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1984 Study packet

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GEORGE ORWELL’S
DYSTOPIAN NOVEL
1984
Reading assignment
Due dates for reading, study questions, and vocabulary
Test dates
Part One (page 1-104)
Part Two (page 105- 224)
Part Three (125- 297)
Student Name:
British Literature
Mrs. Hersker
1
I want you to approach this novel as an experience.
An experience that might change your life.
Students ask why we read 1984, “Isn’t it old? Can’t we read something newer?” Regardless of when
Orwell published his novel, what is important to understand is how relevant the novel is to modern
society. This book will change the way you think about the world around you. You will belong to an
elite group of people who have read the book and now see the world differently after experiencing 1984.

Students need to experience 1984 because they should be exposed to and study the relationships between
totalitarianism, technology, psychology, and language … As a work of fiction, the ideas are more
accessible, more interrelated, and more engaging; the sheer horror of totalitarianism is more real.

Orwell’s interest in language shows how corrupt language can manipulate a society and control reality by
corrupting language… Studying the effects language manipulation helps us to cherish our language with all
of its rich diversity and ambiguities…and the importance of using language that is not vague and misleading
but clear and precise.

Another major emphasis of the novel is the use of technology combined with advertising techniques
(especially by the government) that are deeply psychological to eliminate individuality and privacy.

Perhaps the most interesting and discussable feature of Orwell’s novel is its description of the nature of
truth… Truth is proven by the consensus of millions; to the slogan ‘how can millions be wrong’ is added
‘and how can a minority of one be right.’ The “one” must be insane. The “consensus truth” concept can
serve as the basis for investigation about individuality, minority rights, majority rule, and, of course, values.

Nineteen Eighty-four teaches about the danger with which all men are confronted today, the danger of a
society of automatons who will have lost every trace of individuality, of love, of critical thought, and yet
who will not be aware of it because of ‘doublethink’. Books like Orwell’s are powerful warnings.
Adapted from James E. Davis, “Why Nineteen Eighty-four Should Be Read and Taught,” in Censored Books, Scarecrow Press, 1993, pp. 382-87.
PRE-READING Activity—in your assigned group, discuss each topic. Then, record your thoughts on a separate sheet
of paper. You might be asked to write a detailed response to any one topic in your English journal.
2

Is it a better government that has more control or less control over its population?

The Parliament of Britain has a camera on every corner of every major city and town to ensure safety and minimize
criminal acts. And it’s worked! Great Britain has one of the lowest crime rates in the whole world. However, at any
given moment, law-abiding citizens are watched, scrutinized, and examined. Would you be comfortable with this?
Do you think extensive camera surveillance is a good idea or bad idea? Explain.

A privacy lawsuit within the Lower Merion School District was recently settled. Students received school-issued
laptops, and signed appropriate usage contracts, since the computer is considered school district property while
remaining the responsibility of the student. Unknown to the students, district administrators could “tap in” to the
computer at any time through a camera device in order to ensure the students were not using the school computer for
“illegal” reasons. One student in particular was bragging about selling prescription drugs in school and abusing them
at home. The district “tapped in” to his computer while he was at home. They found that he was abusing skittles in
front of his computer. The family sued for violation of privacy. Which side do you take? Explain.

Cell phones and GPS units operate using towers and satellites that receive and send signals (directions, help, etc.) to
devices on the ground. At any point in time, a person operating these satellites can “tap in” to you while you drive
and determine your exact location. Is this a good thing or bad thing? Explain.

Lawmakers and officials are currently reasoning a new law that would allow the random use of cell phone records
along with GPS units to determine if people are texting, talking, or browsing the web while driving. If caught, tickets,
points, fines, suspensions, jail time could result. Fair or unfair? Explain.

