Chapter 2: Job Performance Job performance - t he value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute, either positively or negatively, to organizational goal accomplishment. - 3 components that contribute to job performance: task performance, citizenship behavior, counterproductive behavior Task performance - e mployee behaviors that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces. ● Routine task performance - involves well-known responses to demands that occur in a normal, routine, or otherwise predictable way. ○ Flight attendant asking everyone to put on seat-belts ● Adaptive task performance - involves employee responses to task demands that are novel, unusual, or unpredictable ○ Airplane skidded off the runway while landing and plunged into a ravine ○ Flight attendants’ task performance shifted to performing emergency procedures to save passengers’ lives ● Creative task performance - degree to which individuals develop ideas or physical outcomes that are both n ovel and u seful ○ A designer for a swimsuit manufacturer suggests that perhaps a two-piece design would be preferred for women, rather than a more traditional one-piece design → how the bikini got introduced ● Job analysis - 3 steps 1. A list of the activities involved in a job is generated (results from observations, surveys, interviews) 2. Each activity is rated by “subject matter experts,” in factors like importance & frequency of activity 3. Activities that are rated highly in importance and frequency are retained and used to define task performance ● O*NET - online database that incluces the characteristics of most jobs in terms of tasks, behaviors, and required knowledge, skills, and abilities. ○ Although O*NET may be a good place to start, the task information from the database should be supplemented with infor- mation regarding behaviors that support the organization’s values and strategy. Citizenship Behavior - voluntary employee activities that may or may not be rewarded but that contribute to the organization by improving the overall quality of the setting or context in which work takes place ● Interpersonal citizenship behavior - benefit coworkers and colleagues and involve assisting, supporting, and developing other organizational members in a way that goes beyond normal job expectations. ○ Helping - assisting coworkers who have heavy workloads ○ Courtesy - keeping coworkers informed about matters that are relevant to them ○ Sportsmanship - maintaining good attitude with coworkers even when they’ve done something annoying or going through tough times ● Organizational citizenship behavior - benefit the larger organization by supporting and defending the company, working to improve its operations, and being especially loyal to it. ○ Voice - speaking up, offering constructive suggestions, addressing problems ○ Civic virtue - participating in the company’s operations at a deeper-than-normal level by attending voluntary meetings and functions Boosterism - representing the organization in a positive way when out in public, away from the office Counterproductive Behavior - employee behaviors that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment ● Property deviance - harms assets and possessions ○ Sabotage, theft ● Production deviance - focuses on reducing the efficiency of work output ○ Wasting resources, substance abuse ● Political deviance - disadvantages other individuals rather than the larger organization ○ Gossiping, incivility (communication that’s rude, impolite, discourteous, and lack manners) ● Personal aggression - hostile verbal and physical actions directed toward other employees ○ Harassment, abuse ○ Trends Affecting Performance ● Knowledge Work - cognitive work, applying theoretical and analytical knowledge acquired through education and continuous learning ● Service Work - work that provide intangible goods to customers through direct electronic, verbal, or physical interaction Management by Objectives (MBO) - a management philosophy that bases an employee’s evaluations on whether the employee achieves specific performance goals ● “Reducing production waste by 35 percent within three months by developing and implementing new production procedures.” Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) - measures performance by directly assessing job performance behaviors 360 degree feedback - collecting performance information not just from supervisor but from anyone who might have firsthand knowledge about the employee’s performance behaviors Forced Ranking ● The top 20 percent (A players), the vital middle 70 percent (B players), or the bottom 10 percent (C players). ● The A players were thought to possess “the four Es of GE leadership: very high energy l evels, the ability to e nergize o thers around common goals, the edge t o make tough yes-and-no decisions, and finally the ability to consistently execute a nd deliver on their promises.” ● The B players were the focus of development. B players are the backbone of the company but lack the passion of As. ● The C players refer to employees who could not get the job done and were let go. ● The system was taken so seriously at GE that managers who couldn’t differentiate their people tended to find themselves in the C category. Chapter 3: Organizational Commitment Organizational commitment - the desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of the organization; influences whether