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English A Language and Literature - Skills And Practice - Rob Allison and Brian Chanen - First Edition - Oxford 2013

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Adventures
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(Vintage,
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Photo
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(2002).
Contents
Topic
Section
Page
type
number
Performativity
Language
INTRODUCTION
and
Mass
Background
49
Background
50
Communication
Instruction
5
Image
Reception
51
Background
6
Line
Reception
53
Reception
6
Light
Reception
54
Production
6
Shape,
Reception
55
Issue
6
Working
Insight
57
Insight
6
Space
Reception
58
Texts
6
Unity
Reception
60
Reception
61
Communication
Background
62
SECTION
1:
LANGUAGE
and
Colour
Form
and
with
and
Contrast,
Texture
Images
Perspective
Repetition
and
Proportion
Language
in
Cultural
Context:
An
Background
7
Overview
Dialect
Pidgin
and
Gesture
Note
Creole
and
Expression
Taking
Reception
8
Semiotics
Background
65
Reception
10
Print
Reception
66
Reception
11
Film
Reception
67
Production
12
Digital
Media
Reception
69
Institutions
Background
70
Reception
72
Media
and
Sound
Class
Work
Insight
14
Media
What
is
Background
15
Objectivity
Knowledge
Issue
16
Advertisement
Production
74
Register
Reception
17
Stereotype
Reception
75
Idiolect
Reception
19
Persuasion
Reception
77
Speech
Production
78
Advertisement
Reception
81
Editorial
Reception
84
Blog
Production
86
Reception
88
Censorship
Reception
90
Song
Reception
91
Media
Reception
94
Production
95
Issue
97
Background
103
Plot
Reception
104
Setting
Reception
106
Background
108
Insight
110
Characterization
Reception
111
Generating
Production
112
Language?
and
and
Bias
Rhetorical
Analysis
Marking
Production
20
Insight
21
Background
22
Community
Issue
24
Syntax
Reception
25
Production
27
Active
The
a
Text
Reading
History
of
English
Political
Analysis
and
Comparative
Analysis
Campaign
Semantics
Reception
29
Popular
Grammar
Issue
31
Social
Belief
Issue
32
Oral
Background
34
The
Lexis
Reception
36
SECTION
2:
Rationale
Production
37
Literature:
Texts
Language
Acquisition
An
Identity
Issue
38
Reception
39
Modality
Reception
41
Linguistics
Background
42
Essay
Production
44
Insight
46
Issue
47
Tone
and
Mood
Presentation
Future
is
Thinking
at
Sexuality
Home
English
LITERATURE
and
Contexts—
Overview
What
Writing
of
Literature?
and
Planning
Topics
Theme
Reception
113
Body
Production
159
Symbol
Reception
114
Marxism
Background
162
Style
Reception
115
Writing
Production
163
Pastiche
Production
116
Post-Modernism
Background
166
and
Insight
119
Ambiguity
Reception
167
Production
169
Background
120
Production
170
Reception
121
Reception
173
Production
123
Reception
174
Reception
126
Background
175
Production
129
Post-colonialism
Reception
132
Non-ction
Reception
176
Background
133
Archetype
Reception
177
Issue
179
Reception
134
Reception
181
Background
136
Intertextuality
Reception
182
Production
137
Context
of
Story
Issue
184
Background
140
Context
of
Reception
Issue
185
Production
142
Reception
188
Reception
145
Issue
189
Background
147
Issue
190
Reception
148
Reception
192
Introduction
Production
149
Reception
194
Realism
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151
Issue
196
Modernism
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152
Struggles
Insight
154
Set
Reception
197
Reception
155
Index
Reception
156
Writing
Nerves
Fiction
for
the
Commentary
and
Oral
Paragraphs
and
Paradox
Problems
Conclusion
New
Criticism
Further
Imagery
Individual
Oral
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and
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Allegory
The
Novel
The
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New
Literary
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Structuralism
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Historicism
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Life
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Close
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Reader
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Response
Responding
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Essay
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of
and
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The
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Diction
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Author
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Science
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Critique,
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us
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school.”
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don’t
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asked
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up
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“Me
the
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village
Joan
do
yourself
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maid
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years
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life
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days.”
been.”
you.”
in
sn
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maids
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know
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language?
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languags.
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and
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slang
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politially
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you
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grammar
rgional
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though,
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analysis
analysis
pronuniation,
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context
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cultural
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to
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skills
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it
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social
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SECTION
Dialts
on
prsr vd
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ruls
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dialt
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dp
with
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rsarh.
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tns,
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and
of
traditions.
linguisti
liv?
start
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group
stp
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in
th
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gography.
of
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to
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ar
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othr
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dialts
languag
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or
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popl
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to
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dialts
dialts?
you
of
onntion
1
ar
of
th
ofartils).
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Choose
an
speaker
aspect
to
pronouncing
or
or
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or
This
double
negatives
family
•