How do you feel when people are watching you? Are you comfortable with people just stare at you, making sure you
are falling in line, doing everything as you should? (see lyrics “Somebody’s Watching Me”)
Somebody's Watching Me
Rockwell
3
Who's watching
Who's playing tricks on me?
Tell me who's watching
Who's watching me
Who's watching me
I don't know anymore!
I'm just an average man with an average life
Are the neighbors watching me?
I work from 9 to 5, hey hell, I pay the price
Who's watching
All I want is to be left alone, in my average home
Well is the mailman watching me?
But why do I always feel
Tell me who's watching
Like I'm in the Twilight Zone? and...
And I don't feel safe anymore, oh what a mess
I wonder who's watching me now
I always feel like somebody's watching me
Who? The IRS?!
And I have no privacy, whoa-oa-oa
I always feel like somebody's watching me
I always feel like somebody's watching me
Tell me, is it just a dream
And I have no privacy, whoa-oa-oa
I always feel like somebody's watching me
When I come home at night
Tell me is it just a dream
I bang the door real tight
I always feel like somebody's watching me
People call me on the phone I'm trying to avoid
And I have no privacy, whoa-oa-oa
Or can the people on TV see me, or am I just paranoid?
I always feel like somebody's watching me
When I'm in the shower, I'm afraid to wash my hair
Cause I might open my eyes and find someone standing
there!
People say I'm crazy, just a little touched
But maybe showers remind me of "Psycho" too much
That's why...
I always feel like somebody's watching me
And I have no privacy, whoa-oa-oa
Overly Paranoid?
Maybe He Has A
Point…
I always feel like somebody's watching me
Build Background Information 1984
How do you know we are
not being watched right
Now?
4
1.
Author: Eric Arthur Blair (George Orwell)
a)
Published novel in 1948
b) Orwell was ill with tuberculosis while writing the novel. He later died from this disease in 1950.
c)
Orwell said about his novel: “I am not pleased with the book, but I am not absolutely dissatisfied…I think it is a good
idea, but the execution would have been better if I had not written it under the influence of TB.”
2.
The Conditions that Existed in the World, and are Behind Orwell’s Vision for his Novel
a)
Dictatorships—Hitler, Mussolini, Franco, Stalin

Specific parallels to Stalin: Big Brother’s physical appearance, forced confessions, executions, “liquidations”;
Stalin’s reign of terror resulted in between 8 and 13 million deaths.

Other parallels to Stalin and Hitler: Extreme nationalism, emphasis on public displays of patriotism, food
shortages/rationing, censorship of media, forced-labor camps, spying, secret police, constant war/threat of war,
youth league (based on Hitler Youth)
b) Cold War—U.S., Soviet Union, and China
c)
Brainwashing—Used by Chinese Communists and during the Korean War; Involved a two-step process (first was the
confession and the second step was re-education)
d) Utopian/Dystopian literature—unlike utopian literature, which depicts a society as it ought to be, the anti-utopian novel
presents society as it should not be. Dystopian novels are openly critical of existing societies and contain implicit warnings
about where these societies are heading.
e)
Attack against totalitarianism—A centralized and dictatorial government system in which a single party, without opposition,
rules over political, economic, social, and cultural life.
3.
Irony and Satire
a)
1984 is filled with irony—things are opposite of what they seem, sometimes lies can be the truth
b) Examples: Ministry of Truth—information is re-written or erased
Ministry of Peace—military matters
Ministry of Love—law and order are dispensed
Ministry of Plenty—economic matters are managed
c)
Satire— Irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or exaggeration is used to expose or denounce the faults of humanity, institution, or society.
Satire involves both moral judgment and a desire to improve a belief or tradition
d) Orwell’s satirical messages to the reader…

People are disinterested in concepts such as integrity, freedom, and individual consciousness.

Fear and hatred can motivate and unite people far better than love and loyalty.

The world is drifting towards totalitarianism.

