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day 3

Nature of work has changed in the past 200 years, less satisfying, alienation,
compartmentalized, and repetitive
Artisans don’t have the same pride.
200 years ago the idea of a job didn't exist.
We are ruining our planets.
Studying the labour process is important.
Why employers are so consumed with efficiency and control?
Division of labour- degrading work (deskilled- proletarization)
More efficient = more profit
Wanted workers to be more docile and obedient
(like big brothers watching your every move)
Management became more sophisticated & scientific (hierarchy of power)
Jobs became boring especially lower class (control becomes more detailed and hierarchical)
From craft work to factory work:
Circa 1800- workers were scare - employers were paternalistic-close mutual relationship of
mutual dependence.
1850’s onwards- large pool of workers- frequently layoffed, walkouts, strikes and struggles.
But manufacturing was still small scale
Master craftsmen ( with apprentices & helpers) in control > pride in their work
Larger factories > struggle for control
Employers were overwhelmed with labour- tons of poor irish arrived to toronto,and
immigrants coming from europe.
Employers got a lot more demanding with employees - they wanted to take advantage of the
cheap labour
The factory owners wanted to increase production & lower costs.
Ford builds bigger factories, highland park plant has 15,000 workers
He didn’t want experienced craftsmen
500 supervisors enforced control (very controlling, one firing a day approximately)
Henry ford wanted workers to do small tasks, one makes spoke, one makes rings, one guy
will put spoke in rings etc.
Workers were being hassled, industrial union was formed as a result
Fordism (1863-1947)
Industrial management based on:
Assembly-line methods production of cheap, uniform commodities in high volume.
Winning employee loyalty with good wages and a reduced work week.
Initially intolerant of unionism but gave in to U.A.W
Labour process - the assembly line
Employer wants to expand his capital> convert sum into wages. Labour process.generates
surplus . employer can accumulate more capital/profits.
.to get the most capital. Capitalist owners want to control the labour process so they could
boost productivity
Regulates hours of work, set rules & regulation
Develop detailed division of labour> separate work into minor tasks> separate conception
from execution> workers only know one small task
Detailed division of labour> deskilling
Replace skilled craftsmen by making workers dfo a small tasks to make the job brainless
Charles babbage. Babbage principle
Break down task > sub-divide work
Separate conception from execution
Karl marx - technology and alienation ( no connection to job)
Frederick winslow taylor (1856-1911)
The principles of scientific management (1911)
Find the “one best way” to do a task
Using “time and motion studies” he tried to find the most efficient way to perform a task - and
eliminate all unnecessary actions or body movements
Then set a “optimum daily production rate for each worker”
E.g. loading of a railway - taylorism
E.g. fast food- timed everything - mcdonalds best way to do things. (systematized)
You see it everywhere and everyday - doesn’t take long to train staff
Scientific management known as taylorism
Used piece rate compensation
Taylor saw workers “soldering’ or “slacking off’ at every opportunity and advocated close
(unfair as people who are ill don’t get piece rate)
Hourly wage + bonus
Soldiers have a bad reputation for relaxing when not in battle - sergeant keep them in
Security cameras watching what you are doing every minute.
Scientific management- think of taylor and three e’s
Keynes and the welfare state - printers strike of 1872
Pressure on employers yet still making money- workers able to become consumers (virtuous
E.g. send kids to school & college.
Capitalism takes off - but there were problems (1930’s - great depression)
Keynes made sure the government regulated market place
Review assignment- librarian
Citations - different ways of doing so e.g. apa
Factor out citations, I want you to copy out the name of author etc.
Anything above 30% is a red flag of plagiarism
Readings need to be read
New materials that need to be included- contact t.a to make suggestions
Movies have to be approved by t.a and books
There is a list of acceptable movies to watch on moodle- 50 movies ( not necessarily up to
date - list will be amended)
Weekly assignments- 3
(the answers are to be found in the textbook)
Graduate student shave to come to class having read their textbook
(form opinion after already reading textbook)
Three strikes in order to score homerun on test.
