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Chapter 4 (Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood)

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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Chapter 4
Physical Development in
Infancy and Toddlerhood
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Physical Development in
Infancy and Toddlerhood (1/5)
I. Body growth
A. Muscle and fat makeup
B. Body proportions
A.
B.
Cephalocaudal trend
Proximodistal trend
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Physical Development in
Infancy and Toddlerhood (2/5)
II. Brain development
A. The nervous system
B. Neurophysiological methods
C. Cerebral cortex and
lateralization
D. Sensitive periods in brain
development
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Physical Development in
Infancy and Toddlerhood (3/5)
III. Influences on development
A. Heredity
B. Nutrition: breast-feeding and
malnutrition
C. Experience
IV. Learning capacity: classical
and operant conditioning,
habituation and imitation
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Physical Development in
Infancy and Toddlerhood (4/5)
V. Motor Development
A. Reaching and grasping
B. Dynamic Systems theory
VI. Perceptual Development
A. Perceptual narrowing
B. Changing visual preferences
C. Differentiation theory
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Physical Development in
Infancy and Toddlerhood (5/5)
Note what’s missing from this
list: cognitive and social
development in infancy
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Body Growth
 Height increases 50%
by age 1, 75% by age 2
 Weight doubles by 5
months, triples by 1 year
 Average 2 year old:
28 lbs, 33”
 Individual and group
differences in size and
rate of growth
(Negatively accelerating positive sloped)
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Body Growth During
First Two Years
Figure 4.1
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Individual and Group
Differences in Growth
 Group differences:
 male/female
 ethnic
 Individual differences
 Skeletal age: best
estimate of physical
maturity
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Growth Trends
Changes in Body Proportions
Cephalocaudal
 “Head to tail”
 Lower part of
body grows later
than the head
(Note:
Proximodistal
 “Near to far”
 Extremities grow
later than head,
chest, and trunk
applies to motor development as well.
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
II. Brain Development: Neurons
and Their Connective Fibers
Neurons
Nerve cells that store and
transmit information
Synapses
Tiny gaps where fibers from
different neurons come together
but do not touch
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that are released by
neurons and cross the synapse
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Neurons and Their
Connective Fibers
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Methods for Measuring
Brain Functioning
 Electroencephalogram (EEG)
 Event-related potentials (ERPs)
 Functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI)
 Positron emission tomography (PET)
 Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Regions of the
Cerebral Cortex
Figure 4.4
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Prefrontal Cortex
 Region of the cerebral cortex responsible
for thought, especially:




consciousness
inhibition of impulses
integration of information
use of memory, reasoning, planning, and
problem-solving strategies
 Undergoes rapid growth in the preschool
and school years, and in adolescence
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Lateralization of the
Cerebral Cortex
Left Hemisphere
 Verbal abilities
 Positive emotion
 Sequential, analytic
processing
Right Hemisphere
 Spatial abilities
 Negative emotion
 Holistic, integrative
processing
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Brain Plasticity
 At birth, hemispheres have already begun
to specialize
 Highly plastic cerebral cortex has high
capacity for learning
 If part of cortex is damaged, other areas
can take over its tasks
 Older children and adults retain some
plasticity, but less than in young children
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
III. Influences on Development:
Sensitive Periods in
Brain Development
Appropriate stimulation
is vital for brain growth
Experience-expectant
growth: depends on
ordinary experiences
Experience-dependent growth: additional
growth resulting from specific learning
experiences
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Changing States of Arousal
 Sleep–wake pattern moves to night–day
schedule during first year
 By age 2, total sleep time declines from 18
to 12 hours per day
 Sleep patterns are
affected by social
environment,
cultural values
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Influences on Early Growth
 Heredity
 Nutrition:
 breastfeeding
vs. bottle-feeding
 risks of overfeeding
 Malnutrition
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Benefits of Breastfeeding
 Correct balance of fat
and protein
 Ensures nutritional
completeness
 Helps ensure healthy
physical growth
 Protects against disease
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Malnutrition
Type
Consequences
Marasmus (diet low in
all essential nutrients)
Most likely in 1st year
Lasting physical damage;
learning and behavioral
effects; risk of death
Kwashiorkor (diet
very low in protein)
Critical time (1-3)
Lasting physical damage;
Swollen abdomen
learning and behavioral
effects
Food insecurity
Effects on physical
growth; learning problems
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
IV. Learning Capacities in
Infancy: Classical Conditioning
Figure 4.5
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Operant Conditioning
Reinforcer
Punishment
 Increases probability
that behavior will
occur again by
 Reduces probability
that behavior will
occur again by
 presenting desirable
stimulus
 removing unpleasant
stimulus
 presenting unpleasant
stimulus
 removing desirable
stimulus
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Using Habituation to Study
Infant Memory and Knowledge
Figure 4.6
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Imitation
 Infants are born with
primitive ability to
imitate
 Mirror neurons provide
biological explanation
 Powerful means of
learning
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Motor Development
Sequence and Trends
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 Gross-motor development:
crawling, standing, walking
 Fine-motor development:
reaching, grasping
 Sequence is fairly uniform
 Large individual differences
in rate of motor progress
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Motor Development:
The First Two Years
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
V. Motor Skills as
Dynamic Systems
 Mastery involves acquiring increasingly
complex systems of action with each skill
 Each new skill is joint product of




