Computer Science CHAPTER #1 INTRODUCTION The main objective of the system is to create electronic blood donation system in order to assist in management of records, planning and share information in more confidential, convenient and secure way using modern technology. The need of the system arouse because it is the known fact that Pakistan has very large network of blood Donation System and it is very difficult to handle such a large system manually. By computerizing it, it became possible to overcome the limitations and make the system operations more efficient. The complexity of handling data and records of such a vast system got reduced and became easier by computerizing the system. Scope: This project is beneficial in following terms. All computerized system. Fast pace of work. Highly secured. Easily accessible. User friendly. CHAPTER#2 EXISTING SYSTEM  Computer Science The current system being used is manual one. There is no involvement of computers in the system. Each entry is made manually by employees. This process is both time consuming and cumbersome. Drawbacks of Existing System: This situation could lead to the following problems: 1. Data Redundancy: The same data was duplicated in several files. For example there are two files “Students” and “library”. The file “Students” contains the data name, fee, address and phone no. etc. The file library contains the roll no. and name of those students who issued books from library along with information of the book. The data of one student appears in two files. This is known as redundancy. This redundancy causes higher storage. 2. Data Inconsistency Inconsistency means that two files contain different data of the same student. For example if address of the student is changed, it must be changed in both files. There is probability that it may only change in one file. The data becomes inconsistent in this situation. 3. Integrity Problems: Integrity means reliability and accuracy of data. The stored data must satisfy certain integrity constrains. For example, Roll No. and Marks of the students should be numeric value. 4. Security Problems The existing system does not provide adequate security on data. In some situations, it is required to provide different types of access to data for different users. Such types of security options are not available in existing system. 5. Program Maintenance: The data in existing system is difficult to maintain. Most of the budget may be spent on maintenance. It makes it difficult to develop new applications.  Computer Science CHAPTER#3 PROPOSED SYSTEM Proposed System: Keeping all the drawbacks in mind we tried our best to introduce a system where all information related to Blood Donation can be maintained, update and preserved under various heads. If our proposed system will be used in Blood Bank, it will help to maintain or keep data in most authenticated way. Under this software all information about blood donors kept in record. Features of Proposed System: The main features of the proposed system are:  Computer Science All relevant data will be accessible by all related applications. This will reduce the data redundancy and in-consistency. Only the authorized person will be able to access these records. It means that this system will provide data security. Our computerized database will provide the facility for backup and recovery of data in case of data loss or damage. This system will generate report for a specific data, so we can say that this system is flexible. This system will reduce integrity problems as there will be more accuracy to manipulate the records. This system will allow the user to design complex data structures. It also means that database can be extended in future. This system will be easy to operate for every user of the database CHAPTER#4 SYSTEM DESIGN .The design phase states how a system will meet the requirement identified during system analysis phase as mentioned in the requirements specification. Some activities performed during design phase are as follows: Identification of data entry forms along with the data elements Identification of the reports and outputs of the new system Design the form or display as expected in the system Identification of the data elements and tables for database creation. Create entity-relationship model ENTITY RELATIONSHIP MODEL ENTITY:  Computer Science An entity is a thing or interest to an organization about which data is to be held. Its symbol is as follows: ATTRIBUTE: An attribute is a property or a characteristic of an entity. Its symbol is: RELATIONSHIP: A relationship is a link or association between entities. The relationship indicates how the entities are connected or related to each other. Its symbol is: The relationship between two different entities is represented by a simple line that connects two entities as follows Patient Hospital CARDINALITY: The no. of entity occurrences associated with each occurrence of the related entity is known as cardinality. It specifies how many instances of an entity related to each instance of another entity. It means that cardinality specifies the maximum no. of relationships. The cardinality of the relationship can be as follows: ONE-to-ONE: It means that one instance of entity A is related to only one instance of entity B. ONE-to-MANY: It means that one instance of entity A is related to many instances of entity B. MANY-to-MANY: It means that one instance of entity A is related to many instances of entity B and one instance of entity B is related to many instances of entity B. ZERO or NONE: It means that no instance of entity A is related to any instance of entity B. RECURSIVE: It indicates a relationship of an entity to itself.  