or
contexts.
there
•

the
(“I
hear
members
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and
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
different
Listen
to
of
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How
social
can
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th
in
furthr
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the
against
in
a
th
th
How
of
of
like
sound
at
time
with
the
from
<ing>
or
“almond”
beginning
such
taking
your
for
“walk,”
construction
Spend
varies
by <in>
words
the <h>
matter
noticed
could
in
conversations
of
an
do
of
four
Note
individual
you
see
in
people
carefully
choice
and
in
in
these
from
the
both
speech
as
notes
of
using
on
the
subjects—friends,
formal
in
and
different
informal
contexts?
Are
contexts?
different
groups
differences
grammar.
character.
or
patterns
ts
to
might
of
of
or
your
Are
you
there
(girls
hear
in
and
boys,
terms
differences
of
between
used
dsign
a
to
if
ever,
portray
and
this
consistent
in
show.
note
the
preference
their
particular
dialect
a
of
biass
dialt
in
be
television
example)
Pick
one
preferences
changes
speech
and
patterns?
characteristics
Are
related
identity?
ink
or
favourite
for
when,
to
about
ativity.
ntr y
Note
seem
regional
abov
in
(dropping <ing>
characters
tahing
journal
a
have
This
sound
seen…”).
variations
talk
oral
be
pronunciation
word
speech
I
you
groups?
class
ativity
invstigat
in
variation
particular
to
speech
speech
particular
why.
never
variations
language
language
the <l>
dropping
also
that
context.
neighbours.
children).
pronunciation,
or
to
10-minute
the
What
Compare
the
ain’t
differences
adults
use
could
in
and
note
language
according
pronouncing
variation
you
Record
spoken
or
not
words.
variations
of
speaker
in
study
rol
that
a
you
playing
against
a
in
written
might
and
dialts.
shool.
Us
do
to
inorporat
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dialt
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in
task?
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might
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an
original
for
or
stor y,
blog.
dialect
be
an
issue
or
concern
in
the
examination?
Whil
you
partiular
Indian
way
not
dialt
English?
th
othr
may
dialt
of
Is
is
haratrs
b
it
to
English
British
usd
or
abl
or
idntify
from
th
partiular
Afria?
English?),
attitud
partiipants
a
in
a
Is
you
of
txt
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or
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of
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th
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b
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(is
of
txt
in
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th
author
a
or
to
a
of
disuss
dialt,
th
th
narrator.
9
Pidgin
Reception
Pidgin
ar
and
variations
languags,
baus
way
of
thy
pidgin
spaking
tims
follow
strutur
of
languags
pidgin
ndd
A
a
rol
a
for
th
and
in
is
group
mor
as
of
of
a
in
sop,
a
pidgin.
lik
to
that
and
thy
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rsarhrs
ommuniat,
onntion
thy
nd
b
a
btwn
th
on
trad.
anothr.
to
In
on
languag,
is
trms
borrow
th
of
th
ths
spi”
.
languag
sll.
pidgin
spakrs
ssntially
dvlops
grammatial
ruls
borrow
ar
whil
mor
pidgin
not
Somtims
may
addition,
Many
popls
do
in
and
of
stabl
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grammatial
tongu.
popl,
“ontat
buy
languag
a
nativ
Baus
unstabl
solly
mor
Whil
of
variations
hildrn
th
of
ommuniat.
frquntly
mt
th
on’s
intration
th
of
no
groups
onsidrd
basd
groups
taking
to
ar
is
two
slav
and
ar
Whn
any
that
languags
voabulary.
rol,
Pidgin
nd
ford
and
languag,
original
in
linguisti
strong
nssity,
ruls
may
languag,
th
th
voabular y
two
spakrs,
anothr
of
hoc
that
nativ
varid
thos
th
xampl,
born
pidgin
from
from
ths ad
whr
our
a
whn
languags,
olonialism
and
of
and
dvlops
immdiat
basd”
som
ommuniation
that
grammatial
“nds
languag
limitd
of
marktpla
with
b
out
languag
so
of
dialts
languag.
baus
xploration,
on
along
distint
mans
to
languag.
for
xampl
and
languag
onsistnt
spaking
voabulary
a
intrst
dvlop,
unintlligibl
born
bgin
struturs
vnts
Creole
rlatd
standard
onrt
dvlopd
languag,
in
a
Intrstingly,
ar
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spial
languags
is
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of
ar
voabular y.
A
is
mutually
languags
hold
global
languag
it
ar
widr-sprad
how
languags
during
on
a
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ultur,
languag;
pidgin
of
languags
howvr,
studying
among
A
rol
and
its
on
a
xibl
quit
pidgin
and
may
adaptiv.
Activity
In
order
to
languages
a
map
produced
Structures
studied
well.
thinking
by
which
creole
The
Atlantic
slave
begin
consider
rst
Slave
trade
in
the
the
has
for
attempted
cultural
below
The
to
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the
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and
before
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the
of
and
of
and
analyse
pidgin
that
both
most
in
The
the
rst
is
widely
communities
studied.
representation
shown
creole
Language
the
lesser-studied
1900s,
and
follow.
Creole
communities
graphic
the
of
questions
Pidgin
some
locations
produces
region
importance
and
describe
communities
represents
Trade
the
the
maps
project
language
map
about
two
of
The
the
as
Trans-
volumes
second
of
map.
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15
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16
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17
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b
comparative
working
of
xampl,
st y l 
or
would
onsious
shool
t h i n k i ng
Is
It
whn
d  s  r ibi ng
of
st ar t i ng
a
an
analysis
intntion
l i ng u ist
d  s  r ipt i ons
txt.
on
young
In
as
any
Also
it,
rgistr
textual
rgistr
th
advrtismnt).
a
howvr,
1
usd
ton,
important
as
disussions
pauss,
inprivat
volum
th
rrors
with
and
onvrsation
and
unspokn
dnotation
of
frinds
prsonal
that
btwn
hints
or
an
“insid”
los
words.
frinds
suggstions
may
words.
Activity
How
•
would
“Honored
most
to
•
you
guests,
importantly,
you
on
“While
I
service,
•
describe
“Yeah,
this
was
I
the
register
members
of
graduates
of
the
of
the
following
board,
the
class
Superintendent
of
2012,
Extension
statements?
it
is
an
Johnson,
honour
to
and
If
speak
matters,
occasion.”
pleasantly
was
you
the
surprised
disheartened
by
the
by
the
menu
lukewarm
selections
eggs
at
for
dinner
do
not
register
(unless
think
consider
its
just
use
register
the
is
is
times
not
when
right
sarcastic
orjoking).
breakfast.”
A
right.”
wife
and
a
husband
in
the
earlymorning:
•
“I
doubt
•
“I’m
it.”
“Good
tired
of
your
you
•
“I’m
morning,
John.
How
are
rubbish.”
today?”
tired.”
“I’m
ne,
yourself?
coffee.
thank
I
you,
have
Can
I
and
made
pour
you
a
pot
of
a
cup?”
Activity
“That
Try
identifying
the
register
of
as
many
of
the
texts
in
the
text
sections
An
possible.
Start
theeditorial
Joos’terms
stretch
18
by
on
for
yourself
considering
page
85.
spoken
by
See
the
if
you
language
coming
up
register
can
of
rst
situations
with
your
the
blog
post
categorize
above.
own
the
More
terms.
on
page
register
101
be
ne.”
employee
asking
for
a
rise:
and
using
importantly,
would
as
though,
“Dude,
I’ve
You
gotta
“As
if.”
got
give
freakin’
me
nuthin.
more
cash.”
SECTION
gos
to
is
an
th
intrsting
hart
of
Language
Idiolect
Reception
Idiolt
1
our
trm
in
that
th
undrstanding
issu
of
of
what
its
vr y
xistn
languag
is
and
how
Extension
it
oprats.
Idiolt
is
a
prsonal
variation
of
languag
basd
on
th
Language
partiular
lmnts
of
usag
of
an
individual
spakr.
An
idiolt
is
philosophy
inlud
individual
prfrns
for
voabular y,
pronuniation
or
onsistnt
inlud
or
th
aspts
prsn
rrors
that
of
in
may
a
lisp.
onstrution.
b
mor
An
In
physial
idiolt
addition,
suh
would
as
idiolt
pith,
inlud
not
or
intrinsi
dning
idiolt
is
w
C rtain
may
somon’s
ats
othr
ontxt
in
an
languag
(jargon,
from
w
It
w
or
languag
hoi
languag
us.
do
only
is
th
w
gures
mix
of
prsonal:
say
our
or
debates
and
knowledge,
about
language
and
truth,
search
on
of
language
nd
in
and
usag
the
language.
the
the
see
idea
not
exist?
what
idiolect.
notion
the
that
Do
philosophy
and
about
does
that
of
very
of
In
a
of
you
what
idiolect
language
web
can
way
lead
itself
to
does
not)
nountr
from
vr y
basd
to
family
Looking
onsidr
jargons
in
language
ommunitis
traditions.
ould
words
diulty
know
inhritd
w
a
th
is
nough
w
of
of
our
mad-up
(onsious
ultural
ar
no
asy
situations
dialts,
prdtrmin
whr
concern
notion
intonation
idiolt
dialt),
hav
oldr
an
mak
prsptiv,
hois,
is
in
th
may
is
how
(as
uttrans
unonsious
xtrm,
but
lass
from
on
th
us,
argot),
words
prsonally
is
starts.
hois
or
of
ortially,
idiolt
drivd
us
individual.
linguisti
that
our
lihés.
an
puliar
hav
and
but
gography
languag
idioltial
onsious
by
blong
Evn
mmbrs
of
prsonal
dtrmind
whih
rtain
dsribing
our
(rgistr).
th
for
stumbls
attributs
and
prsonal?
ar
to
and
prfrns
th
is
slips
the
an
existence
linguisti
main
and
vn
idiolect
rtain
a
an
all
at
languag
partiular
and
ontxts.
xtrnal
fors
On
and
Activity
Answer
the
•
How
•
To
which
you
•
•
Do
To
following
would
which
•
Can
would
you
Write
a
brief
language
you
think
frequently
think
is
the
any
about
or
jargon
your
you
have
own
of
describe
Is
belong?
it,
your
for
Do
own
idiolect
example,
you
speak
high
more
as
or
completely
deep,
than
one
as
pinched
dialect?
possible.
or
rich?
How
would
you
jargon
and
a
been
use
sports
do
exposed
you
to
other
belong?
You
language
might
be
communities?
surprised
at
the
frequently
team,
a
debate
club,
a
science
class
or
a
band).
accent?
slang
who
to
tone.
family?
their
people
particularly
and
possess
words,
other
“report”
that
of
you
effort
think
your
with
describe
of
than
you
of
an
pitch
languages
vocabulary
example,
How
other
in
your
do
dialect
communities
specialized
•
group
the
speak
questions
describe
dialect
describe
you
(for
you
you
you
yours,
or
otherwise,
that
you
tend
to
use
frequently
(or
more
know)?
or
are
is
as
all
a
language
language
speaker.
somehow
Is
there
anything
about
your
shared?
Assessments
Idiolt
would
haratr
an
aid
in
a
b
somthing
novl
or
a
haratrization.
rating
a
writtn
task
you
witnss
in
Y
ou
a
ould
noti
quotd
ould
also
distintiv
in
a
us
in
th
languag
nwspapr
th
notion
us
artil.
of
of
An
idiolt
a
idiolt
whn
voi.
19
Marking
Production
a
Text
Marking a txt with a pn, pnil or markr (or with ommnts or nots on
a omputr or tablt) fors you to b an ativ radr, hlps you to mak
onntions btwn various lmnts in a txt, and hlps you to rmmbr
latr what you notid whil working with a txt. Som studnts balk at th
fat that thir tahr rquirs thm to mark a txt; thy tnd to rad thn
haphazardly undrlin or irl in ordr to “gt rdit” for doing homwork.
Othr studnts tak lngthy nots in th margins vn of txts thy rad in
thir own tim. No mattr what your attitud towards writing in a txt is, you
nd to kp th tru nd in mind: boming an ativ radr.
An
undrstanding
of
any
paper 1 examination or
In
a
rlation
short
txt
without
txt
or
or
th
thinking
Somtims
an
ovrall
qustions
and
maymark
in
sntns
look
for
look
for
or
suh
on
th
and
as
“Is
ths
an
knowldg.
analysis
Som
nxt
a
right
passag
analysis
of
in
your
oming
ordrly
lik
to
a
nal
up
th
to
to
your
simply
task
analysis.
idas