employee is retained or turned over Withdrawal behavior - a set of actions that employees perform to avoid the work situation - behaviors that may eventually culminate in quitting the organization Types of Commitment Affective commitment - desire to remain a member of an organization due to an emotional attachment & involvement with that organization → you stay b/c you w ant to. ● You’d feel a sense of sadness. ● If managers could choose which type of commitment they’d like to instill in their employees, they’d choose affective commitment ● Erosion model - employees with fewer bonds will be the most likely to quit ● Social influence model - employees who have direct linkages with “leavers” will themselves become more likely to leave Continuance commitment - desire to remain a member of an organization because of an awareness of the costs associated with leaving it → you stay because you need to. ● You’d feel a sense of anxiety. ● Exists when there’s a p rofit associated with staying and a cost associated with leaving; steep penalties associated with the switch ● Amount of investment & l ack of employee alternatives increases continuance commitment. ● Embeddedness - employees’ links to their organization and community, their sense of fit with their organization and community, and what they would have to sacrifice for a job change Normative commitment - desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of obligation → you stay because you o ught to. ● You’d feel a sense of guilt. ● ● A sense that staying is the “right” or “moral” thing to do if your employer paid your tuition, allowing you to further your education, while also providing you with training and developmental job assignments that increased your skills. Wouldn’t you feel a bit guilty if you took the first job opportunity that came your way? Focus of commitment - various people, places, and things that can inspire a desire to remain a member of an organization - Might be emotionally attached to work team, worried about costs of salary, feel sense of obligation to manager Withdrawal Behavior - the “flip” side ● Exit - active, destructive response by which an individual either ends or restricts organizational membership ○ Low levels of organizational commitment but high levels of task performance → motivated to work for themselves and not the company ○ Lone-wolves ● Voice - active, constructive response in which individuals attempt to improve the situation ○ Stars - possess high commitment and high performance and held up as role models for other employees ● Loyalty - passive, constructive response that maintains public support for the situation while individual privately hopes for improvement ○ Citizens - high commitment and low task performance but perform many voluntary activities → lack credibility to inspire change but want to remain in the company ● Neglect - passive, destructive response in which interest and effort in the job decline ○ Apathetics - low levels of organizational commitment and task performance; do bare minimum ❖ Psychological withdrawal - actions that provide a mental escape from the work environment ➢ Daydreaming, socializing, looking busy ➢ Cyberloafing - using Internet, email, and messaging for personal enjoyment ❖ Physical withdrawal - actions that provide a physical escape, whether short term or long term, from the work environment ➢ Tardiness, long breaks, missing meetings ➢ Absenteeism - when employees miss an entire day of work ➢ Quitting - voluntarily leaving the organization ❖ Independent forms model of withdrawal - various withdrawal behaviors are uncorrelated with one another, occur for different reasons, and fulfill different needs on the part of employees ❖ Compensatory forms model of withdrawal - withdrawal behaviors negatively correlate with one another—that doing one means you’re less likely to do another ➢ From this perspective, knowing that an employee cyberloafs tells you that the same employee probably isn’t going to be absent. ❖ Progression model of withdrawal - various withdrawal behaviors are positively correlated: The tendency to daydream or socialize leads to the tendency to come in late or take long breaks, which leads to the tendency to be absent or quit. ➢ From this perspective, knowing that an employee cyberloafs tells you that the same employee is probably going to be absent in the near future. ➢ This model receives the most scientific support Trends That Affect Commitment Diversity of the Workforce ● Whites - 64 percent. ● Minorities: African Americans (12 percent), Hispanics (16 percent), and Asians (5 percent). Thus, minority groups now make up one-third of the workforce. ● Meanwhile, women have virtually matched men in terms of workforce percentages, with 53 percent of jobs filled by men and 47 percent by women. ● “These statistics show that the “white, male-dominated” workforce is becom- ing a thing of the past.” The Changing Employee-Employer Relationship ● The increase in downsizing has gone hand-in-hand with increases in temporary workers and outsourcing, fundamentally altering the way employees view their relationships with their employers. ● The most important result was that downsizing actually harmed company profitability and stock price. ● The employees who remain in the organization after a downsizing are often stricken with “survivor syndrome,” characterized by anger, depression, fear, distrust, and guilt. One study