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Chapter 1

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CHAPTER
1
Introduction to
Physiological
Principles
PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by
Stephen Gehnrich, Salisbury University
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Physiology
“The study of how animals work”
Knut Schmidt-Nielsen (1915–2007)
Structure and function of various parts
 How these parts work together
Diversity of animals due to evolution
 More than 1 million species live on Earth
Unifying themes
 Apply to all physiological processes
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Biological Levels of Organization
August Krogh Principle:” For every biological problem there is
An organism on which it can be most conveniently studied.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Physiological Processes Obey the Laws of
Physics and Chemistry
 Fick’s Laws of Diffusion: Adolf Fick
 1st Law: “ Substances diffuse from areas of high
concentration to areas of low concentration.”
 Movement of substances from areas of high
potential energy to areas of low potential
energy
 Sources of potential energy: concentration
gradient, voltage or electrical gradient,
temperature gradient, pressure gradient
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Physiological Processes Obey the Laws of
Physics and Chemistry
 Fick’s 2nd law of diffusion: “ The amount of a
substance that diffuses across a surface is
proportional to the area of that surface and
inversely proportional to the distance across
which the substance must diffuse.”
 Mechanical properties of a structure influence its
function
 Electrical potentials are fundamental in the
functions of neurons and muscles
 Temperature affects physiological processes at all
levels of biological organization
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Body size Influences Physiological Patterns
Allometric Scaling Equation: shows the relationship
between body mass and metabolic rate as described by the
equation
y = aMb
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.3
Basis for Evolution and Natural Selection
 Variation among individuals for specific traits
 Traits must be heritable
 Traits must increase fitness
 That is, must increase reproductive success
 Relative fitness of different genotypes depends on
the environment
 If the environment changes, the trait may no longer be
beneficial
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Not All Differences are Adaptations
Genetic drift
 Random changes in the frequency of genotypes
over time
 Independent of adaptive evolution
 Most common in small populations
 For example, forest fire resulting in founder effect
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Evolutionary Relationships
 Despite the diversity in animal form and function,
there are many similarities
 Common evolutionary ancestors
 Closely related species share more features than
distantly related species
 Understanding evolution is necessary to
understanding physiological diversity
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Physiological Processes are Shaped by
Evolution
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Phenotypes: Homologous or Analogous
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
ACTIVITY:
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Guide Questions : Think, Pair- Share
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Give the systems that were working actively when you
performed your activity. What is the specific role of
each system in that particular activity?
What generalization or conclusion can you draw based
on question #1?
Give examples of physiological changes in your body
that you experienced during and after the activity.
Why do you think those physiological changes occur?
What type of feedback mechanism (Positive or
Negative) did your body utilize to regulate your
physiological processes? Justify your answer
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Physiological Regulation
Strategies for coping with changing conditions
 Conformers – allow internal conditions to change
with external conditions
 Regulators – maintain relatively constant internal
conditions regardless of external conditions
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Organisms must maintain homeostasis to
survive in diverse environments.



Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant internal conditions (
Walter Cannon , 1929)
Allostasis: process of achieving homeostasis through
physiological changes ( allostatic response: short term or long
term)
Homeostatic imbalance – a disturbance in homeostasis
resulting in disease
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Homeostasis Controlled by Feedback loops
or Reflex Control Pathways
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Antagonistic Controls
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Feedback Mechanisms
• Negative feedback
• Includes most homeostatic control
mechanisms
• Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces
its intensity
• Deviation from the set point, is made
smaller or is resisted
• It does NOT prevent variation but maintains
variation within a normal range
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Feedback Mechanisms
• Positive feedback
• Increases the original stimulus to push the
variable farther, causing a greater deviation
from the set point.
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Slide 1.20b
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Phenotype, Genotype, and the Environment
Phenotype is a product of genotype and its interaction
with the environment
 Genotype – genetic makeup
 Phenotype – morphology, physiology, and behavior
 Phenotypic plasticity – single genotype generates
more than one phenotype depending on
environmental conditions as a result of developmental
plasticity
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Phenotypic Plasticity
Can be irreversible or reversible
 Irreversible
Polyphenism
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.5
Phenotypic Plasticity
 Reversible
 Acclimation – process of change in response to
laboratory conditions
 Acclimatization – process of change in response to
natural environment
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
History of Animal Physiology
Hippocrates (460–circa 377 B.C.)
 Father of medicine
Aristotle (384–322 B.C.)
 Father of natural history
 Relationship between structure and function
Claudius Galenus, “Galen” (129–circa 199)
 First experimental physiologist
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
History of Animal Physiology
Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288)
 Anatomy of heart and lungs
Jean-Francois Fernal (1497–1558)
 Outlined current knowledge of human health and
disease
Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564)
 First modern anatomy textbook
William Harvey (1578–1657)
 Circulation of blood through the body by
contractions of the heart
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
History of Animal Physiology
Herman Boerhaave and Albrecht von Haller (1700s)
 Bodily functions are a combination of chemical and
physical processes
Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann (1838)
 “Cell theory”
Claude Bernard (1813–1878)
 Milieu interieur (internal environment)
 Internal environment distinct from external
environment
Walter Cannon (1871–1945)
 “Homeostasis”
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
History of Animal Physiology
Per Scholander (1905–1980)
 Comparative physiology
C. Ladd Prosser (1907–2002)
 Central pattern generators
Knut Schmidt-Nielsen (1915–2007)
 Animals in harsh and unusual environments
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
History of Animal Physiology
George Bartholomew (1923–2006)
 Ecological physiology
Peter Hochachka (1937–2002) and George Somero
(1941– )
 Biochemical adaptations
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Process that Causes Physiological Variation
 Developmental physiology
 Change as animal grows
 Environmental physiology
 Change in response to environment
 Evolutionary physiology
 Change due to natural selection
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
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