central nervous system development
the body’s movement capacity
the child’s goals
environmental supports for the skill
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Cultural Variations in
Motor Development
Rates and patterns of
development affected by
 early movement
opportunities
 environmental
stimulation
 child-rearing practices
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Milestones of
Reaching and Grasping
Notice the proximodistal trend in development of fine motor skills
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
VI. Perceptual Development:
Developments in Hearing
4–7 months
Sense of musical phrasing
6–7 months
Distinguishes musical tunes based
on variations in rhythmic patterns
6–8 months
“Screens out” sounds not
used in native language
6–12 months
Detects sound regularities
in human speech
7–9 months
Begins to divide speech stream
into wordlike units
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Visual Development
 Supported by rapid
maturation of eyes and
visual centers in brain
 Improvements:
© Payless Images/Shutterstock
 2 months: focus
 4 months: color vision
 6 months: acuity,
scanning, and tracking
 6–7 months: depth
perception
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Visual Development:
Robert Fantz apparatus
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Milestones in
Depth Perception
3–4 weeks
Sensitivity to motion cues
2–3 months
Sensitivity to binocular depth cues
5–7 months
Sensitivity to pictorial depth cues
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
The
Visual
Cliff
Reveals link
between crawling
and depth
perception
Figure 4.11
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Milestones in
Pattern Perception
2
months
Becomes sensitive to contrast in complex
patterns; prefers them to simple patterns
2–3
months
Thoroughly explores a pattern’s features,
pausing briefly to look at each part
3–4
months
Detects pattern organization, integrating
pattern parts into organized whole
12
months
Detects familiar objects represented
by incomplete drawings
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Subjective Boundaries in
Visual Patterns (~1 year)
Figure 4.12
(Adapted from Rose, Jankowski, & Senior, 1997.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Milestones in Face Perception
Birth–
1 month
Prefers simple facelike pattern to other stimuli
2–4
months
Prefers complex facial pattern
to other complex stimulus arrangements
Prefers mother’s detailed facial
features to another woman’s
3 months
Distinguishes features of different faces
5–12
months
Perceives emotional expressions
on faces as meaningful wholes
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Early Face Perception
Figure 4.13
(From Cassia, Turati, & Simion, 2004; Johnson, 1999; Mondloch et al., 1999.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Milestones in
Intermodal Perception
Birth
Perceives amodal sensory properties
3–4
months
Matches faces with voices on basis of
lip–voice synchrony, emotional expression,
and speaker’s age and gender
4–6
months
Perceives and remembers unique
face–voice pairings of unfamiliar adults
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Differentiation Theory
Infants
 actively search for invariant features
of the environment
 notice stable relationships among
features of a stimulus, detecting
patterns such as individual faces
 gradually detect finer and finer
features
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
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