2,
Whil
and
nots
an
1
and
th
rrad.
approahing
to
plas
works
a
th
that
of
bst.
basi
you
an
thniqu.
On
lmnts
with
Somtims
you
you,
you
an
sntns
individual
in
a
words:
words.
txt
is
to
intrrogat
about
what
in
margin
th
mor
or
on
highlights,
rsonat
b
think
rlatd
a
txt
to
disturbing?”
sns
or
it.
mans
ranging
intntions
or
“Why
is
lvl
nots
marking,
a
on
snsibl
a
txt
your
On
Espially
you
if
an
nd
a
txt.

ar
up
is
to
prparing
a
txt
as
for
ky
parts
onntions,
pross,
b
txtual
momnts.
approah
you
Whil
don’t
bakground
prparing
making
may
onfusd.
omparativ
marking
usful.
highr
marginal
tak
in
or
ar
words
onfusing
whn
vr y
you
b
gaps
ths
basis
rading,
may
analysis
with
at
whr
thy
notes.
draing
rations
isolatd
funny
whol,
sntns,
qustions
b
b
or
som
you
rad
intriais
that
also
or
a
suggst
approah
txtual
ths
paper
last
ould
ask,
dal
marginal
on
to
approahing
ity?”
mak
to
and
lmnts:
somthing
th
a
initial
bullts
you
to
you
in
with
ar
whn
as
summariz.
Ask
th
txt
thniqu
thr
to
hlp
supposd
of
ar
words
to
th
sntns
ways
an
howvr,
own
written
with
bst
don’t
you
important
subtltis
or
rpatd
attmpt
stop
only
for
oprats.
ar
on
sntns,
man?”
that
analysis
pross.
rst
important
to
is
inlud
nam
is
If
rommnd,
following
qustions
marking,
for
in
is
last
popl
stp
jump
at
it
this
idas
It
th
how
– ths
rlat
undrstand,
of
It
Highlights
margin
imag
giv
Confusions
■
us:
tim.
to read rst without a pen. Rading
introdu
words,
dos
this
thy
to
format.
–
“What
didn’t
or
in
suggsts
from

it
attntion
look
ould
sm
striking
Qustions
to
–
ths
lass,
txt-marking
rading.
font
Questions
■
basi
sond
that
in
ovr
tahrs
ambiguitis,
simply
important
dirnt
your
onfusions.
a
Highlights
■
is
txt
most
maning.
th
most
rommndation
dvlops
sltion,
kp
about
th
any
marking,
passag
marking
situation
bgin
to
txt
it
nal
is
nvr
dra
an
quality.
A nal stp of marking will most likly b vry prsonal.  ky to a third
rading or marking of a txt is to look for pattrns and to make connections
to idas you hav disussd in lass. Y
ou should try to om to som holisti
idas about a txt that ar basd on a wid varity of lmnts from th basis
of what is bing prsntd, to th omplxitis of mtaphors, imag pattrns
20
SECTION
1
Language
or symbolism. At this stag, many studnts lik to hav a systm: irl vrbs,
us a highlighting pn for adjtivs or us a dirnt olour pn to kp
trak of important thms or issus. is typ of marking an b vry hlpful
in any analysis, but may partiularly hlp with omparativ analysis.
Activity
Look at this short example of a text marked by a student. Can you see any system in the marking? This
particular student has been asked to read rst without a pen; to do a second reading looking for highlights,
questions and confusions; and to apply a more complex system on a third reading (or at least to mark in
more detail). After examining this paragraph, try marking any one of the extracts in the text sections found
throughout the book. Try your hand at a non-literary text, a literary text and a text that includes images.
The
text
New
is
a
short
Zealand
passage
recorded
its
taken
biggest
from
loss
of
a
news
migrants
story
in
a
in
the New
12-month
Zealand
period
since
Herald
August
2001,
as
Comment
here...
Australia.
Some
4,700
more
New
Zealanders
left
for
Australia
than
arrived
in
January,
taking
the
annual
may
a
to
a
record
monthly
net
38,100
outflow
in
of
the
12
month-period,
migrants
to
500,
and
according
pushed
to
the
Statistics
net
outflow
New
of
Zealand.
migrants
to
That
be
just
the
Comment
[c2]: More
Comment
[c3]: Is
a
rivalry
anything
loss
[c1]: Interesting
between
this
NZ
to
local
use
slang
audience?
slang...why?
more
and
because
Australia
of
than
else?
drove
3,134
in
the
1
a lot?
a little?
does it matter?
Active
Insight
“It
is
commonplace
really
understand
stand
in
When
I
front
rst
much
about
never
be
have
all
notion
of
the
of
the
my
delivering
and
urgent
sense
books
be
of
I
as
Over
the
and
to
texts
years,
of
I
those
All
the
to
is
student,
think
thinker.
of
I
intellectual
of
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various
communities
Me
post.
member
about
there
your
emerged
wasn’t
life,
from
maybeaftera
a
a
even
single
mixed
if
LAare
magic
jillion
a
teapot
dollars
(and
to
for
a
metals,
dened
mixed
as
leathers,
dodgy
if
and
they
a
don’t
DIY
hairdo.
charge
at
Salons
least
in
one
limb
haircut.
a
Reason 2In spite of my best efforts, my hair150color
burrito)
rained
down
on
me,
I’d
feel
that
way.
Still.
I
call
manages to look like I may still havesalon connections – or
myself
damn
lucky.
at least that’
s what I’ve been getting. But! There were no
Reason
grows
my
1My
one
mom,
taking
days
new
helluva
taking
photos
just
boyfriend
to
of
beard,
time
to
me.
I’m
show
his
is
and
friends
talented,
adventurous,
actuallylikeshanging
watch
still
sweet,
every
single
convinced
the
he
hilarious
sunset,
out
I
my platinum locks and slapped a foolproof sample ofJohn
Frieda Precision Foam Color(in Dark Cool Pearl Blonde) onto
and
immortalizes
jokes
with
actual skills involved – I literally pinned up the top layer of
my
the under layer. This stuff is brilliant. Thehaircutwas inspired
call
by Joan of Arc, Louise Brooks, and Jamaica’
s self-inicted
brown,
bowl-cut(Experimentation + Luck = SKILLUSION).
u
“outts.”
24
This
one
involves
combining
black
with
SECTION
Reason
3Just
meeting
Hesaid
“Huh!
with
I
over
the
was
their
SURE!”
I
aweekafter
VP
of
Online
arriving
quintessential
agreed.
in
Marketing
LA,
Southern
Amongother
I
scored
forLucky
California
things,
he
a
Brand.
Girl.
ended
pair
ofleather
that
after
Charlie,
me
these
gorgeous
art
nouveau
earrings,
and
platform
over
you’re
a
3
dream
months
shoes.
here,
Little
I’m
a
Language
does
total
he
know
convert.
prophet.
up
Source:
sending
just
1
“Check
Me
Out:
One
Lucky
Girl”.
28
February
2012.
a
www.painfullyhip.com.
Activity
Use
your
own
communities
First,
that
1.
see
how
would
a
creativity
to
be
many
doctor
3.
a
snowboarder
4.
a
lawyer
5.
a
12-year-old
see
if
community
the
1.
you
is
speakers
a
sports
2. an
or
following
of
(or
of
of
football)
a
language
use
in
various
exercise.
words
indicative
soccer
2. a
knowledge
the
examples
typical
professional
Now
and
complete
or
sentences
speaker
who
you
can
come
up
with
is:
player
boy.
can
imagine
placed
above
in
a
with
a
humorous
different,
the
scenario
perhaps
contexts
in
which
unfamiliar,
a
member
context.
Mix
of
one
and
match
of:
stadium
operating
3.
a
ski
4.
a
courtroom
5.
a
school
room
slope
corridor.
Extension
W
ar
on
not
ommunitis
ommunity,
ntrs
ours.
ativity
written
Also,
diultis
of
ithr
somon
How
ould
somthing
task
whil
until
or
into
awar
or
it
of
a
b
is
sntn
whih
th
part
w
pla
of
not
undrstand
a
of
sntn
as
th
word
a
unfamiliar
that
abov
us
in
aross
is
is
of
lik
by
English
this
xplor
it
you
xplor
to
b
issu
th
that
in
w
ould
lad
an
of
qustions
of
srious
a
do
w
not
to
a
Can
spak
spak?
singl
xllnt
sid
linguisti
against?
languag
rlation
to
th
part
disriminatd
markd
a
activity?
to
might
What
ommunity
th
ould
humorous
ruls
of
w
or
An
of
by
ngativly
th
ssay
in
issu?
ommunity
b
linguisti
rspons
this
varitis
xploring
ommunity
rlation
to
on
th
th
for
writtn
task
2
at
highr
lvl.
ommunitis,
grammar
strutur
and
syntax
ordrs.
word
“orrt”
how
Syntax