People do no question justice, morality or the motives of our leaders.
5
GEORGE ORWELL—
In His Own Words
On the purpose of 1984:
“…I do not believe that the kind of society I describe
necessarily will arrive, but I believe (allowing of course for
the fact that the book is a satire) that something resembling it
could arrive. I believe also that totalitarian ideas have taken
root in the minds of intellectuals everywhere, and I have
tried to draw these ideas out to their logical consequences.
The scene of the book is laid in Britain in order to emphasize
that the English-speaking races are not innately better than
anyone else and that totalitarianism, if not fought against,
could triumph anywhere.”
On modern dictatorships and human nature:
“The terrifying thing about modern dictatorships is that they are something entirely unprecedented. Their end
cannot be foreseen. In the past every tyranny was sooner or later overthrown, or at least resisted, because of
‘human nature,’ which as a matter of course desired liberty. Be we cannot be at all certain that ‘human nature’
is constant. It may be just as possible to produce a breed of men who do not wish for liberty as to produce a
breed of hornless cows. The Inquisition failed, but then the Inquisition had not the resources of the modern
state. The radio, press-censorship, standardized education, and the secret police have altered everything. Masssuggestion is a science of the last twenty years, and we do not know how successful it will be.”
On writing:
“What I have most wanted throughout the past ten years is to make political writing into an art. My starting
point is always a feeling of partisanship, a sense of injustice. When I sit down to write a book, I do not say to
myself, ‘I am going to produce a work of art.’ I write it because there is some lie that I want to expose, some
fact to which I want to draw attention, and my initial concern is to get a hearing. But I could not do the work of
writing a book, or even a long magazine article, if it were not also an aesthetic experience.”
6
Key Terms—the following terms that will guide your reading, and help with some of the challenging ideas.
Big Brother: The mysterious all-seeing, all-knowing leader of the totalitarian
society is a god-like icon to the citizens he rules. He is never seen in person,
just staring out of posters and telescreens, looking stern as the caption beneath
his image warns “Big Brother Is Watching You.”
“The Book”: Titled "Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism" and
supposedly written by Goldstein, it contains the story of humankind and the
Revolution, arguing that there is hope for a stronger future without the
dishonesty and manipulation of the Party.
Airstrip One: Part of Oceania, once known as Britain.
Black Market: Illegal trade resource for all "good quality" materials, such as
real coffee, sugar, razors, etc.
Party Slogans: "War is Peace"; "Freedom is Slavery"; "Ignorance is
Strength."
Pornosec: The area of the Fiction Department in the Ministry of Truth
devoted to creating written pornographic material for the proles. Dominated
by women because the Party believes women are less likely to be corrupted by
the material.
Prole (Proletariat): 85% of the population that are not Party members and
live in poverty. Regulated loosely to weed out the overly intellectual and
protect the Party.
Reclamation Centers: Colonies for homeless children.
Saccharine: A chemical sweetener or sugar substitute; excessively sweet.
Doublethink: Newspeak word with two mutually contradictory meanings.
The first is used to refer to an opponent, and can be defined as habitually
contradicting plain facts. The second is used to refer to a Party member, and
can be defined as a loyal willingness to believe contradictory statements when
the Party demands it, which allows for continual alteration of the past.
Floating Fortress: Part of Oceania's offensive/defensive armaments. Literally
an unsinkable fortress floating on the ocean.
Hate Week: A week of hate mongering against enemies of war. Supported by
massive rallies and organized through the Ministry of Truth, Hate Week
rallies Party members around Oceania and Big Brother.
House of the Lords: Part of the British government in the capitalist days.
Referred to by an old man Winston meets at a pub, although Winston does not
understand the reference or the man's meaning.
Ingsoc: Newspeak for English Socialism. This is the doctrine by which the
government of Oceania is operated.
Inner Party: 2% of the population. These members possess absolute power.
Junior Anti-Sex League: A youth organization advocating complete celibacy
for both sexes and encouraging artsem. Julia is a member and wears the
organization's symbolic scarlet sash.
Ministry of Love (Miniluv): Maintains law and order. Protected with great
force. Only those arrested for Thought Crime or who are on official Party
business can enter. Referred to within the novel as "the place with no
darkness" because the lights are always on. Dissidents are taken here to be
tortured, reformed, or killed.
Ministry of Peace (Minipax): Responsible for the Party's management of
issues surrounding war.
Ministry of Plenty (Miniplenty): Responsible for the Party's economic
affairs.
Ministry of Truth (Minitrue): Responsible for all Party news, entertainment,
education and fine arts. The Party’s propaganda machine.
Spanner: Wrench.
Speakwrite: A tool used by party members to translate spoken word into
written word.
Spies and Youth League: A Party youth organization that encourages
children to spy on and report elders, including parents, to the Thought Police.
Indoctrinates children into the Party.
St. Clement's Dane: A building bombed many years ago that once stood by
the Law Courts in London. A rendering of the building hangs on the wall in
Mr. Charrington's rented room.
Telescreen: An oblong metal plaque that looks like a dulled mirror and acts
like a television, a camera, and a listening device for the Inner Party and
Thought Police. There is no way to shut it off completely, and it keeps tabs on
all Party members.
The Physical Jerks: Daily morning exercises all Party members must take
part in. Dictated via the telescreen.
The Revolution: The rise of new socialism (versus democracy and
capitalism) that resulted in Ingsoc in Oceania, Neo-Bolshevism in Eurasia,
and Death Worship in Eastasia. Each regime has the conscious aim of
perpetuating unfreedom and inequality, arresting progress, freezing history in
a chosen moment, and perpetuating war.
The Times: A Party-sponsored news publication for which Winston works.
Thought Police: The arm of the Inner Party that seeks out those against the
Party, searching out anyone with even the smallest thoughts against the Party
or Big Brother. Their powers of observation force everyone to live as though
they are always being watched or listened to.
Thoughtcrime: Thinking against the Party, having misgivings about the
