Factors affecting solubility& factors affecting rate of reaction What is solubility? • The solubility of a solute is: the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a certain amount of solvent or solution at a certain temperature. Main factors that affect solubility • Nature of the solute and solvent – ▫ The amount of solute that dissolves depends on what type of solute it is. ▫ While only 1 gram of lead (II) chloride can be dissolved in 100 grams of water at room temperature, 200 grams of zinc chloride can be dissolved. This means that a greater amount of zinc chloride can be dissolved in the same amount of water than lead II chloride. Main factors that affect solubility • Temperature – ▫ Generally, an increase in the temperature of the solution increases the solubility of a solid solute. For example, a greater amount of sugar will dissolve in warm water than in cold water. ▫ A few solid solutes, however, are less soluble in warmer solutions. For all gases, solubility decreases as the temperature of the solution rises. An example of this is Soda. The solubility of the carbon dioxide gas decreases when a soda is warm, making the soda flat. Main factors that affect solubility • Pressure – ▫ For solid and liquid solutes, changes in pressure have practically no effect on solubility. ▫ For gaseous solutes, an increase in pressure increases solubility and a decrease in pressure decreases solubility. Example: When the cap on a bottle of soda pop is removed, pressure is released, and the gaseous solute bubbles out of solution. This escape of a gas from solution is called effervescence. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF SOLUTION: • The rate of solution is: a measure of how fast a substance dissolves. • Size of the particles – ▫ When a solute dissolves, the action takes place only at the surface of each particle. When the total surface area of the solute particles is increased, the solute dissolves more rapidly. Breaking a solute into smaller pieces increases its surface area and increases its rate of solution. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF SOLUTION: • Stirring -- With liquid and solid solutes, stirring brings fresh portions of the solvent in contact with the solute. Stirring, therefore, allows the solute to dissolve faster. • Amount of solute already dissolved – When you have very little solute in the solution, dissolving takes place quickly. When you have a lot of solute in the solution, dissolving takes place more slowly. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF SOLUTION: • Temperature -- For liquids and solid solutes, increasing the temperature not only increases the amount of solute that will dissolve but also increases the rate at which the solute will dissolve. ▫ For gases, the reverse is true. An increase in temperature decreases both solubility and rate of solution.