found that downsizing survivors actually experienced more work-related stress than did the downsizing victims who went on to find new employment ● The negative emotions aroused by survivor syndrome likely reduce emotional attachment to the organization. If the downsizing has caused the loss of key figures in employees’ social networks, then their desire to stay will be harmed. ● Psychological contracts - what employees’ beliefs about what they owe the organization and what the organization owes them. ● Transactional contracts - based on a narrow set of specific monetary obligations ○ The employee owes attendance and protection of proprietary information; the organization owes pay and advancement opportunities ● Relational contracts - based on broader set of open-ended and subjective obligations ○ The employee owes loyalty and the willingness to go above and beyond; the organization owes job security, development, and support Commitment Initiatives ● Perceived organizational support - the degree to which employees believe that the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being Chapter 4: Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction - pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences ● Values - things that people want to seek or attain ○ Pay, promotion, supervision, coworkers, work itself, altruism, status, environment Value Percept Theory - argues that job satisfaction depends on whether you perceive that your job supplies the things that you value ● Dissatisfaction = (Vwant – Vhave) × (Vimportance) ● Vwant r eflects how much of a value an employee wants, Vhave indicates how much of that value the job supplies, and Vimportance reflects how important the value is to the employee. ● ● ● ● ● Pay satisfaction - employees’ feelings about their pay: how much they deserve, secure, and adequate for normal and luxury items Promotion satisfaction - employees’ feelings about the company’s promotion policies and their execution; whether promotions are frequent, fair, and based on ability Supervision satisfaction - reflects employees’ feelings about their boss; whether the boss is competent, polite, and a good communicator Coworker satisfaction - refers to employees’ feelings about their fellow employees, including whether coworkers are smart, responsible, helpful fun Satisfaction with the work itself - employees’ feelings about their actual work tasks; whether tasks are challenging, interesting, respected, and make use of key skills ○ 3 critical psychological states make work satisfying: ○ Meaningfulness of work - reflects the degree to which work tasks are viewed as something that counts in the employee’s system of philosophies and beliefs ○ Responsibility for outcomes - the degree to which employees feel that they’re key drivers of the quality of the unit’s work ○ Knowledge of results - the extent to which employees know how well or how poorly they’re doing Job characteristics theory - 5 job characteristics create psychological states in satisfaction w/ work itself ● Variety - the degree to which the job requires a # of different activities that involve a # of different skills ● Identity - the degree to which the job requires completing a whole, identifiable, piece of work from beginning to end with a visible outcome ● Significance - the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people, particularly people in the world at large ● Autonomy - degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual performing the work ● Feedback - the degree to which carrying out the activities required by the job provides employees with clear information about how well they’re performing Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory ● Motivating Factors - Factors directly related to DOING a job. ○ When present, they increase job satisfaction. ● Hygiene Factors - Elements associated with conditions SURROUNDING the job. ○ When present they decrease job dissatisfaction. ○ Improving hygienes does not increase satisfaction. Moods - states of feeling mild in intensity, lasting an extended period of time, not explicitly directed at or caused by anything ● Pleasantness - whether you feel “in a good mood” or “in a bad mood” ● Activation - whether you feel activated and aroused or deactivated and unaroused ● Intense positive mood come from 2 conditions: the task must be challenging, and the employee must possess the unique skills needed to meet that challenge Result in flow - a state in which employees feel a total immersion in the task at hand, sometimes losing track of how much time has passed. People often describe flow as being “in the zone” and report heightened states of clarity, control, and concentration, along with a sense of enjoyment, interest, and loss of self-consciousness. Affective events theory - workplace events can generate affective reactions, reactions that can then go on to influence work attitudes and behaviors Emotions - states of feeling that are intense, last for only a few minutes, and are clearly directed at and caused by someone/circumstance ● Emotional labor - the need to manage emotions to complete job duties successfully. ○ Service jobs in which employees make direct contact with customers often require those employees to hide any anger, anxiety, sadness, or disgust that they may feel, suppressing the urge to spontaneously engage in some negative behavior. ● Emotional contagion - that one person can “catch” or “be infected by” the emotions of another person ○ ● ● In tracking job satisfaction, attitude surveys are often the most accurate and effective One of the most widely administered job satisfaction surveys is the J ob Descriptive Index (JDI). The JDI assesses all five satisfaction facets: pay satisfaction, promotion satisfaction, supervisor satisfaction, coworker satisfaction, and satisfaction with the work itself. ○ The JDI also has been subjected to a great deal of research attention that, by and large, supports its accuracy. Chapter 6: Motivation Motivation - a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence ● Engagement - contemporary synonym, more or less, for high levels of intensity and persistence in work effort Expectancy Theory - describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses; the direction of effort is dictated by three beliefs: expectancy (E → P), instrumentality (P → O), and valence (V) ● Argues that employee behavior is directed toward pleasure and away from pain or, more generally, toward certain outcomes and away from others ● Expectancy - the belief that a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task (E → P) ○ Self-efficacy - defined as the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success ■ People consider their past accomplishments - the degree to which they have succeeded or failed in similar sorts of tasks in the past ■ Also consider vicarious experiences - taking into account their observations and discussions with others who have performed such tasks ■ Verbal persuasion - friends, coworkers, and leaders can persuade employees that they can “get the job done ■ Emotional cues - feelings of fear or anxiety can create doubts about task accomplishment, whereas pride and enthusiasm can bolster confidence levels ● Instrumentality - represents the belief that successful performance will results in some outcome (P → O) ● Valence - the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance (V) ○ Can be positive (“I would prefer having outcome X to not having it”) ○ Negative (“I would prefer not having outcome X to having it”) ○ Zero (“I’m bored . . . are we still talking about outcome X?”) ○ Needs - can be defined as cognitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences. ● ● ● ● Extrinsic motivation - motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance Intrinsic motivation - motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own reward Meaning of money - the degree to which they view money as having symbolic, not economic, value Motivational Force ○ Motivational Force = EP × Σ [(P O)×V] Goal Setting Theory - views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort ● Assigning specific and difficult goals will result in higher levels of performance ● ● ● ● ● Difficult - one that stretches employees to perform at their maximum level while still staying within the boundaries of their ability. Results in s elf-set goals—the internalized goals that people use to monitor their own task progress And they trigger the creation of t ask strategies - learning plans and problem-solving approaches used to achieve successful performance 3 variables that specify when assigned goals will have stronger or weaker effects: ○ Feedback - consists of updates on employee progress toward goal attainment ○ Task complexity - reflects how complicated the information and actions involved in a task are, and how much the task changes ○ Goal commitment - the degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try to reach it S.M.A.R.T. goals - Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Results-Based, and Time-Sensitive Equity Theory - acknowledges that motivation also depends on what happens to other people ● Argues that you compare your ratio of outcomes and inputs to the ratio of some comparison other—some person who seems to provide an intuitive frame of reference for judging equity. ○ 3 possibilities: 1. Ratio of outcomes to inputs is balanced between you and your comparison other. 2. Ratio of outcomes to inputs is less than your comparison other’s ratio. a. equity distress—an internal tension that can only be alleviated by restoring balance to the ratios; takes the form of anger or envy 3. Ratio of outcomes to inputs is greater than your comparison other’s ratio a. Equity distress of guilt or anxiety; b. Balance could be restored by shrinking your outcomes (taking less money, giving something back to the comparison other) Psychological Empowerment - reflects a belief that work tasks contribute to some larger purpose; represents a form of intrinsic motivation ● Meaningfulness - captures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to a person’s own ideals and passions ● Self-determination - reflects a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks ○ Employees with high levels of self-determination can choose what tasks to work on, how to structure those tasks, and how long to pursue those tasks ○ Allows employees to pursue activities that they themselves find meaningful and interesting. ● Competence - captures a person’s belief in his or her capability to perform work tasks successfully ○ Same as self-efficacy ● Impact - reflects the sense that a person’s actions “make a difference”, progress being made toward fulfilling an important purpose ○ learned helplessness—the sense that it doesn’t matter what a person does, nothing will make a difference.