Party, doubting Big Brother, or questioning any Party action or "fact."
Facecrime is similar in that facial expressions or tics reveal unorthodox ideas.
Newspeak: The official language of Oceania and the new language of the
Party. The goal of Newspeak is to reduce the English language to the fewest
words possible and remove anti-Party feelings and the ability to disagree.
Two Minutes Hate: Daily requirement for all Party members. Organized
group of members watches Party presentations on a telescreen denouncing
Goldstein and war enemies, and celebrating Big Brother. Causes great
outbursts of hatred such as directed screaming and violence at visual
representations of the enemy.
Outer Party: 13% of the population. The middle-class members of society.
They are carefully scrutinized and controlled.
Vaporized: Thoughtcriminals are removed from society in that they are killed
and all evidence of their existence is removed.
The Party: Rules Oceania in a totalitarian matter, controlling every aspect of
Inner and outer party members.
Victory products: Party-made products, such as gin, cigarettes, clothing,
food, and even housing. All of poor quality.
7
Literary Analysis—After reading the first chapter, establish what you know about the setting, the characters,
the situation presented, as well as your initial impressions about the mood. Use the following questions to
gather information about the exposition. Please explain your responses, and provide page numbers.
1. Who is narrating the story, is it first person, third person? Is the story written in past tense, or present tense?
2. What mood is established in the opening (remember that mood is the feeling or atmosphere created for the
reader)? Support your point with textual evidence (a quote—with page number) to illustrate the mood.
Quoted Passage:
Describe the Mood:
3. Describe the setting of the novel.
Quoted Passage:
Describe the Setting:
4. Write down two important sentences or phrases from the first chapter that you believe are important.
Quoted Passage:
Describe the Importance:
Quoted Passage:
Describe the Importance:
8
The following study questions will assist you in determining the most important concepts from each chapter.
In addition to these study questions, you will have vocabulary assignments, quizzes, and essays.
1.
Before you read, preview each study question, so you know what to look for during reading.
2.
Next, read the chapter carefully.
3.
Stop reading when you think you have found an answer to a study question. Note the page number and copy key phrases and
sentences from the novel in your response to the study question.
4.
Continue reading until the end of the chapter.
5.
Finally, add your additional insight in the final column, with your questions, thoughts, and connections.
6.
This is a difficult novel; therefore, if you are struggling to understand the plot, you may consult an online study guide in addition
to completing all of the reading. Reading Spark Notes alone will not be sufficient; you must also read the novel.
BOOK I: CHAPTER 1
BOOK I: CHAPTER 2
1.
What form of
entertainment do the
children in Oceania
enjoy? What is the
purpose of these
events?
2.
Explain what happens
at the Parson’s house.
What does this tell you
about children and
their parents?
3.
Give a detailed
example that shows
how impoverished,
poor and run-down
Oceania is becoming.
4.
How does Winston mark
his diary to make sure
that it has not been
discovered? Why is he
so afraid of being caught?
What will happen?
BOOK I: CHAPTER 3
5.
Complete literary analysis activity on page 8
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
Describe Winston’s dream. Why
are these memories are coming
out now? Symbolism?
9
6.
Describe Winston’s
current state of health.
Why do you think it is
so poor?
7.
What has been the state
or the condition of the
world ever since Winston
can remember?
8.
What is doublethink?
BOOK I: CHAPTER 4
9.
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
What is Winston’s job
at the Ministry of
Truth? How does it
relate to doublethink?
10. What is Winston’s
greatest pleasure in
life?
11. Who is Comrade
Ogilvy?
12. What happens to
people who disgrace
the Party?
BOOK I: CHAPTER 5
13. Describe the food that
is available in this
society. Why do you
think there are so
many restrictions?
14. What is Syme’s project
at the Records Dept?
What is the whole aim
10
of Newspeak? How
does this related to our
essential question, do
words matter?
15. Explain why Winston
believes Syme will
disappear one day.
16. Who does Winston
believe is following
him? What is his
reaction?
BOOK I: CH 6 and 7
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
17. Who are the proles?
What percentage of the
population do they
make up?
18. What is the aim of the
Party regarding sex?
What was his
relationship with
Katherine like?
19. According to Winston,
what is the “heresy of
heresies” to the Party?
20. What single event in
the past has shaken
Winston’s faith is the
Party?
(It involves three men:
Jones, Aaronson, and
Rutherford)
11
BOOK I: CHAPTER 8
Example from the novel
Questions, thoughts, connections
21. What is the newspeak
word for living in
solitude and mingling
with the proles? Why
is this discouraged?
22. What question does
Winston keep asking
the old prole? Does he
get an answer to his
question?
23. Explain why Winston
would be better off not
knowing the info he is
seeking.
24. What object does
Winston buy at the end
of the chapter? Why
does it appeal to him?
12
Doublethink
The power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously,
and accepting both of them....To tell deliberate lies while genuinely believing in
them, to forget any fact that has become inconvenient, and then, when it becomes
necessary again, to draw it back from oblivion for just so long as it is needed, to
deny the existence of objective reality and all the while to take account of the reality which one denies — all this is
indispensably necessary. Even in using the word doublethink it is necessary to exercise doublethink. For by using the
word one admits that one is tampering with reality; by a fresh act of doublethink one erases this knowledge; and so on
indefinitely, with the lie always one leap ahead of the truth.
__________________________________________________________________________________________
1.
Ministry of Truth—really concerned with lies.
a.
Changing the records and then actually believing in the change, even though it is a known falsehood.
2.
Party must rule as if they are infallible….but they are constantly correcting and learning from their own mistakes
3.
Cognitive Therapy: Change the thinking, believe the change, and make the change convincing.
a.
Cognitive Distortions are inaccurate thoughts or ideas, which maintain negative thinking.
b.
These examples of distortions are what psychologists/psychiatrists intend to change through Cognitive Therapy.
 All-or-nothing thinking - Thinking of things in absolute terms, like “always” or “every” or “never”.