words
partiular
xpand
oral
or
an
anothr
you
ommuniation
strutur.
out
ntr
your
that
fun
Reception
Syntax
w
languag
from
further
may
our
or
of
is
a
th
r
partiular
baus
th
that
dsribs
sntn
ar
study
tims
maning
syntax
is
of
or
indiats
ssntially
how
whn
but
follows
w
mak
English
that
th
ordr
maning
spakr
spakr
grammatial
in
an
may
gaug
ruls.
25
Othr
a
sntns
dirn
1.
Happy
2.
A
3.
I
in
grn
pronoun
gav
ough
orrt
Now
th
1.
Firmly
2.
Watr
3.

sntns
as
Othr

or
an
th
about
is
by
an
Pratising
to
is
way,
an
it
lmnt
onsidr
your
syntati
ability
lass
to
us
of
funtions
for
or
and
would
w
our
an
b
an
a
ida.
txt.
if
or
at
an
not
b
w
may
to
to
on
may
noti
it
b
rogniz
maning
indiat
do
for
or
and,
may
an
study
on
lvl
or
b
Syntax,
in
a
onsiously
this
unrmarkabl.
th
to
th
sph
not
ass,
In
and
languag
attntion
mployd
analysis.
of
rat
maning
all
politial
many
to
mployd
straightfor ward.
larly,
som
analysis
b
usd
W
In
nssar y
an
syntax
an
standard
idas
of
lssons.
has
or
is,
and
Bing
th
abl
a syntactic
is
what
w
following:
usd
again,
eect.
as
to
othr
If
w
unusual
of
txts,
rognizd,
it
is
t.
word
and
a
vrbs,
rol
th
in
of
and
in
“I
of
as
th
word
function.
a
“part
of
advrbs,

sntn,
th
modir
lik
words
artils.
hit
usual
sm
Evr y
adjtivs,
playd
changes
typs
syntactic
sntn
vrb,
what
ordr.
think
intrjtions
subjt,
that
with
idntify
of
class
th
In
start
gnrally
nouns,
indiat
modir.
might
ts
prpositions,
noun
study
syntax
about
words
artil,
meaning
disuss
th
objt
your
and
is
advrtismnt,
with
and
in
syntax
writrs
worth
ordr
mattr
that
syntax
rlation
words
inlud
vrb,
is
an
word
is
talk
onjuntions,
subjt,
particular
26
ruls
words
ssntially
s
pronouns,
in
that
in
sntn
uss
a
howvr,
thn
in
key
ruls.
syntati
word
syntax
and
rlativly
hlps
e
follow
undrstandabl
daling
grammar
pronoun,
grammatially
gav.
not
an
usd
thir
xampl
syntatial
ar
a.
partiular
and
syntati
do
ommuniat
syntax,
to
A
old-fashiond
sph”
.
ovr
answr
yt
whn
Classifying
a
thy
happy.
spakrs
highlight
syntax
rst
lmnt

of
blow.
how
syntax
syntax
intrsting
syntax
sns,
rognizabl
rasonabl

hlping
think
mak
hog-tid
that
sntn.
txt
rogniz
than
fat
Awkward
formality.
baus
tr
baus
tr.
logial
grn
obviously
purposs
rivr.
litrar y
follow
sntns,
most
partiular
of
not
pronoun
a
simply
xampls.
syntax
th
maningful
th
I
nonsns
following
watr.
hog-tid
do
omplt
orrt.
than
various
a
as
th
rmly.
th
sntns
w
Noticing
ats?
thy
momnt
judgd
ovr
drams
th
sit
sntns
th
sit
dmd
Considr
drams
w
baus
at
b
momnt
ths
look
s
may
syntax.
ball”
and
syntax
for
w
hav
objt.
lead
to
SECTION
1
Language
Activity
The
following
The
speech
his
home
people
use
of
town
have
parallel
or
friends:
anold
Being
of
as
Source:
I
Abraham
and
No
a
the
order.
my
in
with
in
I
before
you,
and
your
Read
my
me
Lincoln.
you
been
“Farewell
and
that
one
which
succeed.
at
have
and
Springeld,
is
us
I
purposeful
he
feeling
a
of
I
sadness
upon
an
Illinois”. The
a
at
leave,
I
not
cannot
hope
that
affectionate
Collected
this
century,
Washington.
assistance,
you
of
now
condently
bid
did?
quarter
buried.
that
let
me,
my
leave
Many
choices
lived
to
antithesis,
the
the
effect.
about
1861.
rested
With
good,
commend
Address
in
consider
made
I
and
was
including
appreciate
Here
for
brevity
DC
speech
born,
than
will
its
Lincoln
have
can
everything.
everywhere
prayers
the
speech
cannot
for
as
Washington,
Lincoln
greater
I
train
in
situation,
have
him,
famous
a
in
the
would
owe
be
is
of
employed
children
attended
back
presidency
Why
not
Lincoln
the
anaphora.
people,
task
Abraham
from
rhetoric
one,
ever
hope
up
the
word
Here
with
who
remain
you,
take
these
man.
return,
and
to
structure
kindness
by
delivered
noticed
syntax
“My
speech
was
Works
parting.
and
knowing
Without
fail.
all
have
when
the
Trusting
will
yet
To
this
passed
or
place,
from
whether
assistance
in
be
Him
well.
a
of
who
To
the
young
ever
that
can
His
and
to
may
Divine
go
care
I
with
me,
commending
farewell.”
of
Abraham
Lincoln.
Vol
IV.
Basler,
RP
(ed.)
1953.
Extension
Shakspar
syntax.
Turn
thsyntax
t
is
of
onsidrd
to
th
sms
this
xrpt
unusual
unusual
advi
standard
is
simply
on
level)
giving
undrstanding
xaminr).
or
and
is
ovrall
into
howvr,
analysis
and
ar
1.
Read
b
to
to
of
nr vous
gt
an
on
steps
take
the
as
in
analysis
to
th
and
mploymnt
not
What
analysis
to
rad
to
a
small
is
plas
th
whr
purpos
take
the
in
of
the
to
as
basi
will
stps
higher
audin
lmnts
possibl
habits
papr
1
to
so
of
that,
examination
room,
and
without
of
what
making
and
mor
a
mark.
than
Y
ou
will
anything
th
passags
ar
about.
th
hoos
btwn
two
passags,
will
hoos
btwn
two
pairs
th
passag
Aer
or
pair
choosing,
pondr
to
you
note
tim,
this
brif
th
briy,
analys.
Do
undrstand
basics
such
thn
not
th
as
go
with
text
or
nd
type. If
gut
your
most
you
in
you
nd
standard
th
highr
passags.
your
ovr-think
bst
of
probably
ls
In
will
passag
In
and
som
you
passags,
(an
rading
approahing
you
a
your
1.
xamination
hoos
1
ovr
improv.
Analysis
level)
ommuniat
spializd
th
in paper
xamination
availabl
or
passages
xamination
sns
in paper
how
brak
parts
(as
lvl
and
of
Comparative
passag
(as
and
to
som
analysis
a
quit
mant
outlin
and
of
ommuniation
will
to
is
many
passages
ovrall
an
how
book
and
w
206
artful
lvl
th
2.
all
do
omparativ
som
approaches
to
appriation
rading
pag
th
important.
omparativ
ntir
stion,
Hr
a
on
or
of
Analysis
advi
ommuniation
your
how
mastr
syntax?
Production
Giving
a
Rad
instint
hoi:
pik
intrsting.
rogniz
th
txt
typ (lttr, ditorial, blog, advrtismnt) or gnr (pom, graphi novl)
27
not it at th top. If you hav alrady rognizd a possibl audin and
gnral
3.
purpos
(to
inform,
prsuad,
sll),
not
this
as
wll.
Reread and mark main points, confusing points, concerns.
 sond
tim you rad th passags you should b looking for th most important
lmnts that gt at maning as wll as th lmnts that sm onfusing.
Rmmbr,
ar
that
if
xaminr
At
this
too,
simply
you
nd
dos
too,
point
you
to
not
somthing
so
you
may
will
also
what
you
nd
intrsting,
b
not
xptd
th
intrsting.
important
to
or
ommnt
important
ovrall

