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BLOOD DONATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Computer Science
CHAPTER #1
INTRODUCTION
The main objective of the system is to create electronic blood donation system in order to
assist in management of records, planning and share information in more confidential,
convenient and secure way using modern technology. The need of the system arouse because it
is the known fact that Pakistan has very large network of blood Donation System and it is very
difficult to handle such a large system manually. By computerizing it, it became possible to
overcome the limitations and make the system operations more efficient. The complexity of
handling data and records of such a vast system got reduced and became easier by
computerizing the system.
Scope:
This project is beneficial in following terms.
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All computerized system.
Fast pace of work.
Highly secured.
Easily accessible.
User friendly.
CHAPTER#2
EXISTING SYSTEM
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The current system being used is manual one. There is no involvement of computers in the
system. Each entry is made manually by employees. This process is both time consuming and
cumbersome.
Drawbacks of Existing System:
This situation could lead to the following problems:
1. Data Redundancy:
The same data was duplicated in several files. For example there are two files
“Students” and “library”. The file “Students” contains the data name, fee, address and
phone no. etc. The file library contains the roll no. and name of those students who
issued books from library along with information of the book. The data of one student
appears in two files. This is known as redundancy. This redundancy causes higher
storage.
2. Data Inconsistency
Inconsistency means that two files contain different data of the same student. For
example if address of the student is changed, it must be changed in both files. There is
probability that it may only change in one file. The data becomes inconsistent in this
situation.
3. Integrity Problems:
Integrity means reliability and accuracy of data. The stored data must satisfy certain
integrity constrains. For example, Roll No. and Marks of the students should be numeric
value.
4. Security Problems
The existing system does not provide adequate security on data. In some situations, it is
required to provide different types of access to data for different users. Such types of
security options are not available in existing system.
5. Program Maintenance:
The data in existing system is difficult to maintain. Most of the budget may be spent on
maintenance. It makes it difficult to develop new applications.
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Computer Science
CHAPTER#3
PROPOSED SYSTEM
Proposed System:
Keeping all the drawbacks in mind we tried our best to introduce a system where all
information related to Blood Donation can be maintained, update and preserved under various
heads. If our proposed system will be used in Blood Bank, it will help to maintain or keep data
in most authenticated way. Under this software all information about blood donors kept in
record.
Features of Proposed System:
The main features of the proposed system are:
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Computer Science
 All relevant data will be accessible by all related applications. This will reduce the data
redundancy and in-consistency.
 Only the authorized person will be able to access these records. It means that this system
will provide data security.
 Our computerized database will provide the facility for backup and recovery of data in
case of data loss or damage.
 This system will generate report for a specific data, so we can say that this system is
flexible. This system will reduce integrity problems as there will be more accuracy to
manipulate the records.
 This system will allow the user to design complex data structures. It also means that
database can be extended in future.
 This system will be easy to operate for every user of the database
CHAPTER#4
SYSTEM DESIGN
.The design phase states how a system will meet the requirement identified during system
analysis phase as mentioned in the requirements specification.
Some activities performed during design phase are as follows:
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Identification of data entry forms along with the data elements
Identification of the reports and outputs of the new system
Design the form or display as expected in the system
Identification of the data elements and tables for database creation.
Create entity-relationship model
ENTITY RELATIONSHIP MODEL
ENTITY:
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An entity is a thing or interest to an organization about which data is to be held. Its symbol is
as follows:
ATTRIBUTE:
An attribute is a property or a characteristic of an entity. Its symbol is:
RELATIONSHIP:
A relationship is a link or association between entities. The relationship indicates how the
entities are connected or related to each other. Its symbol is:
The relationship between two different entities is represented by a simple line that connects
two entities as follows
Patient
Hospital
CARDINALITY:
The no. of entity occurrences associated with each occurrence of the related entity is
known as cardinality. It specifies how many instances of an entity related to each instance of
another entity. It means that cardinality specifies the maximum no. of relationships.
The cardinality of the relationship can be as follows:
ONE-to-ONE:
It means that one instance of entity A is related to only one instance of entity B.
ONE-to-MANY:
It means that one instance of entity A is related to many instances of entity B.
MANY-to-MANY:
It means that one instance of entity A is related to many instances of entity B and one
instance of entity B is related to many instances of entity B.
ZERO or NONE:
It means that no instance of entity A is related to any instance of entity B.
RECURSIVE:
It indicates a relationship of an entity to itself.
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RELATIONSHIP
Relationships are formed so that the linkage of tables in a particular group can be
specified. This also establishes relationship of data in one table with other. The main
table with which the other tables form relationship is Blood. This is because it contains
the main information regarding the project. The relationships are:-
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ERD FOR BLOOD DONATION MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
Is stored in
BLOOD
Is denoted by
DONORS
BLOOD
BANK
Have
TECHNICIAN
S
Will
ISSUE
BLOOD
TO
PATIENT
Is admitted in
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HOSPITAL
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ID
Donor
ID
Blood Group
BLOOD
Cost per
Pint
Total Pints
Issue Pints
ID
Name
Technician
ID
BLOOD BANK
Blood
ID
Address
Phone No.
ID
Patient ID
Address
HOSPITAL
Ward No.
Name
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ID
Name
Blood ID
Blood
Group
DONOR
Phone No.
Donation
Date
No of
Pints
ID
Patient ID
Blood
Bank ID
ISSUE
BLOOD
Required
Pints
Blood ID
Date of
Issue
Payment
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ID
Name
Experience
Qualification
Age
TECHNICIAN
Nationality
CNIC
Address
Phone No.