I can never do this right; no one ever listens to me.
 Mental filter - Focusing exclusively on certain, usually negative or upsetting, aspects of something while ignoring the rest.

A tiny imperfection in a piece of clothing; didn’t win the race.
 Jumping to conclusions - Assuming something negative where there is no evidence to support it. Two specific subtypes
are also identified:

Mind reading - Assuming the intentions of others.

Fortune telling - Predicting how things will turn before they happen. Good example is when you plan out a fight with
someone before the evidence allows the “fight” to happen.
 Labeling and Mislabeling - Explaining behaviors or events, merely by naming them. Rather than describing the specific
behavior, you assign a label to someone or yourself that puts them in absolute and unalterable terms.

A person is acting immaturely. You call the person immature.
13
The following study questions will assist you in determining the most important concepts from each chapter.
In addition to these study questions, you will have vocabulary assignments, quizzes, and essays.
1.
Before you read, preview each study question, so you know what to look for during reading.
2.
Next, read the chapter carefully.
3.
Stop reading when you think you have found an answer to a study question. Note the page number and copy key phrases and
sentences from the novel in your response to the study question.
4.
Continue reading until the end of the chapter.
5.
Finally, add your additional insight in the final column, with your questions, thoughts, and connections.
6.
This is a difficult novel; therefore, if you are struggling to understand the plot, you may consult an online study guide in addition
to completing all of the reading. Reading Spark Notes alone will not be sufficient; you must also read the novel.
BOOK 2: CHAPTER 1
1.
On a scale of one to
ten, with 1 being
trouble and 10 being
innocent, where does
the dark-haired girl
fall? Why?
2.
What conflicting
emotions does
Winston feel before he
decides to help the
girl?
3.
What is the message
on the note, and how
does Winston react
to this message?
4.
Describe what the
encounters are like
with Winston and
Julia. Where do they
meet, how do they
avoid being noticed.
BOOK 2: CHAPTER 2
5.
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
In what ways have
Winston and Julia
ensured privacy during
their meeting? Why is
the countryside no
safer than London?
14
6.
What does Winston
confess to Julia?
Why is she attracted
to him?
7.
What is ironic about
Julia’s involvement
in the Junior AntiSex League? What
do members wear?
8.
What are Julia’s
feelings about her
multiple lovers?
What is the one act
of rebellion that
could ruin the Party?
BOOK 2: CHAPTER 3
9.
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
What does Julia do
at the Fiction Dept?
What special job
was Julia selected
for at work?
10. What are Julia’s
thoughts towards the
Party and party
doctrine? Compare
this to Winston’s
attitude.
11. What are Julia’s
thoughts towards
other party
members, especially
women?
12. According to Julia,
why is the sex
impulse a danger to
the stability of the
Party?
15
BOOK 2: CHAPTER 4
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
13. How does Winston
feel about renting
Mr. Charrington’s
upstairs flat for
meeting secretly
with Julia?
14. What precious items
does Julia bring with
her? How did she
obtain these items?
15. What is Winston’s
greatest fear, and
how does the reader
learn this?
16. What has the
paperweight come to
symbolize for
Winston?
BOOK 2: CHAPTER 5
17. What has happened
to Syme? How was
this foreshadowed
earlier in the novel?
18. What event is the
city preparing for?
What are some of
the activities that
take place during
this time?
19. What has happened to
Winston’s health?
Why do you think this
is happening to him?
20. How does this apply to
Julia: “In a way, the
worldview of the Party
imposed itself most
successfully on people
incapable of
understanding it.”
16
BOOK 2: CHAPTER 6
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
21. Describe Winston’s
encounter with
O’Brien. Where are
they, what do they
discuss, what is the
outcome?
22. Why does O’Brien
refer to Syme only
indirectly? How
does this reference
make the two of
them accomplices?
23. What is the one
thing of which
Winston is now
certain? What
feeling does Winston
experience as he
talks with O’Brien?
24. On a scale of one to
ten, with 1 being
trouble and 10 being
innocent, where does
O’Brien fall? Why?
BOOK 2: CHAPTER 7
25. Describe what
happened to Winston
as a child, when he
dreams/remembers
the last time he saw
his mother and baby
sister.
26. How does Julia miss
the point of
Winston’s story
about his childhood?
17
27. What sudden
revelation does
Winston have about
the proles?
28. In Winston’s mind,
what would prove he
had betrayed Julia?
According to Julia,
what is the one thing
the Party cannot do?
