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© BSI 2008
113
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114
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© BSI 2008
115
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1.08 D
60º
116
D
1.5 D
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5.1.3 Base stiffness !and capacity"
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!NOTE Where it is required to use nominally pinned bases in second order plastic analysis, a base moment capacity should
be assumed such that the maximum moment that the base can attract is very small. Otherwise the base should be treated as
nominally rigid, see 5.1.3.2b)."
118
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119
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)
120
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121
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Ds
Dh
Lh
122
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
123
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Lr
sa
124
Wr
hr
h
L
Wo
hr
h1
h2
L
sb
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
125
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126
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*
*
*
*
X
* *
* *
<_ Ls
*
*
* X
*
* *
<_ L
*
_
* *<L
s
s
*
*
X
*
*
* * * <_ L
s
* *
<_ Ls
Key:
Restraint
*X Restraint
or virtual restraint
!NOTE Recommendations for the necessary stiffness of the moment-resisting joints are given in 6.1.5."
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127
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Provided that 2cr !is not less than" 4.0 !the secondary forces and moments due to" sway should be
allowed for by using one of the following methods.
a) Effective length method: In this method, sway mode in-plane effective lengths, see !E.2" should be
used for the columns. The beams shoule be designed to remain elastic under the factored loads.
In this method, non-sway mode in-plane effective lengths, see !E.2", should be used for the columns.
c) !Analytical method: A rigorous form of second order elastic analysis should be used."
!If 2cr is less than 4.0, method c) should always be used.
NOTE Recommendations for the necessary stiffness of the moment-resisting joints are given in 6.1.5."
frames
128
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0.95 λ cr
!---------------"
λ cr – 1
© BSI 2008
129
130
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© BSI 2008
131
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132
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© BSI 2008
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e
134
e
D
e = end or edge distance
D
e
e
e
e = end or edge distance
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
135
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Fr
136
Fr
Lt
Lv
Lv
Lv
Lt
Lt
Lv
Fr
Lt
Fr
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Lj
© BSI 2008
137
138
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© BSI 2008
139
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s <_ 0,55B
s
B
140
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2Ft
Ft
M1
© BSI 2008
M1
2Ft
Ft
Ft + Q
Q
Ft + Q
M1
M1
M2
M2
Q
141
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is the !specified minimum preload, see" BS 4604;
142
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143
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t
D4
D3
D4
144
D2
D2
45º
45º
D1
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
145
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146
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L
© BSI 2008
s
_ w
L >T
2s min.
Tw
Weld stopped
short
147
148
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be
© BSI 2008
bp
be
tp
149
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s
150
s1
a
s
a
s
a
s2
s
s
a
s
a
p
© BSI 2008
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!Where the fillet welds are symmetrically disposed the total capacity of the two welds may be taken as
equal to the capacity of the parent metal provided that:
a) the weld is made with a matching or over-matching electrode from Table 37;
b) the sum of the throat sizes is not less than the connected plate thickness;
c) the connected elements are grade S 355 or lower."
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151
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2FT
FL
FT
FL
Throat
of the weld
152
FT
FT
FT
FT
a
θ
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s
2
s1
a
© BSI 2008
153
154
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© BSI 2008
155
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156
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© BSI 2008
157
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158
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© BSI 2008
159
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160
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© BSI 2008
161
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162
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© BSI 2008
163
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164
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© BSI 2008
165
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166
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© BSI 2008
167
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168
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© BSI 2008
169
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170
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© BSI 2008
171
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172
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© BSI 2008
173
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174
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See D.1.1. (b)
L
X
Y
© BSI 2008
Y
X
Effective length of column:
Axis X - X = 1.5L
Axis Y - Y = 0.85L
175
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L
X
Y
3
Y
L2
X
L
X
Y
Y
L
Alternative methods
of restraint
1
X
Effective length of column:
Axis X - X = 1.5L
Axis Y - Y = 0.85L1,1.0L2 or 1.0L3
whichever is the greatest
176
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© BSI 2008
177
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Effective lengths of columns:
Upper roof column
Axis X - X = 1.5L1
Axis Y - Y = Y2 - Y2 = L1
Lower roof column
Axis B - B = 0.85L
Axis Y - Y = L2, L3, L4 or L5
whichever is the greatest
Upper roof column
X
L1
Y2
Combined roof and crane column
Axis A - A = 1.5L
Axis B - B = 0.85L
Y2
X
Crane column
L9
L
Y1
A
Crane column
Axis B - B = 0.85L
Axis Y1 - Y1 = L6, L7, L8 or L9
whichever is the greatest
L2
8
Y
B
L3
B
L7
L
C.G.