hans
onfusing,
on
th
th
lmnt.
qualitis
of
th
passag suh as th tone or any obvious lmnts of structure (for xampl
long
4.
paragraphs,
aptions
and
imags,
dialogu,
short
sntns.)
For the comparative commentar y, repeat step 3 with the second passage.
Som of th lmnts you not at th bginning (ky points, major issu,
audin)
5.
ar
likely
to
be
important
links
between
passages.
Read a third time. Now you should rally pik a passag apart. What do
you noti in trms of stylisti or litrar y dvis? What lmnts do you
noti
6.
about
any
imags
about
th
book.
Rmmbr,
Take
maning
notes
and
and
if
prsnt?
t
you
begin
of
noti
to
is
is
whn
lmnts
that
somthing,
outline. Whil
it
you
you
you
is
start
s
to
mak
nots
throughout
this
important.
may
want
to
rad
again,
at
this stag you ar probably rady to mak som summativ or valuativ
nots
of
Hr
■
and
th
ar
to
a
fw
Embrace
of
on
■
th
hav
Beware
an
of
hav
intnt.
In
rsorting
“hop”
by
a
At
th
■
or
an
outlin.
markd
on
theme.
th
IB
a
vr y
in
an
Passags
maning
thms
to
Kp
“answr”
author.
rathr
or
hav
or
is
will
hlp
ommntd
you
ti
togthr
all
upon.
warnings:
passag.
idas
towards
you
ambiguity.
“maning”
part
work
lmnts
Y
s,
but
or
mind
b
storis,
it
is
rar
than
vagu
looking
Adisussion
last,
think
in
ambiguity
purposful
not
puzzls
or
th
rhtorial
to
b
lak
of
stratg y
solvd
nor
a
on
do
lar
th
thy
intnt.
poms
that
xamination,
broad,
a
ar
that
at
th
and
suh
th
vn
passag
andidats
ida
of
a
as
on
“lov”
,
omplx
thm
an
plural:
a
b
pis
has
on
us
both
passag
journalism
thm
“th
issus
of
basi
thm
as
rulty
and
ruth,
man”
qustions
rdutiv
may
a
of
rais
or
and
many
or
raisd
gnral.
issus,
thms.
Always integrate technique and meaning. Whn you writ, you should
talk about what is going on, what it suggsts, and how th writr has
managd to onvy ths notions. Litrary or linguisti faturs should b
disussd at th sam tim as you ar disussing maning, intnt ort.
Finally,
hr
■
What
■
Who
■
Whos
pi
is
is
ar
th
som
txt
big
typ,
qustions
purpos,
onsidr :
audin?
spaking?
ys
or
th
do
w
s
through:
do
w
narrator?
■
What
is
th
■
What
is
most
striking?
■
What
is
most
surprising
■
What
qustions
■
What
dos
28
to
gnral
it
ar
man?
situation?
or
raisd?
onfusing?
s
through
a
haratr
in
th
SECTION
■
What
dos
it
■
Why
is
it
intrsting?
■
How
is
it
all
■
How
is
th
■
How
do
■
How
ar
th
imags
■
How
ar
th
two
■
How
ar
th
pis
put
imags
Whil
thr
of
your
and
Always
itslf
intrsting?
ontribut
to
visually
pis
maning
and
t?
intrsting?
similar?
dirnt?
itself
othr
good
ssay,
outlin
■
ar
a
togthr?
writing
writing
writing
Language
suggst?
The
as
1
stions
of
introdution
hr
ar
writing
a
fw
your
strutur
this
or
book
that
intgrating
things
to
dal
with
quotations
onsidr
whn
partiulars
into
th
oming
up
suh
body
with
an
analysis.
your
writing
with
an
introdution,
a
body
and
a
onlusion.
■
r
is
no
“orrt”
formula
for
an
introdution.
Lt
th
radr
know
Activity
what
an
you
hav
main
will
a
broad
B
sur
list
of
and
that
about,
thsis
thniqus,
intrsting
■
talk
or
will
you
it
that
may
fous
writing
points
or
your
main
inorporats
vntually
ar
disjointd
what
a
on
th
branh
a
is
(a
oupl
lmnt
to
ohrnt,
fous
othr
passag
of
idas
that
you
analysis
and
For
som
found
most
ssay
rathr
than
Lt
th
th
nxt
pis
xaminr
know
paragraph,
ar
about
or
you
thir
It
is
on
hlpful
to
th
start,
know
typ
start
analysis
an
to
an
analysis
that
or
ithr
th
basis
in
th
in
introdution
trms
of
what
or
in
by
issu
or
with
gos
ida
th
intntion.
pages
of
th
passag
the
skills
of
comparative
texts
book.
found
For
individual
a
holisti
level,
comparing
viw
of
th
passag
and
from
bginning
to
nd.
Som
instad,
whih
is
n
as
long
as
ar
not
skippd
ovr
in
ordr
to
at
the
99–102.
higher
the
passage,
If
war
you
practise
this
novel
reporting
are
taking
by
passage
on
on
page
to
207.
the
Feel
thn
to
move
on
from
there
by
studnts
and
matching
passages
in
important
this
lmnts
of
looking
mixing
organiz
at
a
free
mov
the
the
graphic
■
use
or
obsr vations.
from
that
practice
analysis
throughout
try
■
good
analysis,
lmnts).
ontinuous
a
passage
adhr
book.
to
partiularidas.
■
Rmmbr,
xaminr
th
how
passags
and
why
sntns
Whil
of
in
you

linguisti
opposd
ld
making
txts.
th
(as
th
notions
is
th
of
ld
■
Languag
■

to
that
following
nountr
th
syntax,
an
with
ky
an
hlp
words
this
ommuniats
of
of
you
ar
ar
words
th
intrsting.
Tll
th
intrsting.
for
maning
xampl,
b
quit
to
draw
and
onpts
throughout
maning
of
passags
study
smantis
maning
front
Semantics
Reception
Smantis
in
in
that
your
may
hlp
words,
thr
attntion
in
smantis
phrass
fouss
omplx,
your
larly
on
ar
to
strutur).
som
th
los
and
ky
omplxity
analysis
rlat
to
of
prinipls
ours.
information
and
of
sntns
about
rsids
our
in
world.
th
minds
of
sndrs
andrivrs.
■

maning
■
Maning
words,
of
languag
dpnds
phrass
on
and
a
is
soial
varity
of
and
dpnds
rlationships
on
ontxt.
btwn
and
among
sntns.
29

