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Factors affecting solubility- factors affecting rate

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Factors affecting solubility&
factors affecting rate of reaction
What is solubility?
• The solubility of a solute is: the maximum
amount of solute that can dissolve in a certain
amount of solvent or solution at a certain
temperature.
Main factors that affect solubility
• Nature of the solute and solvent –
▫ The amount of solute that dissolves depends on what
type of solute it is.
▫ While only 1 gram of lead (II) chloride can be dissolved
in 100 grams of water at room temperature, 200
grams of zinc chloride can be dissolved. This means
that a greater amount of zinc chloride can be dissolved
in the same amount of water than lead II chloride.
Main factors that affect
solubility
• Temperature –
▫ Generally, an increase in the temperature of the solution
increases the solubility of a solid solute. For example, a
greater amount of sugar will dissolve in warm water than in
cold water.
▫ A few solid solutes, however, are less soluble in warmer
solutions. For all gases, solubility decreases as the
temperature of the solution rises. An example of this is
Soda. The solubility of the carbon dioxide gas decreases
when a soda is warm, making the soda flat.
Main factors that affect solubility
• Pressure –
▫ For solid and liquid solutes, changes in pressure have practically
no effect on solubility.
▫ For gaseous solutes, an increase in pressure increases solubility
and a decrease in pressure decreases solubility. Example: When
the cap on a bottle of soda pop is removed, pressure is released,
and the gaseous solute bubbles out of solution. This escape of a
gas from solution is called effervescence.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF
SOLUTION:
• The rate of solution is: a measure of how fast a
substance dissolves.
• Size of the particles –
▫ When a solute dissolves, the action takes place only at the surface
of each particle. When the total surface area of the solute particles
is increased, the solute dissolves more rapidly. Breaking a solute
into smaller pieces increases its surface area and increases its
rate of solution.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE
OF SOLUTION:
• Stirring -- With liquid and solid solutes, stirring brings
fresh portions of the solvent in contact with the solute.
Stirring, therefore, allows the solute to dissolve faster.
• Amount of solute already dissolved – When you
have very little solute in the solution, dissolving takes
place quickly. When you have a lot of solute in the
solution, dissolving takes place more slowly.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF
SOLUTION:
• Temperature -- For liquids and solid solutes,
increasing the temperature not only increases the
amount of solute that will dissolve but also increases the
rate at which the solute will dissolve.
▫ For gases, the reverse is true. An increase in temperature
decreases both solubility and rate of solution.
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