BOOK 2: CHAPTER 8
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
29. What does Winston
fear as he travels to
O’Brien’s apartment?
What is the only
evidence that suggests
O’Brien is a political
conspirator?
30. What privileges are
reserved for Party
members? To whom
does the group drink
a toast?
31. What is the ONE
thing Winston and
Julia will not do in
the name of the
Brotherhood?
32. Where will O’Brien
and Winston meet
again? Where have
you read this before?
What might this
symbolize?
Book 2 Chapter 9 Directions: You will skip over the passages the relate directly to Goldstein’s book, and read only the
passages that involve Winston and Julia. Then read this overview of Goldstein’s book.
In the blue book with the eye on the cover, the font is different from the normal story, skip those sections and read only: Page 179-185; 199-201; 217
18
BOOK 2: CHAPTER 9
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
33. With what power is
Oceania now at war?
What has Winston
been doing for the
past six days at the
Ministry of Truth?
34. What is the title of
Goldstein’s book?
*You do not have to read
it, instead, you can read
the summary provided in
this packet. Located on
page 20 and 21 of packet.
35. What does
Goldstein’s book
claim is the primary
aim of modern
warfare?
36. Compare and
contrast Winston and
Julia in terms of
their interest in
Goldstein’s book.
BOOK 2: CHAPTER 10
37. Winston views the large,
singing woman as
beautiful. Most likely,
she is not beautiful. Why
does he call her this?
38. What does the voice
behind the picture repeat?
What is the last line of
the nursery rhyme, and
what does it symbolize?
39. What does the
destruction of the coral
paperweight symbolize?
40. What happens to Winston
and Julia? Who betrayed
them? Where do you
think they will end up?
19
*SUMMARY OF: The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism. By Emmanuel Goldstein
Chapter One, “Ignorance Is Strength,” asserts that the goals of the three classes—High, Middle, and Low—contradict one
another. Winston, who is delighted with the freedom to read, now skips to Chapter Three, “War Is Peace.”
This chapter details the locations of the three superpowers who have been permanently at war for the last 25 years. The book
describes war as occurring without purpose since, with the introduction of self-sufficient economies, there is no reason to fight. The
main purpose of war is to use the surplus of consumer products without raising the standard of living for everyone. War, which
accomplishes destruction in a relatively acceptable way, provides a basis for fear and hatred. All members of the Inner Party believe
that war ends with conquest, perhaps resulting from the discovery of a new weapon. All three powers, for example, possess the atomic
bomb which is the most powerful weapon. After the first atomic bombs were exploded, the superpowers became frightened, produced
no more, and stored the remainder for the day when the inevitable would occur.
Usually, large-scale campaigns involve surprise attacks on an ally. Once an area is surrounded with a ring of bases, the
powers sign a friendship pact to remain allies, but, in the meantime, a strategic missile build-up is ongoing. No fighting ever occurs
except in some disputed areas; there is never an invasion of enemy territory lest the soldiers discover that the conquered foreigners are
fellow human beings.
Philosophies of 3 states are almost the same—Ingsoc (Oceania); Neo-Bolshevism (Eurasia): and Obliteration of the Self (Eastasia).
Key concepts to all philosophies are:
1. Pyramidical structures
2. Worship of a semi-divine leader
3. Economy geared toward war
Each of the three states have become unconquerable. Therefore, the previously held concept of war occurring because of some
provocation no longer exists. In fact, permanent peace would be the same as permanent war; it has the same effects. This concept is
the real meaning of the belief “War Is Peace.” In the end, the supersates are not fighting against one another at all. The war is actually
waged by each ruling group against its own subjects—with the intention of using surplus consumable goods, and serving the mental
atmosphere that the society needs a hierarchy.
Winston is not surprised by what he reads. After Julia arrives and they make love, he begins to read aloud Chapter One,
“Ignorance Is Strength,” which begins with an overview of the class system with one underlying constant; history shows a recurring
series of clashes for power with the low class remaining low.
By the late nineteenth century, the book claims, these patterns had become apparent but were of no real concern since
historians had declared them as cyclical. Even variants of Socialism after 1900 aimed less and less for liberty and equality, but,
instead, aimed for unfreedom and inequality.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, there was no longer any reason for social or economic class distinction because
