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chapter 21

Jazz Jones
Period 8
KC 6.2.IV & 6.1.III
Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented global scale // Disease, scientific innovations, and conflict led to
demographic shifts.
WWI Causes • The assassination of the heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke Franz
Ferdinand, catapulted the major powers of Europe into a war they could not predict
(June 28th, 1914).
→ Triple Alliance = Germany, Austria, and Italy
→ Triple Entente = Russia, France, and Britain
→ was truly a minor incident, but the fragile/fluctuating balance of power caused
the dispute to grow
→ the rulers of the major countries of Europe saw the world as an arena of
conflict/competition among rival nation-states
→ the prospect of war was a welcome occasion for national unity
→ industrialized militarism
New Technology • New military technology contributed to the staggering casualties of
the war, including some 10 million deaths (perhaps twice that number wounded, crippled, or
→ naval warships
→ submarines
→ tanks
→ airplanes
→ poison gas
→ machines guns
→ barbed wire
non-European States • Europe’s imperial reach around the world likewise shaped the
scope/conduct of the war, and though centered in Europe = had global dimensions and
certainly merited its familiar title as a “world war.”
→ Africa = France & Britain
→ India = Britain
→ China = Germany
→ Japan = Britain
→ Ottoman Empire = Germany
→ Australia = Britain
→ New Zealand = Britain
→ Canada = France
→ South Africa = Britain
→ United States = joined when Germany threatened them (1917)
KC 6.2.IV, 6.1.III & 6.2.I
Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented global scale // c // Europe dominated the global political order
at the beginning of the 20th century, but both land-based and transoceanic empires gave way to new states by
the century’s end.
The Loss of Life • The destructive potential of industrialized warfare made itself
tragically felt and the new trench warfare resulted in enormous casualties.
Women • Most women on both sides actively supported their countries’ war efforts
→in factories = women replaced the men who had le for the battlefront
→ caused a halt to the women’s suffrage movement & to women’s activities on
behalf of international peace
National Self-Determination • Creation of national governmental institutions by a
group of people who view themselves as a distinct nation
→ coined by Woodrow Wilson (U.S. President)
→ opposed to colonialism and imperialism
→ brought the emergence of a new Central Europe (Poland, Czechoslovakia,
Yugoslavia, etc.)
The Armenian Genocide • During the war itself, Ottoman authorities massacred or
deported an estimated 1 million Armenians.
→ suspected that some of their Armenian population were collaborating w/the
Russian enemy
Impacts on the Ottoman Empire • Brought a final end to a declining Ottoman Empire,
creating the modern map of the Middle East
→ new states = Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine
→ Arabs emerged from Turkish rule
→ conflicting British promises to both Arabs and Jews regarding Palestine set the
stage for an enduring struggle over that ancient and holy land
Impacts on India • To gain Indian support for the war, the British had publicly
promised to put that colony on the road to self-government
→ set the stage for the independence struggle that followed
Impacts on Japan • Emerged strengthened from the war, w/European support for its
claim to take over German territory and privileges in China (enraged Chinese nationalists)
KC 6.3.I
States responded in a variety of ways to the economic challenges of the 20th century.
The Great Depression • All across the Euro-American heartland of the capitalist world,
this vaunted economic system seemed to unravel (started in 1929).
→ never had the flaws of capitalism been so evident or so devastating
→ if World War I = political collapse of Europe, the depression = economic system
→ the day the American stock market initially crashed = October 24, 1929
→ the main fear was the lost of work (unemployment soared everywhere)
Effects • Depending on a single crop or product rendered these societies extraordinarily
vulnerable to changes in the world market.
→ Chile = dependent on copper mining, found the value of its exports cut by 80
→ Brazil = destroyed enough of its coffee crop to have supplied the world for a
year in an effort to maintain the price of coffee
→ SE Asia = (the world’s major rubber-producing region) saw the demand for its
primary export drop dramatically as automobile sales in Europe/United States
were cut in ½.
→ the Gold Coast in Africa = farmers who had staked their economic lives (on
producing cocoa) for the world market were badly hurt by the collapse of
commodity prices
Franklin Roosevelt’s Response • The New Deal was an experimental combination of
reforms seeking to restart economic growth and to prevent similar calamities in the
→ permanently altered the relationship among government, the private economy,
and individual citizens
→ attempted to create a modest economic safety net to sustain the poor, the
unemployed, and the elderly
→ supporting labor unions
→ ultimately = none of the New Deal’s programs worked very well to end the
Great Depression
KC 6.2.IV & 6.1.III
Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented global scale // Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented
global scale
Fascism • Intensely nationalistic, seeked to revitalize and purify the nation & to
mobilize its people for some grand task. Praised violence against enemies as a renewing
force in society, celebrated action rather than reflection, and placed their faith in a
charismatic leader.
→ condemned individualism, liberalism, feminism, parliamentary democracy, &
communism (they argued the these divided/weakened the nation)
→ authoritarian political ideology
→ Italy = the first to be fascist (led by Benito Mussolini)
→ Germany = led by Adolf Hitler
→ Japan
→ small movements = France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands
→ substantial movements = Austria, Hungary, Romania, and Spain (had a civil war)
Negative Impacting on Jews • In Hitler’s thinking & in Nazi propaganda, Jews became
the symbol of the urban, capitalist, and foreign influences that were undermining
traditional German culture.
→ the Nazis reflected/reinforced a broader & long-established current of
→ the Nuremberg Laws = ended German citizenship for Jews and forbade
marriage/sexual relations between Jews & Germans
→ November 9, 1938 = persecution gave way to terror, when Nazis smashed/looted
Jewish shops (known as Kristallnacht)
→ the mass killing of Europe’s Jews emerged only in the context of World War II
Changes in Japan (1920s to 1930s) • Japan also moved toward authoritarian
government and a denial of democracy at home, even as it launched an aggressive
program of territorial expansion in East Asia.