an
ativitis
blow
introdution
thinking
about
to
fous
th
th
on
som
mthod
partiulars
of
of
ky
smanti
study
as
wll
maning
in
issus
as
a
that
provid
will
Activity
Dictionary
•
Write
you
denitions
your
dene
Now
look
three
up
the
evoked
How
by
with
a
would
original
relate
or
of
“hero”
dictionary
compare?
denition
we
of
a
the
as
word
used
in
denition
What
word?
combine
“hero”.
your
of
does
What
“hero”.
this
(implied
this
the
as
the
about
you
in
dene
a
good
meaning
closely
to
understand
particular
example,
the
at
one
battle
This
feeling
the
the
time
and
that
party
of
how
the
“aftermath”?
that
the
Does
you
origins
word
dictionary
in
word.
use
the
order
to
also
the
word?
Look
shows
Do
we
understand
a
up
the
original
and
origin
to
need
to
perhaps
Explain
meaning
the
meaning
word
two
surrender
other
information
background
surrendering
one
be
a
word
context.
“surrender”
parties
of
of
or
party
one
the
party
were
victor
has
certain
conict
in
has
and
given
assumes
in
gave
party
up
assumes
For
to
the
caused
that
or
other.
the
the
the
conict
rights.
background
or
context
of
the
words:
know
1.
procrastinate
3.
patient
2.
trustworthy
wordfully?
4.
kind
5.
respect
Activity
Relationships
List
a
meaning
or
Activity
3.
do
Background
Sometimes,
suggest
(explicit
meaning
would
class?
How
suggest
does
denotation
connotation
How
English
word)?
“aftermath”
or
the
ways
word)
2.
denition
word
denitions
about
ofa
own
the
contextual
•
you
in
txt.
Activity
1.
giv
prati
many
same
4.
synonyms
meaning)
as
(words
possible
with
the
same
or
nearly
for:
Multiple
meanings
A polysemic word is a word with different but related
meanings. A homonymic word is spelled the same, sounds
the same, but has different, unrelated meanings. The word
1.
stingy
2.
fat.
“bank” is homonymic in that one “bank” is a place to keep
Now
rank
your
list
in
terms
of
positive
and
negative
money while another “bank” is the side of a river. Are the
connotation
from
most
negative
to
most
positive
following words polysemic or homonymic? For some of
(showing
the
easy
to
scalar
relationship
between
words).
How
them you will need to use a dictionary or the internet to
is
it
order
the
words?
What
determines
the
see if there is or is not a relationship between meanings.
connotation
of
thesewords?
1.
Other
important
relationships
between
words
Fine
of
high
money
include
the
antonyms
order
of
words
superordinate,
subordinate
and
(words
(in
while
types:
the
the
with
opposite
following
other
“house”,
list,
words
“hut”,
meanings)
“house”
paid
as
a
penalty.
and
is
2.
Spell
to
write
the
order
of
letters
inaword
designate
“shack”,
a
magic
a
period
formula
“cottage”
of
time.
“mansion”.
3.
30
quality
can
Pilot
the
operator
the
rst
of
a
episode
ship
in
a
or
plane
television
series.
SECTION
Truth
The
use
status
of
of
dog
death
the
verb
Are
certain
events
the
died”
dog
the
6.
assumptions
the
(the
of
verbs
in
the
the
following
that
true.
not
be
a
“I
as
believe
as
the
or
it
the
“I
clausal
•
The teacher acknowledged that I hadn’t really
•
The
teacher
realized
•
The
teacher
assumed
scolded
is
th
maning.
undrstand
nativ
as
ball.
”
your
me
for
of
hang
a
th
of
the
to
that
us,
ovr
ruls
the
had
between
the
rst
meanings
words.
two
of
the
through
through
What
idioms
next
the
use
of
ambiguous
are
below?
the
actual
What
ambiguous
are
the
sentences?
•
Bite
•
Pull
•
He
•
I
•
She
your
tongue.
my
leg.
is
my
English
teacher.
hard
saw
the
person
with
a
telescope.
enough.
doesn’t
like
short
men
or
women.
studied.
cheated.
student
that
had
undrstand
words,
but
It
dsrib
grammar
and
howvr,
tim
of
studying
cheated.
in
is
and
that
whn
is
ordr
ar,
in
w
th
to
important
har
st
to
by
that
of
a
th
of
nabl
what
a
in
would
originally
onstrutions
a
w
“ 
follow
widly
ths
basd
b
it
hit
think
not
of
onsidrd
typial
in
John
simply
prsriptiv
on
appar
to
nabl
though
English:
to
way
languag
“grammar”
that
that
as
would
sntn,
word
ruls
funtions
linguists
languag
sns
rmmbr
vn
(how
languag
following
mak
spak
fat,
irumstans
th
not
a
usd
grammar
dos
whih
how
is
rlationship
undrlying
grammar
English.
varity
possible
object
of
complicated
simply
birthday.
student
pattrns

undrstood
“propr”
meanings
or
birthday.
not
descriptive
maningful
Many
b
st
usd.
prescriptive
relationships
died”
be
Grammar
A
spakr
often
idioms,
non-factive?
The
was
your
or
•
teacher
was
factive
forgot
today
can
ambiguity
truefact.
I
that
and
metaphors,
know
assigns
dog
Idioms
Meaning
probable
•
ontains
in
sentence
thought
funtion
to
actual
the
is factive
In
statements
today
the
I
Grammar
a
In
non-factive
Issue
to
imply
“know”
as
is
may
can
statement.
verb
dog
“believe”
died)
a
•
mak
Language
Activity
Activity
5.
1
arly
ruls
usag
novls,
forxampl).
Knowing
First,
grammar
“knowing”
onstrutions
mak
to
study
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studying
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a further oral activity
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off
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for
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tree,
what
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am
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Chew
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over.
to
squn.
33

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
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34
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grammar
lmnt
th
undrstand
Prhaps
tongu