Computer Science RELATIONSHIP Relationships are formed so that the linkage of tables in a particular group can be specified. This also establishes relationship of data in one table with other. The main table with which the other tables form relationship is Blood. This is because it contains the main information regarding the project. The relationships are:-  Computer Science ERD FOR BLOOD DONATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Is stored in BLOOD Is denoted by DONORS BLOOD BANK Have TECHNICIAN S Will ISSUE BLOOD TO PATIENT Is admitted in  HOSPITAL LL Computer Science ID Donor ID Blood Group BLOOD Cost per Pint Total Pints Issue Pints ID Name Technician ID BLOOD BANK Blood ID Address Phone No. ID Patient ID Address HOSPITAL Ward No. Name  Computer Science ID Name Blood ID Blood Group DONOR Phone No. Donation Date No of Pints ID Patient ID Blood Bank ID ISSUE BLOOD Required Pints Blood ID Date of Issue Payment  Computer Science ID Name Experience Qualification Age TECHNICIAN Nationality CNIC Address Phone No. ID Disease Name Issue Blood ID PATIENT Blood Group Attendant Name Requested Pints  Age Computer Science DATABASE OBJECTS 1. TABLES Table is the most important object of database. It is the central concept in relational databases. All data in a relational database is stored in tables. Table is as relation. A table is a collection of related data organized in rows and columns. Rows are also called records and columns are called fields or attributes. Our database consists of following tables: BLOOD Primary key: Blood ID Design view Datasheet view  Computer Science BLOOD BANK Primary Key: Blood Bank ID Datasheet View HOSPITAL Primary Key: Hospital ID Datasheet View DONOR Primary Key: Hospital ID Datasheet View Issue Blood Primary Key: ID Datasheet View  Computer Science PATIENT Primary Key: Patient ID Datasheet View TECHNICIAN Primary Key: Technician ID Datasheet View  Computer Science 2. FORMS A graphical interface used to interact with database is called FORM. Forms are used to enter data in database. A form consists of textboxes, labels, buttons and other graphical objects. These objects enable the user to interact with database easily. The user can also retrieve, change, delete and update data by using forms. Our data base consists of following forms: MAIN MENU Main Form consists of all the forms, queries and reports of Blood Donation Management System. BLOOD This form consists of six labels i.e. Blood ID, Blood group, Total Pints, Issue pints, Cost per Pint and Donor ID. BLOOD BANK This form consists of six labels i.e. Blood Bank ID, Name, Phone No., Address, Blood ID and Technician ID.  Computer Science ISSUE BLOOD This form consists of seven labels i.e. ID, Payment, Required Pints, Blood ID, Date of Issue, Blood Bank ID and Patient ID. HOSPITAL This form consists of six labels i.e. Hospital ID, Ward no., Hospital name, Hospital, Address, Patient ID and Contact No..  Computer Science PATIENT This form consists of eight labels i.e. Patient Name, Age, Blood Group Hospital ID, Attendant Name, Requested Pints, Disease and Issue Blood ID. DONOR This form consists of six labels i.e. Donor ID, Donor Name, Blood Group, No. of Pints, Donation Date and Phone No..  Computer Science TECHNICIAN This form consists of ten labels i.e. ID, Name, Age, CNIC, Phone no., Address, Nationality, Qualification, Experience and Blood Bank ID, 4. QUERIES Queries are used to retrieve required data from database. Data is retrieve according to the criteria given by the user. Queries also used to perform calculation on different fields. The query is written in database access language. The most commonly used  Computer Science query language s SQL. A query retrieves data from database and displays it in the form of table. The output of query can be used as source of records for forms and reports. Our project consists of following queries: BLOOD This query will ask the user to enter Blood Group and then displays the record of that Blood Group. BLOOD BANK This query will ask the user to enter Blood Bank Name and then displays the record accordingly.  Computer Science ISSUE BLOOD This query will ask the user to enter Issue Blood ID and displays the record accordingly. PATIENT This query will ask the user to enter Patient Name and then displays the record accordingly.  Computer Science HOSPITAL This query will ask the user to enter hospital name and then displays the record accordingly. DONOR This query will ask the user to enter donor name and then displays the record accordingly.  Computer Science TECHNICIAN This query will ask the user to enter Technician name and displays the result a c c o r d i n g l y . 5. REPORTS Reports are output of database application. The information display on reports can be obtained from one table or multi tables and queries. The reports contain graphs and charts. Reports are designed using Design View or report wizard. Reports are used to retrieve and present data in a formatted way. The user can print reports to send them to different people. Our database consists of following reports:  Computer Science BLOOD BLOOD BANK ISSUE BLOOD  Computer Science PATIENT DONOR  Computer Science HOSPITAL TECHNICIAN  Computer Science CHAPTER #5 TESTING AND DEBUGGING  Computer Science Development of a software system involves a series of production activities where opportunity for injection of human fallibilities is enormous. Errors may begin to occur at the very inception of the process where the objectives may be erroneously of imperfectly specified, as well as in the later design and development stages. Because of human inability to perform and communicate with perfection software development is accompanied by a quality assurance activity assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, design and coding. Debugging: The testing process uncovers errors and drawbacks in the software, which were successfully removed in the “Debugging Process”. There are two types of errors: 1. Syntax Errors: It is a type of error that occurs when an invalid statement is written in program. A program containing syntax errors cannot be compiled successfully. 2. Logical Error: It is a type of error that occur due to poor logic of the programmer. The logical errors can only be detected by testing process. CHAPTER#6 IMPLEMENTATION AND MAINTENENCE IMPLEMENTATION:  Computer Science The activities involved in starting up new software will have a major impact in current operations. But this system is designed in such a way that no major staff is need. The staff can themselves operate the system design. It provides a user friendly environment. The old manual system at once replaced by the new computerized system. This approach could be risky as the old system is seized. It’s functionally totally get stop and new system is implemented without keeping in mind either it will work properly or not. MAINTENANCE: The maintenance phase includes changes associated with corrections required in the software. As software is used, the computer will recognize additional function that will be beneficial. Database maintenance include Checking for Signs of corruption in the database, looking for problem areas, rebuilding index, remove duplicated records & checking for any abnormalities in the database that might signal a problem. Maintenance makes changes to computer program so that they can be more easily corrected, adapted and perfect. Bibliography Books: Computer Science by It Series Computer science by Sajjad Heder Database Management System by Saleem Mustafa Websites: http://www.google.com/ http://www.wikipedia.com http://www.itseries.com.pk.