Y
Y1
L
4
A
L6
L5
Lower roof column
178
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Effective lengths of columns:
Roof column
Axis B1 - B1 = L1
Axis A - A = 1.5L1
Crane column
Axis B - B = 0.85L
Axis Y - Y = L2, L3, L4 or L5
whichever is the greatest
Roof column
L1
Combined crane column
Axis A - A = 1.5L
Axis B - B = 0.85L
A
B1
B1
Crane column
A
L4
A
Y
L
Y
B
L3
B
Y
L5
L2
Y
C.G.
© BSI 2008
179
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!NOTE Recommendations for the necessary stiffness of the moment-resisting joints are given in 6.1.5."
180
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© BSI 2008
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5
0.9
Pinned
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
k1
0.8
5
0.8
0.8
0.7
5
0.7
0.6
0.5
5
25
0.5
0.6
0.3
75
5
0.5
0.2
0.5
25
0.1
0.5
0.0
Fixed
182
75
0.6
0.6
0.4
Fixed 0.0
0.7
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
k2
0.9
1.0
Pinned
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
183
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K
K
184
11
Column-length being designed
K
k
K
k
K
1
1
c
21
K
K
12
22
2
2
should be taken as I/L. !Text deleted"
© BSI 2008
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!Text deleted"
© BSI 2008
185
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1.0
2.8
2.6
3.0
Pinned
2.4 2
2.
0.9
k1
2.0
1.9
0.8
1.8
1.7
0.7
1.6
1.5
0.6
1.4
1.2
5
1.2
0.4
1.1
1.0
0.2
Fixed
186
5
1.1
0.3
0.1
1.3
0.5
5
1.0
0.9
0.0
0.0
Fixed
75
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
k2
1.0
Pinned
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
187
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188
© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
189
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190
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Intermediate restraints
F
*
*
x
x
F
*
x
x
*
x
x
*
x
M1
Haunched member
x
x
x
*
*
F
M2
x
x
x
*
*
F
M2
Axis of restraint
Reference axis
*
x
Non-restrained flange
M1
Tapered member
F
x
Axis of restraint
Reference axis
a
Reference
axis
x
Non-restrained flange
M1
Uniform member
Axis of restraint
x
Axis of restraint
x
x
x
Non-restrained flange
x
*
*
F
M2
Key :
Both flanges laterally restrained
x One flange laterally restrained
*
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*
x
*
x
x
x
x
x
x
*
x
*
Lh
Ly
Two-flange haunch
*
x
*
x
x
x
x
x
x
*
x
*
Lh
Ly
Three-flange haunch
Key:
Both flanges laterally restrained
*x One flange laterally restrained
192
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© BSI 2008
193
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194
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x = Restraint
x
x
max
© BSI 2008
D
x
Ly
x
min
D
x
x
Ds
D
h
x
Lh
Ly
x
x
x
Ds
Lh
x
x
Ly
Dh
195
196
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+
200
–
© BSI 2008
+
100
100
200
–
197
198
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Applied moment
diagram
Applied moment
diagram
Conservative
moment gradient
Conservative
moment gradient
1
! n t = ------------------- { R + 3R 2 + 4R 3 + 3R 4 + R 5 + 2 ( R S – R E ) }
12R max 1
0.5
"
y;
— !Rmax is the maximum of the absolute values of R anywhere in the length Ly."
© BSI 2008
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RS
RE
R1
(R1 )
200
R2
(R2 )
R3
R4
R4
R5
RS = R E
(R3 )
R5
© BSI 2008
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!A web required to resist moment or axial force combined with shear should be checked using the
reduction factor @. If the web depth-to-thickness ratio d/t > 70¼ for a rolled section, or 62¼ for a welded
section, and if the simple shear buckling resistance Vw (see 4.4.5.2) is less than the shear capacity Pv
(see 4.2.3), @ should be taken as specified in H.3.2. Otherwise the reduction factor @ should be obtained
from 4.2.5.3."
is the shear force;
!Vw is the simple shear buckling resistance from 4.4.5.2."
202
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203
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204
© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
205
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Hq
Tension
field
206
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Hq
End post
© BSI 2008
Hq
Hq
End post
End post
207
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Fe
Fs
Hq
Fe
ae
Fs
Hq
ae
Fs
Anchor
panel
ae
208
Hq
Fs
Hq
ae
End post
Fe
Fe
End post
Fe
Fs
Anchor
panel
ae
Hq
End post
Fe
Fs
Hq
Anchor
panel
ae
© BSI 2008
© BSI 2008
209
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210
© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
211
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212
© BSI 2008
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© BSI 2008
213
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214
© BSI 2008
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!BS 5268 (all parts), Structural use of timber."
!BS 5628 (all parts), Code of practice for the use of masonry."
© BSI 2008
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BS 5950-1:2000
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