a
do
to
aomplish
assistan
a
w hat
ordr
instr u tions,
p opl
on
appriat
to
aquisition
languag
language
undrstand,
work
you
is
you
undrstanding
intntions
litratur
for
undrstanding
languag
of
Mother-tongue
to
and
topis
oral
proprly.
Acquisition
isn’t
inluding
written
th
ofothrs.
Background
intrst
law.
show
study
futur
vn
showing
prhaps,
of
might
tratmnt
a
but
languag
branhs
aras
languag
sounds
sntns,
of
psyholog y,
as
both
blifs
Languag,
blifs
and
adults.
vido
study
othr
blif
dpiting
annoying
and
litratur
bliv.
idntif y
th
situation.
blif
with
vido
idntif y
th
window
languag-fr
to
spokn
falls
a
baus
youngr
tru
alrady
orrtly
th
(thos
fals
xprimnt
a
box
about
through
what we
distratd
tnd
th
abilitis
languag-fr
to
in
Undrstanding
usually
still
still
possibility
similar
Whn
blifs
his
waths
addition
distratd
offals
this
rlat
Adults
adults
of
is
languag
boy
vr y
blif.
th
ball
ouh.
wath
in
blif.
th
th
a
th
natur
only
adults
tru
knoks),
th
dvlopd
ondutd
th
think
undrstand
abov
ball),
th
or
him
hav
not
lik
blif
thir
th
in
would
look
with
(buzzrs
Whn
do
will
xprimnt,
boy
boy
not
old),
movs
snario
th
do
boy
Rsarhrs
In
th
undrstand
who
yars
assum
(tak
that
of
ballis?
invstigation
W
only
ouh.
fasinating
Qustion:
outlind
box
this
basi
intntions
statmnts
you
wll
SECTION
hav
a
long
way
instrution,
to
and
go
through
formal
daily
training
(as
languag
in
us,
shool)
pointd
bfor
thy
1
Language
informal
bom
adult
languagspakrs.
s
■
ar
th
Babbling—a
months
and
addition
strings
■
ommon
of
onsists
to
asily
hav
Two
an
man,
■
us
or
an
“I
want
about
vrb
ree
(“dog
to
whih
four
stag.
ag
vowl
this
sounds
th
ag
of
followd
3–9
by
bing
th
sounds
words).
of
approximatly
objts
stag
By
from
“ma-ma-ma”
uttrans.
ommon
ag
of
as
vrb
words—at
involvs
prvious
th
th
18–24
ombinations.
or
pla
(“da-da-da”
,
ball”).
grammar
bit”)
of
yars.
s
whil
hildrn
of
nd
12–18
words
up
to
on
of
18
usually
20
us
information
months
pr
on
an
word
(“ball”
months
ar
nt
most
to
ould
hildrn
words.
th
two-word
omplx
taks
sntn-worth
th
50
that
thr
idntifying
During
ntir
rst
strings
on-word
nam
words—from
mor
of
sounds
atual
ation.
larnd
togthr
+
to
th
stag
stage—from
bgin
ommuniat
■
than
idntify
dsignat
rst
onsonant
Holophrastic
usd
of
prlinguisti
rathr
hildrn
stags
shing
Instad
is
hildrn
+
objt
th
out
of
months
ag
th
“go
of
th
larn
(“giv
2–3
basi
bd”
is
a
hildrn
bginning
of
ombinations
to
a
string
muh
suh
as
subjt
ball”).
yars
pattrns
hild
bgin
hildrn
that
may
rah
wr
now
say
this
larnd
“I
go
stag,
in
th
bd.
”
Activity
Look
early
at
the
following
language
Why
is
this
does
this
relationship
learner.
joke
play
funny
on
to
cartoon
the
Why
that
is
beyond
it
cultural
relevant
the
elements
context
involves
fact
more
to
that
necessary
a
strange
make
babies
for
a
use
joke
can’t
language
of
language
about
speak
by
change
like
here?
this?
development
an
How
and
its
broadly?
35
Lexis
Reception
Lxis
a
is
a
linguisti
languag.
myriad
Within
t
words
of
an
rlationships
that
hlps
ould
and
b
to
with
in
synonymous
of
b
th
th
Lxial
broad
or
us
or
it
is
th
a
of
mor
in
for
artil
ton
in
your
(using
than
it
rlatd
about
or
animal
as
in
of
analysis
to
lxial
b
to
Just
what
as
th
not
th
of
inlud
suh
ar
as
th
alld
following:
for
to
just
“soil”
.
intrsting
quik
not
mahin”
artil,
ordr
this
xampl
ould
and
whn
w
xampl,
rat
within
purposful
ld
nd
mattr
ld,
mmbrs,
words
a
from
and
“milking
sports
us
ld
words
ld
“trousrs”
Anothr
suh
hav
of
rlatd
xtnd
inlud
in
maning
lxial
“ow”
broad
battl
th
play
“shirt”
,
th
partiularly
th
words
partiular
in
fn”
,
a
but
“orn”
,
also
of
of
words
rlationships
th
st
ld.
mtaphors,
th
would
th
or
A
th
whih
suh
th
attitud.
subjt
a
mmbrs
of
for
dominant
anothr
in
txt.
ld
looking
dsird
losly
an
is
Words
wir
bom
in
lxial
at
with
may
thnial
in
synonyms
“unmarkd”
barbd
languag,
about
xampl
“plant”
,
but
possibl
through
words
to
inludd
“sd”
,
lds
intrsting
to
inlud
all
ways
eld
An
assoiatd
or
sns,
looking
a
ida.
agriultur,
th
th
A lexical
ar
languag
from
Ina
English
“agriultur”
.
spi
xampl)
with
an
of
Lxial
of
rlation
txt
farm
way
b
in
football,
in
words
t.
ration
may
ld
a
trm
of
inking
rlatd
inlud
for
mtaphori
dramati
ar
“farmr”
,
also
th
st
stablishd
or
would
word,
ld
is
words.
onpt
any
of
th
undrstand
word
lds
to
anothr.
“hydroponis”
,
insuran”
.
ould
ld
an
mor
“farmhous”
,
onsidr
a
th
xampls
“markd”
“rop
that
with
lds
to
rfrs
lxis
on
us
and
following:
prvious
vast
to
othr
dnot
Lxial
rlationship
all
hlps
that
individual
“lothing”
“soks”
.
ould
th
rlationships
btwn
or
trm
a
a
lxial
omparisons,
warning
though:
us
of
on
dan
to
dsrib
th
us
a
(using
th
lxial
words
lxial
from
ld
a
of
ld
th
husbandr y).
Activity
There
eld
two
are
many
represents
lexical
metaphor
different
a
elds
and
ways
hierarchy
in
order
creativity
to
of
to
represent
categories,
explore
when
the
word
two
the
the
relationships
second
(on
relationships,
lexical
elds
Parts
cheek
chin
dimple
the
below
the
eyebrows
the
between
next
variety
are
words
page)
of
is
in
a
based
possible
particular
more
on
relationships,
eld.
The
association.
and
the
rst
Play
possibility
lexical
with
the
for
mixed.
of
face
eyes
nose
of
tip
chin
lexical
loose
eyelashes
pupil
of
bridge
of
nostrils
eyelids
nose
nose
nose
hair
36
u
SECTION
1
Language
Extension
stars
What
earth
galaxy
in
universe
th
lxial
pag206?
venus
might
ld
planets
mars
not
of
pattrn
words
Outer
x
moons
Ann
jupiter
ld
usd…
”
ths
might
hlp
in
hr
eAuthor
an analysis
say
“th
notiing
th
you
to
s
passag.
us
a
advantag
to
idntify
Her
on
you
lxial
this
rlationships
Bradstrt
to
in
you
Shakspar
nssarily
is
or
an
from
Whil
intrsting
space
lds
passag
typ
somthing
How
dos
partiular
in
th
Book on
of
btwn
lxial
pom
pag
199?
space
uranus
dust
satellites
asteroids
comets
Rationale
Production
Thnially
points.
If
spaking,
your
undrstanding
you
will
of
your
you
of
gt
thos
writtn
hav
that
you
than
Hr
is
your
just
is
a
mt
rar
rational
manags
th
two
task.
points.
it
an
hlp
txt
typ,
outoms
audin.
In
othr
of
in
it
is
how
th
an
“lar
in
is
a
and
rational
ky
of
task,
thn
omponnt
th
your
work
hoi
dmonstrat
th
xplain
is
two
xplanation
togthr
to
worth
your
undrstand
ths
assignmnt
th
only
justiation
assignmnt
words,
a
is
though,
a
xaminr
and
1
invstigatd”
rational,
an
task
dmonstrat
baus
of
th
writtn
bing

opportunity
on
to
aspts
Howvr,
hoi
hav
rational
guid
of
undrtakn
topi,your
th
rational
and
craters
ours.