(most of the questions will be from the textbook)
Taking quote from textbook use segment quote format ( 2 page essay cram the quote)
Direct quotes always need a citation
Name at the top of the page, couple of inches of citation is fine
Not required to write large essays
T.a. are only paid to mark three assignments ( they might indulge the top four if you are
(teacher will try to put questions up earlier)
Stephanie comes form business school -they have the best library in that part of campus
(across the street) - lot of services you don’t get at scott library
Can also go there for job prospects
Come back in jan and feb on how to research your essay
[email protected]
2nd floor-schulich building - bronfman library (individual study carrels)
Six bookable group study room - 2nd floor
Scott library -lots of people
Lolis library support & services
Hours; monday-thursday 8am -11 am
Friday: 8am - 6pm
Business chat starts at 10 am , grey out means full
Library branches, bronfman website could be in another country you can access
Library’s search​- libraries home
Search-sosc 1510: the future of work
Course reserves - use professors last name or course code
3 different items on reserve- accessible on scott library
Career prospects- next semester
Using the library’s website to find specific articles
who= author
what= article title
when= date
where=journal title, volume and page
Library homes- periodical title e.g. social problems,
Go to drop down menu , periodical title search- click find
You will get links, choose the right one
Sometimes you need to buy journals in overlapping way (many database vendors)
Find a subscription link that covers the year it was published e.g. 1996 to present
Issues section, change year to 2010, go back to citation, volume 57, issue 3, (august)
Control f and search for keywords
Neo-taylorism at work: can look at abstract
Second tool - google scholar
Searches a subset of internet available content, scholarly journal articles, books, court
Limiting and narrowing scope of research
Can set up google scholar preferences but don’t always work
Library homepage- grey search bar , google scholar
Click to access resource
Copy title of article in yorku google scholar
Don’t know how to pay- don’t have to part of tution
Find it @ yorklink on google scholars
Glendon location-ship stuff
Conducting research
1. Understanding assignment
2. Search strategy
3. Conduct research ( find research mistakes)
Spark three sections:
Getting started
Pulling it together
Each Section has multiple modules
Book or movie review (book review0
Roman, R - continental crucible (read & summarize book - review relevance to course)
Discuss insights it provides on future of work
Length: 700-1000 words
Use specific citation style, MlA, chicago
Potentially use additional books
Find out if there are any published book review of content crucible
Find additional resources on the north american free trade agreement (Nafta)
Scholarly articles- the reshaping of mexican labour experts under nafta : paradoxes and
A book can be a nice intro to a topic- many different chapters
Scholarly article- is very niche, specific type of audience
Scholarly books- nonfiction and fiction
Scholarly books:
Provide a broad overview of topic written by scholars/researchers
Sometimes not as current due to publishing process
Scholarly articles- sometimes peer review ( only 20 page slogan normally)
Books on library website
Use post search filters to limit search further
You Can use book number on it spine
Journal articles- research guides (normally won’t find it easily)
Library homes, research guides blue link
Have other links to different resources
Sometimes find red [email protected] button
Should show - scholars portal
Click on pdf download button
Search strategy - how to combine keywords more effectively (limits search results)
Combines similar terms
Greater results
Makes search broader- synonyms
Phrase searching- “double quotation marks” searches it as an exact phrase
Truncation - manag* = manager , managing, management etc. ( allows database to look for
variant endings)
Mexico or migrant workers aern’t synonms (lok for nafta, mexico and migrant workers) comnine with and not or
Book review resources- research guide
Libray home page- research guides- finding types of info- book reviews, major reosurces
drop down options, book review digest, fill in passport york,
E.g. “continental crucible” - few bookr eviews
Pdf fullt ext - 3 pages long review one of them.
Apply the parca test
Using research results ehtically through citation
E.g. (Harris,2002, p.35)
When to cite?
Create an in-text reference & a complete citation in assignments bibliography (apa)
2. Create complete citaitons in reference list at the end of the assignemnt
Most int ext citations require 3 things:
The author’s alst name
Paraphrase correctley:
Provide an in- text citaion
. make sure you have rephrased the idea in your own words
apa= e.g. research on nafta shows (smith, 2009)
.Smith (2009) iluustrates how nafta has
Corporate authro example
Recent data shows the ( the city of tornto , 2016)
Proper quoting in apa
Twow ays to cite direct quotes in apa:
1) Quebec supports worker rights ina number of ways in fact “since the socnd half of the
1970’s it has prohibited the use of repelacemtn workers during strikes” (Smith,2001,
2) Smith (2001) discusses how “quebec has a releatively generous body of labour law (pg.
Article excerpt from Belk, 2014, p.1596
(Chicago referenceing are more intensive)
Apa refernce list
New page at the end of your assignment
Provides readers with complete information
For the reousrces you cited used
(organzied alphabetically by auhtors last name- no bold or underline but itlaics is allowed in
Hanging indent (0.5 inch)
Double spaced
Four citation resources
Article databases soemtime shave a citation button
Drop down menu
Humbers libraries- apa videos
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