→the 1920s = seemed to be moving toward a more democratic politics & Western
cultural values
→ the impact of the Great Depression = harsher and more authoritarian action
(the worldwide economic catastrophe hit Japan hard)
→ many began to doubt the ability of parliamentary democracy and
capitalism to address Japan’s “national emergency”
→ Radical Nationalism (the Revolutionary Right) = an extreme nationalism, hostility
to parliamentary democracy, a commitment to elite leadership focused around an
exalted emperor, and dedication to foreign expansion
→ although shared some common features with fascist Italy & Nazi Germany, it
remained (internally) a less repressive and more pluralistic society than either of
those European states
Japanese Aggression • Japanese imperial ambitions mounted as the military became
more powerful in Japan’s political life and as an earlier cultural cosmopolitanism gave
way to more nationalist sentiments.
→ establishment of Manchukuo (Manchuria in 1931) = infuriated Western powers,
prompting Japan to withdraw from the League of Nations, to break politically
with its Western allies, and in to align more closely with Germany and Italy (1936)
→ the view of the world held by Japanese authorities and many ordinary people
hardened = they felt isolated, surrounded, and threatened (their national survival
was at stake)
→ in 1940–1941, the Japanese presented themselves as liberators/modernizers,
creating an “Asia for Asians” and freeing their continent from European
dominance = soon showed that Japan’s concern was far more for Asia’s resources
than for its liberation & that Japanese rule exceeded in brutality even that of the
→ a decisive step in the development of World War II in Asia = the Japanese
attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor (December 1941)
German Aggression • WWII was more deliberate and planned, perhaps even desired by
the German leadership and by Hitler in particular
→ war was central to the Nazi phenomenon in several ways: nazism was born out
of WWI, the hated treaty that ended it, the disillusioned ex-soldiers who emerged
from it, and the celebration of war as a means of ennobling humanity and
enabling the rise of superior peoples was at the core of Nazi ideology
→ slowly at first and then more aggressively, Hitler prepared the country for war
and pursued territorial expansion (major rearmament program began in 1935)
→ in 1939, Germany unleashed a devastating attack on Poland (an action that
triggered the Second World War in Europe) = Britain and France declared war on
New Technology • The most destructive conflict in world history because of the new
technologies of warfare
→ the German tactic of blitzkrieg (lightning war) = coordinated the rapid
movement of infantry, tanks, and airpower over very large areas.
→ heavy bombers
→ jet fighters
→ missiles
→ atomic weapons
Women • War heightened the prestige of masculinity, and given the immense sacrifices
that men had made, few women were inclined to directly challenge the practices of
patriarchy immediately following the war.
→ “comfort woman” = several hundred thousand women from Korea, China, and
elsewhere to serve the sexual needs of Japanese troops (who o en accommodated
twenty to thirty men a day)
→ US = the needs of the war drew large numbers of women into both industry and
the military (a temporary necessity)
→ “Rosie the Riveter” represented women who now took on heavy
industrial jobs, which previously had been reserved for men
→ USSR = women constituted more than half of the workforce by 1945
Holocaust • A “final solution” to the Jewish question: emerged the death camps that
included Auschwitz, Dachau, and Bergen-Belsen
→ Millions more whom the Nazis deemed inferior, undesirable, or dangerous
(Russians, Poles, other Slavs; Gypsies; mentally/physically handicapped people;
homosexuals; communists; Jehovah’s Witnesses) likewise perished in Germany’s
efforts at racial purification
→ sent many of Europe’s remaining Jews fleeing to Israel & gave urgency to the
establishment of a modern Jewish nation in the ancient Jewish homeland =
outraged many Arabs & has fostered an enduring conflict in the Middle East
→ defined a new category of crimes against humanity: genocide (the attempted
elimination of entire peoples)
New Era Nationalism • Not only had the war weakened both the will and the ability of
European powers to hold onto their colonies, but it had also emboldened nationalist &
anticolonial movements everywhere.
KC 6.3.II
States, communities, and individuals became increasingly interdependent—a process facilitated by the growth of
institutions of global governance.
United Nations (UN) • A political body dependent on agreement among its most
powerful members, the UN proved more effective as a forum for international opinion
than as a means of resolving the major conflicts of the postwar world.
The World Bank & the International Monetary Fund (IMF) • Purpose was to regulate
the global economy, prevent another depression, and stimulate economic growth,
especially in the poorer nations.
The Marshall Plan • An early indication of the United States’ intention to exercise
global leadership took shape in its efforts to rebuild/reshape shattered European econ. =
funneled into Europe some $12 billion, at the time a very large amount, together
w/numerous advisers and technicians
→ motivated by some combination of genuine humanitarian concern, a desire to
prevent a new depression by creating overseas customers for American industrial
goods, and an interest in undermining the growing appeal of European
communist parties
The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) • Italy, France,West Germany,
Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg came together to jointly manage the
production of critical items
→ a er decades of conflict and destruction almost beyond description, many
Europeans were eager to cooperate with one another
European Economic Community (EEC) • Whose members reduced their tariffs and
developed common trade policies (more widely known as the Common Market).
→ expanded its membership to include almost all of Europe, including many
former communist states
→ all of this sustained Europe’s remarkable economic recovery & expressed a
larger European identity, although it certainly did not erase deeply rooted
national loyalties.
European Union (EU) • In 1994, the EEC was renamed the European Union.
→ in 2002, twelve of its members adopted a common currency: the euro
→ didn’t it lead to a political union (a United States of Europe)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) • Committed the United States and its
nuclear arsenal to the defense of Europe against the Soviet Union, and it firmly
anchored West Germany within the Western alliance.
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