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Review for Comprehensive Final

Review for Comprehensive Final
Chapter 17 – Endocrine System
1. What are the characteristics of hormones?
2. Know the general functions of all the hormones studied.
 Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, reproductive hormones, pancreas, adrenal gland, thymus, pineal
3. Hormone classification based on chemistry
 Amine (Monoamines) / Protein /Peptide hormones:
 Lipid derivative: Steroid hormones /Eicosanoids
 Gaseous (nitrous oxide)
4. How does the nervous system regulate hormones?
5. What conditions or illnesses could adversely affect the release of hormones and their function?
Chapter 18 – Blood
1. Know all formed elements (erythrocytes, leucocytes, and platelets) and their specific
characteristics and functions.
2. What are the different characteristic of blood? (ex: viscosity, temperature, pH, etc.)
3. What is a hematocrit? What does it measure?
4. Have an understanding of blood types, antigens, antibodies. Remember crime scene question.
5. Know how to do blood typing.
6. What blood type is considered the universal donor? universal recipient?
7. What is the Rh factor? How is it significant?
8. What is the role and structure of hemoglobin?
Chapter 19 – Heart
1. Know the individual layers of the heart wall and their functions
 Epicardium. Myocardium, Endocardium
2. Know the STRUCTURES of the heart and their function
3. Know the flow of blood in the three circuit of blood circulation:
a) Systemic circulation
b) Pulmonary circulation c) Coronary circulation
4. Know the following aspects of the conduction system in the heart.
 SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers
5. What are the following: systole, diastole, sinus rhythm, ectopic focus /nodal rhythm/ intrinsic
ventricular rhythm?
6. Know the conduction pathway of heart from start to contraction completion for both the atria and the
ventricles. How is this reflected in an EKG?
7. Understand how the Cardiac Cycle flows.
– Atrial Systole
– End Diastolic Volume (EDV)
– Ventricular systole/atrial diastole -- (isovolumetric contraction).
– Stroke volume (SV)
– End Systolic Volume (ESV)
– Relaxation period -- (isovolumetric relaxation)
8. What is cardiac output? What conditions could potentially affect cardiac output?
Chapter 20- Blood Vessels
1. Structure and function of arteries, arterioles veins, venules, and capillaries. Know differences
2. Know the major vessels of heart, arm, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, thigh, leg
3. Understand the SEQUENCE of blood vessels through areas of the body. Ex: from aorta to the thigh;
from heart to the hand; from heart to the head
4. What is capillary filtration and absorption?
5. What conditions affect blood pressure? What are medications, mechanisms used to control and
regulate blood pressure?
6. Know the influence of the following factors on blood flow:
 Size of the lumen, turbulence, blood viscosity, blood vessel length, surface area
Chapter 21 – Lymphatic System and Chapter 22 Immune System
What is resistance? 2 forms of resistance?
What are the 5 TYPES OF LEUCOCYTES and what are their SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS in immunity?
Where would you find lymphatic tissues? Lymphatic nodules? Lymphatic organs?
What are MALT, GALT, BALT, Peyer patches?
What are MHC1 and MHC11? How do they differ and what is their function?
What are the different classifications of antibodies and what is their function?
What is complement? What are B-lymphocyte and their function?
Know the FUNCTION of Helper T (TH) cells; Memory T cells; Cytotoxic T (TC) cells
How does HIV affect the immune system? What cells are its target?
Chapter 23- Respiratory System
What structures comprise the respiratory system and what are their functions?
What is the bronchial tree?
What is the path of airflow from the nose/mouth to the alveoli?
What is the respiratory membrane?
Understand the principle of respiration with regard to atmospheric pressure?
What conditions or illnesses could adversely affect respiration?
What are the different capacities and volumes of the lungs?
Who are Dalton, Henry, and Boyle? What did they specific discover?
What is the hemoglobin dissociation curve? How does it indicate oxygen release? What conditions
can affect the release of oxygen from hemoglobin?
Chapter 24- Urinary System / Chapter 25- Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid/Base
Know the various structures of the kidney and their functions.
What is the condition of normal urine?
What is urea and how is it formed? What role does it have in urine production?
Know the flow of urine from the nephron to the urethra.
5. What is a nephron? What are the individual components of the nephron?
6. How does the kidney provide filtration?
7. How is the filtrate reabsorbed back into the blood?
8. What is the permeability of the nephron loops to water and sodium?
9. What mechanisms influence the flow of blood into the glomerulus?
10. Have good understanding of the JG cells, macula densa, afferent arteriole, renin and their functions?
11. What mechanisms regulate water balance in the body?
12. What are the buffer systems and how do they regulate acid-base balance?
13. What are the principle hormones involved in the urinary system?
14. What are respiratory acidosis and alkalosis, metabolic acidosis and alkalosis?
Chapter 26-Digestive System / Chapter 27- Nutrition and Metabolism
1. Know the layers and specific functions of the GI tract. (which has the most muscles, the most mucus
secretions, the highest or lowest pH?)
2. Know the individual structures of the digestive tract from mouth to anus. (mouth, pharynx,
esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, rectum, anus). What occurs in each area?
3. What are the major hormones and enzymes of the digestive system?
 Influence of CCK on the gallbladder, the pancreas
 Role of secretin
4. Know the method of transporting lipids (fats) from the digestive system. How is this different than the
absorption of proteins and carbohydrates?
5. What are lipoproteins and their function?
6. Know the individual cells of the gastric glands (ex: chief cells, parietal cells, G cells, etc.)
7. What is the hepatic portal system?
8. What is peristalsis? Segmentation?
Chapter 28- Reproductive System
1. Know the primary and secondary sex organs of the male reproductive systems and their function.
2. What is the spermatic cord and what does it contain? What is its function? What muscles play a
prominent role in the male reproductive system?
3. Understand spermatogenesis, where does it occur, in what cells?
4. Know the pathway of the sperm from synthesis to ejaculation.
5. What hormones influence the male reproductive system?
6. What is capacitation?
7. What occurs during male puberty?
8. Know the primary and secondary sex organs of the female reproductive systems and their function
9. What hormones affect the female reproductive system during follicular maturation, ovulation, menses,
pregnancy, labor, lactation?
10. What is oogenesis? When does the female oocyte become fully mature and active?
11. What are the stages of follicular development? What triggers ovulation?
12. What remains of the follicular following ovulation and what is its purpose?
13. What sexually transmitted diseases affect women?
Chapter 29- Development
What is syngamy and where does it occur?
Know the various stages of zygote, embryonic, and fetal development.
What are the embryonic membranes and their individual function?
What is the umbilical cord and what is its function?
Know the general aspects of fetal circulation. (number of arteries and veins for
oxygenated/deoxygenated blood)
What are mechanisms used to determine the condition of the fetus? What developmental problems
could be found using these tests?
What is the purpose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)?
Understand the aspects of lactation. What is colostrum?
What hormones are involved in breast development, milk production, and milk release?
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