ID
Disease
Name
Issue
Blood ID
PATIENT
Blood
Group
Attendant
Name
Requested
Pints
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Age
Computer Science
DATABASE OBJECTS
1. TABLES
Table is the most important object of database. It is the central concept in relational
databases. All data in a relational database is stored in tables. Table is as relation.
A table is a collection of related data organized in rows and columns. Rows are also
called records and columns are called fields or attributes.
Our database consists of following tables:
 BLOOD
Primary key: Blood ID
Design view
Datasheet view
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 BLOOD BANK
Primary Key: Blood Bank ID
Datasheet View
 HOSPITAL
Primary Key: Hospital ID
Datasheet View
 DONOR
Primary Key: Hospital ID
Datasheet View
 Issue Blood
Primary Key: ID
Datasheet View
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 PATIENT
Primary Key: Patient ID
Datasheet View
 TECHNICIAN
Primary Key: Technician ID
Datasheet View
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2. FORMS
A graphical interface used to interact with database is called FORM. Forms are used to
enter data in database. A form consists of textboxes, labels, buttons and other graphical
objects. These objects enable the user to interact with database easily. The user can also
retrieve, change, delete and update data by using forms.
Our data base consists of following forms:
 MAIN MENU
Main Form consists of all the forms, queries and reports of Blood Donation
Management System.
 BLOOD
This form consists of six labels i.e. Blood ID, Blood group, Total Pints, Issue pints,
Cost per Pint and Donor ID.
 BLOOD BANK
This form consists of six labels i.e. Blood Bank ID, Name, Phone No., Address,
Blood ID and Technician ID.
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 ISSUE BLOOD
This form consists of seven labels i.e. ID, Payment, Required Pints, Blood ID, Date
of Issue, Blood Bank ID and Patient ID.
 HOSPITAL
This form consists of six labels i.e. Hospital ID, Ward no., Hospital name, Hospital,
Address, Patient ID and Contact No..
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 PATIENT
This form consists of eight labels i.e. Patient Name, Age, Blood Group Hospital ID,
Attendant Name, Requested Pints, Disease and Issue Blood ID.
 DONOR
This form consists of six labels i.e. Donor ID, Donor Name, Blood Group, No. of
Pints, Donation Date and Phone No..
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 TECHNICIAN
This form consists of ten labels i.e. ID, Name, Age, CNIC, Phone no., Address,
Nationality, Qualification, Experience and Blood Bank ID,
4. QUERIES
Queries are used to retrieve required data from database. Data is retrieve according to
the criteria given by the user. Queries also used to perform calculation on different
fields. The query is written in database access language. The most commonly used
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query language s SQL. A query retrieves data from database and displays it in the form
of table. The output of query can be used as source of records for forms and reports.
Our project consists of following queries:
 BLOOD
This query will ask the user to enter Blood Group and then displays the record of that
Blood Group.
 BLOOD BANK
This query will ask the user to enter Blood Bank Name and then displays the record
accordingly.
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 ISSUE BLOOD
This query will ask the user to enter Issue Blood ID and displays the record
accordingly.
 PATIENT
This query will ask the user to enter Patient Name and then displays the record
accordingly.
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 HOSPITAL
This query will ask the user to enter hospital name and then displays the record
accordingly.
 DONOR
This query will ask the user to enter donor name and then displays the record
accordingly.
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 TECHNICIAN
This query will ask the user to enter Technician name and displays the result
a
c
c
o
r
d
i
n
g
l
y
.
5. REPORTS
Reports are output of database application. The information display on reports can be
obtained from one table or multi tables and queries. The reports contain graphs and
charts. Reports are designed using Design View or report wizard. Reports are used to
retrieve and present data in a formatted way. The user can print reports to send them to
different people.
Our database consists of following reports:
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 BLOOD
 BLOOD BANK
 ISSUE BLOOD
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 PATIENT

DONOR
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
HOSPITAL

TECHNICIAN
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Computer Science
CHAPTER #5
TESTING AND DEBUGGING
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Development of a software system involves a series of production activities where
opportunity for injection of human fallibilities is enormous. Errors may begin to occur at the
very inception of the process where the objectives may be erroneously of imperfectly
specified, as well as in the later design and development stages. Because of human inability to
perform and communicate with perfection software development is accompanied by a quality
assurance activity assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, design and
coding.
Debugging:
The testing process uncovers errors and drawbacks in the software, which were
successfully removed in the “Debugging Process”.
There are two types of errors:
1. Syntax Errors:
It is a type of error that occurs when an invalid statement is written in program. A
program containing syntax errors cannot be compiled successfully.
2. Logical Error:
It is a type of error that occur due to poor logic of the programmer. The logical errors
can only be detected by testing process.
CHAPTER#6
IMPLEMENTATION AND
MAINTENENCE
IMPLEMENTATION:
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The activities involved in starting up new software will have a major impact in current
operations. But this system is designed in such a way that no major staff is need. The staff can
themselves operate the system design. It provides a user friendly environment.
The old manual system at once replaced by the new computerized system. This approach
could be risky as the old system is seized. It’s functionally totally get stop and new system is
implemented without keeping in mind either it will work properly or not.
MAINTENANCE:
The maintenance phase includes changes associated with corrections required in the
software. As software is used, the computer will recognize additional function that will be
beneficial.
Database maintenance include Checking for Signs of corruption in the database, looking
for problem areas, rebuilding index, remove duplicated records & checking for any
abnormalities in the database that might signal a problem.
Maintenance makes changes to computer program so that they can be more easily
corrected, adapted and perfect.
Bibliography
Books:
 Computer Science by It Series
 Computer science by Sajjad Heder
 Database Management System by Saleem Mustafa
Websites:
 http://www.google.com/
 http://www.wikipedia.com
 http://www.itseries.com.pk.
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