machines had made a life of productivity and leisure possible for everyone. Although the descendants affected by the French, English,
and American revolutions may have believed in equality, by the 1930s political thought had changed and a hierarchy had become
desirable. This thinking explains how long-abandoned practices such as trial, torture, and public executions became more widespread.
20
The new totalitarianism had leaders whose origins were in the salaried and upper middle class; therefore, wealth meant little
to them, but power meant everything. Perhaps this interest in power stemmed from the fact that it became easier to control opinion
through print and television.
In this setting the high class knew how to maintain its power, for it relied on the principle that oligarchy is collectivism, that
wealth and privilege can be defended when they are possessed jointly. The real effect, though, is that when the principle of private
property is abolished, the real control is in the hands of a few. Together the Party owns everything in Oceania, but the decisions are
made by a few. Ingsoc, based on this Socialist idea, resulted in a permanent economic inequality.
The ruling group can only fall from power under the following circumstances:
1. defeat from the outside superstates
3. allowing the dissatisfied Middle-Class to gain strength
2. ineffective leadership causing the masses to revolt
4. losing its desire to rule
In Oceania the continuation of the hierarchy is due to the persistence of the belief through children. One becomes an Inner or
Outer Party member at age 16 after taking an exam. The proles really are no threat since their world has been shaped by the Party.
They need no education, since military and commercial rivalries no longer exist and they have no intellect.
Commitment to the Party, combined with hatred of the enemy, shapes the life of every Party member, who has been taught
from the earliest ages the skill of “crimestop,” the faculty of stopping any dangerous thought. The need for flexibility in dealing with
facts demands their continuous alteration made possible by “doublethink.”
Since mutability (changeability) of the past is the central belief of Ingsoc, “doublethink” becomes critical because the Party
seems to have a firmness of purpose associated with honesty. Under the disguise of straightforwardness, the Party has deviously
altered events in accordance with its philosophy. Thus, the Party has been able to stop history.
The linking together of opposites is the distinguishing feature of Oceania’s society. Even the major institutions are examples of
“doublethink”
1. The society undermines family but preaches
3. Ministry of Truth spreads lies.
family loyalty to Big Brother.
4. Ministry of Love is in charge of torture.
2. Ministry of Peace concerns itself with war.
5. Ministry of Plenty oversees starvation.
As he concludes Chapter One, Goldstein asks the same question that has continued to bother Winston throughout the reading:
Why should history be stopped at this particular time to avert human equality? Goldstein seems as perplexed as Winston.
At this point Winston realizes that he has not really learned anything new from either chapter. Symbolically, Winston falls
asleep before Goldstein is about to answer the central question: “I understand HOW: I do not understand WHY,” which will be
addressed later in the novel. Although Winston does not get the answer to his most troubling dilemma, the reading at least proves to
him that he is not insane, nor is he alone.
21
Doublespeak
Can you figure out the real meaning behind many commonly used instances of doublespeak? In 1984 only the Outer Party members
could try to do so (as the Inner Party made up each term) and the proles had no idea what was actually being communicated to them.
Try to translate each example of doublespeak into plain English.
Residentially challenged
Pavement deficiencies
Aesthetically challenged
Folically challenged
Vertically challenged
Collateral damage
Corporate downsizing
Deferred academic success
Adult correctional institution
Motivationally challenged
Full figured
Biosolids
Negative patient care outcome
Period of accelerated negative growth
Mental activity in the margins
Reutilization marketing yard
Domestic engineer
Learning facilitators
Government sanctioned revenue enhancements
Personal economic deficiency
How does this relate to our essential question doe words matter? How does language shape one’s perceptions?
22
The following study questions will assist you in determining the most important concepts from each chapter.
In addition to these study questions, you will have vocabulary assignments, quizzes, and essays.
7.
Before you read, preview each study question, so you know what to look for during reading.
8.
Next, read the chapter carefully.
9.
Stop reading when you think you have found an answer to a study question. Note the page number and copy key phrases and
sentences from the novel in your response to the study question.
10. Continue reading until the end of the chapter.
11. Finally, add your additional insight in the final column, with your questions, thoughts, and connections.
This is a difficult novel; therefore, if you are struggling to understand the plot, you may consult an online study guide in addition to
completing all of the reading. Reading Spark Notes alone will not be sufficient; you must also read the novel.
BOOK 3: CHAPTER 1
1.
Where has Winston
been taken? Describe
the room he is in,
how is it the place
where there is no
darkness?
2.
For what crime was
the poet Ampleforth
arrested?
3.
Who has turned Parsons
in for saying “Down
with Big Brother” in his
sleep? How does
Parsons seem to feel
about his crime?
4.
What is the most
dreaded punishment
to the prisoners?
Where do they go?
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
23
BOOK 3: CHAPTER 2
5.
Describe Winston’s
torture. Who is
administering the
torture?
6.
Why has Winston
been brought here to
the Ministry of Love?
7.
According to
Winston’s torturer,
what has happened to
Julia?
8.
When Winston asks
whether or not the
Brotherhood exists,
what does he learn?
BOOK 3: CHAPTER 3
9.
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
Give the three stages
of Winston’s
reintegration.
10. Why does the Party
seek power?
11. Describe what Winston
sees in the three-way
mirror. Why does
O’Brien call him the
“last man”?
12. Orwell almost called his
novel The Last Man in
Europe rather than
1984. Which title do
you prefer? Why?
24
BOOK 3: CHAPTER 4
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
13. What are some things
that Winston writes on
his slate? What does he
think about his
remaining flashbacks
and memories?
14. Describe what has
happened to Winston
physically, mentally,
etc…
15. Winston tries to
practice crimestop.
What is crimestop?
16. How must Winston
change his feelings
toward Big Brother
before he can be
released?
BOOK 3: CHAPTER 5
17. Where does
Winston’s final
torture occur?
18. What is the worst
thing in the world for
Winston? Where have
we heard this before?
19. What does Winston
believe is the only
way to save himself
from his torture?
20. Who is the only
person to whom
Winston can transfer
his punishment?
25
BOOK 3: CHAPTER 6
Quoted example from the novel, with page numbers.
Questions, thoughts, connections
21. Where and how does
Winston spend much of
his time these days?
22. How has Julia seemed
to change? She says
“All you care about is
yourself,” when
referencing Room 101.
Are human beings truly
this selfish?
23. Is Winston alive or
dead at the end of the
novel? Explain.
24. Does Winston really
love Big Brother?
What is Orwell’s
message or warning
when he ends the book
this way?
26
SETTING AND MOOD
Setting and mood often work together to create a particular effect. A place can feel cozy, oppressive, or terrifying
depending on what you perceive around you. For each setting of 1984 below, list important sensory details (sights,
sounds, smells, tastes, and/or physical sensations described by Orwell). Then decide on the mood of each setting.
1. Setting: The canteen in the Ministry of Truth
Sensory Details:
Mood:
2. Setting: The natural clearing in the woods
Sensory Details:
Mood:
3. Setting: Mr. Charrington’s upstairs room
Sensory Details:
Mood:
4. Setting: O’Brien’s house
Sensory Details:
Mood:
27
SYMBOLISM
There are a number of symbols in the novel 1984. Below, write down the important aspects of each object/person/place,
and then use this information and your understanding of the novel to determine what each symbolizes.

Winston’s diary (Part One)
Important aspects: _______________________________________________________
What it represents:_______________________________________________________

Victory Gin (Parts One and Three)
Important aspects: _______________________________________________________
What it represents:________________________________________________________

“The Bells of St. Clements” (Parts One and Two)
Important aspects: _______________________________________________________
What it represents:________________________________________________________

The paperweight (Parts One and Two)
Important aspects: _______________________________________________________
What it represents:________________________________________________________

The prole woman (Part Two)
Important aspects:________________________________________________________
What it represents: _______________________________________________________

The Chestnut Tree Café (Parts One and Three)
Important aspects:________________________________________________________
What it represents: _______________________________________________________
28
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