yourslf
worth
and
muh
mor
200–300
word
twopoints.
an
ovr viw
of
what
you
nd
to
inlud
in
your
rational.
■
Y
ou
nd
to
inlud
th
■
Y
ou
nd
to
xplain
how
th
ours.
Rmmbr
undrstand
you
study
ontnt.
or
th
thn,
ours),
addrssing
us
of
is
could
th
be
trrorism,
Wild,
or
not
th
of
in
topi
in
in
a
mtaphor
portrayal
xploration
ar
of
of
of
th
judgd
this
you
task
on
ours
ar
issu
stting
and
jargon
to
in
rgistr
in
ithr
a
of
th
(ontnt
of
th
of
th
ours).
powr.
natur
rlation
txts
xploring
disussion
and
part
Y
our
ours),
natur,
th
man
to
you
lass.
txt
th
vrsus
btwn
and
a
of
wll
in
(ontnt
man
hyprbol
onit
linkd
rlats
xploring
(ontnt
xampl
is
how
ation—analysing
partiular
for
task.
ontnt
languag
trrorism,
us
th
a
your
you
Contnt
languag
languag
Contnt
of
th
that
languag
ontnt,
th
is
titl
to
It
of
in Into
the
powr.
37
■
Y
ou
nd
to
partiular
■
Y
ou
nd
gnr
■
Y
ou
(a
■
Y
ou
th
to
stat
lttr,
should
(soial,
inlud
aspts
nd
to
th
format
asily
and
th
and
how
following
of
that
th
thr
radr
as
shore.
looks
At
like
the
abeginner.
laid-back,
surng
For
my
to
of
variety
explore
of
the
I
you
at
your
the
will
of
and
of
is
important
suh
as
Whil
who
it
is
rlation
38
trms
of
txt
typ
or
purpos
is
th
of
and
ontxt
st.
formal
your
onvntions
of
task.
mts
Y
our
th
abov.
rquirmnts
thr
rational
and
ritria
should
for
paragraphs
should
b
sur,
b
th
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admiring,
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and
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of
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prmittd
bing
known
yars
various
us
xtnt
frquntly
liklihood
onsidring
frquntly
is
(also
arly
th
rtain,
point
“should”
rang
xampl,
b
th
vrbs
th
to
illocutionar y
Modality
modal
from
rfrs
likly,
th
of
Language
Modality
Reception
Modality
1
or
go
outsid
must
suss
do
it
now.
your
is
ambiguous:
(It
is
rquird
homwork.
nssarily
it
is
th
rquird
(is
as
that
that
is
that
you
you
ithr
you
do
outsid.)
pistmi:
do
your
go
your
homwork.)
41
Activity
Extension
See
if
you
can
epistemic
1.
You
or
may
2.
I
must
3.
Fred
identify
the
modality
of
the
following
sentences
as
deontic,
ambiguous.
Tr y
be
sphs,
be
sick.
you
tired.
of
must
leave
You
can
5.
She
must
on
addrss
7.
Only
8.
You
9.
He
be
second
univrsity
draft
could
be
a
group
must
be
might
can
go
to
the
party.
bit
harder
and
kidding.
want
to
want
a
a
next
taking
time.
Linguistics
Background
languag
hang
lds
good
inlud
suh
way
onsidr
to
th
th
of
systm
languag
of
th
as
of
tim.
omputr
think
and
languag
about
qustions
and
is
fousd
ommuniation,
rol
through
undrstanding
othr
A
a
study
prodution,
languags
our
th
as

but
of
of
law
ask
in
th
about
our
vn
ld
strutur
attributs
soity
linguistis
and
of
th
physial
nhan
vastnss
linguists
th
languag
study
an
sin,
th
that
us
on
not
and
of
th
only
nrihs
undrstanding
physial
of
of
rhabilitation.
linguistis
languag.
ways
s
is
to
qustions
following.
ar
th
■
What
■
How
ar
■
How
do
individual
■
How
do
th
■
What
th
do
all
basi
faturs
individual
of
languags
a
sounds
units
lmnts
of
of
languag?
of
languags
languag
languag
hav
in
hav
intrat
ommon?
produd?
maning?
to
rat
How
do
maning?
thy
dir
from
ah
othr?
■
How
do
sond
w
How
and
■
How
dos
prsnt
why
or
■
How
dos
■
How
do
■
How
dos
At
th
usd.
vr y

larn
th
to
as
histor y
our
soial
our
or
in
languags
a
mothr
and
■
morpholog y :
■
syntax:
■
smantis:
th
of
th
tongu?
ultural
or
study
study
How
do
w
larn
of
th
of
rlat
th
way
w
to
languag
us
in
inun
our
inform
th
analysis
los
study
book)
and
strutur
maning
of
of
in
th
of
lad
to
us
in
in
soity?
of
way
languag?
w
larn?
languag
(som
broadr
of
thy
sntns
languag.
ar
as
it
is
whih
onrns:
languag
how
th
futur?
us
linguistis
hlp
sounds
words
in
th
intrat
languag
of
this
of
th
study
is
tim?
languag
valus
of
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of
study
of
of
inun
parts
ovr
languag
linguistis
th
th
a
knowldg
othr
phonolog y :
of
hang
prditions
languag
■
42
do
following
addrssd
languag
languags?
■
support)
rtird
formd
ar
duation
your
th
in
popl
agnda
vrbs.
uts
whih
o
Highlight
modal
is
you
of
sond
outlin
study
won.
languag
funding
duation
better.
who
of
whih
issu
discouraged.
graduates
Linguistis
in
leave.
to
The
politial
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(somthing
6.
two
now.
for
4.
writing
you
your
you
bfor
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us
of
SECTION
In
ontmporar y
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of
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furthr
lds
so
hav
■
historial
■
soiologial
■
mrgd,
th
individuals
and
nurologial
studnts
th
linguistis:
psyhologial
languag
from
linguistis:
languags,
■
linguistis
that
suh
th
and
of
study
sholars
hav
of
xpandd
sounds
and
th
pattrns,
languag
of
th
histor y
and
rlationships
hang
btwn
soitis
th
inun
linguistis:
and
xamination
Language
as:
study
linguistis:
th
los
1
study
of
th
of
th
languag
sinti
mind
on
and
th
ration
of
thinking
study
of
th
brain
and
languag
funtion
■
omputational
and
How
linguistis:
undrstanding
is
the
of
statistial
linguisti
study
of
and
omputr-basd
modlling
rlationships.
linguistics
useful
in
this
course?
Whil
th
languag
introdution
baus
is
usd,
vr y
at
th
ar
lvl.
othrs
this
as
ours
bloks
of
linguistis,
fous
At
th
tims
mor
you
of
a
to
the
Epistmi
2.
6.Epistmi
“possibly
7.Donti
this
nd
its
to
th
b
as
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sond
Epistmi
in
th
of
on
dra
of
this
th
page
4.
is
onrns
as
not
of
a
ours,
is
it
of
at
linguist,
that
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issus
as
linguists
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th
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th
for
a
languag
dirn
with
in
building
but
th
you
ld.
42
Donti
will
on
as
profssional
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8.
you
soial
and
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Ambiguous
good
bttr
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than
ould
th
b”
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43
is
usful
hart
suggsts
th
valu
of
th
study
of
linguistis.
Computer
Al
science
(Artificial
Maths
Intelligence)
Parsing
Computational
natural
language
linguistics
Psychology
processing
Logic
Philosophy
Psycholinguistics
language
acquisition
language
Philosophy
of
loss
language
Pragmatics
the
use
of
and
Evolution
language
of
Genetics
language
Sociology
The
linguistic
Socio-
core:
linguistics
sounds
Speech
structures
therapy
sense
Clinical
sciences
Anthro-
Linguistic
pology
fieldwork
Neuro-
linguistics
Historical
Forensic
Linguistics
Medicine
linguistics
and
Grammar
History
biology
TEFL
and
stylistics
TESL
Modern
The
language
and
English
classics
literature
Essay
Production
On
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writ
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objt
assoiatd
might
and
mass.
at
from
an
is
imag.
dynami
two-dimnsional
quality.
suggst
an
a
all
th
without
to
of
prmann.
lmntal
on
bakground
automatially
rlationships
wight
th
to
prints
th
sulptur,
olour
imprssion
an
His
in
workd
imag
a
Also,
ar
rat
vn
sulptur
at
imagin
or
prints
an
a
looking
rsultant
viwr
to
famously
his
Obviously,
taks
usd
shaps.
of
th
th
forgroundd
ngotiats
imags
By
ar
of
on
Eshr
ngativ

ys
about
losly
furr y
fling
kittn
of
SECTION
Working
Insight
“Every
are
on
day,
being
our
our
replaced
laptops,
particularly
that
the
for
this
is
is
written
or
and
any
document
clearly
which
and
is
this
by
up
recursive
being
thought
sort
a
writing
of
code.
about
how
symbolic
IB
I
their
that
work
graduat,
Dvlopr
at
of
I
would
to
and
metaphors
users.
in
Before
any
take
code
team
images
draing,
school
intertwined
is
place.
must
writing,
consumers,
with
high
However,
detailed
managers,
order
programming
must
very
In
responsive.
development
speaking,
so
for
and
essential.
in
develop
people
algorithms.
planning
was
I
are
eective,
ecient
W
orking
be
be
quick
ideas
writing,
when
pixel-based
using
project
of
us
appear
days
developer
natural
soware
around
that
my
millions
be
of
developers.
code
to
also
and
including
and
graduat
my
involves
with
representation
is
thoughts
programming
are
feel
beyond
amount
on
by
metaphors
and
writing
me,
soware
need
all
themselves
paradigms
far
large
soware
process
my
a
people
other
loved
intuitive
everyone
describe
and
these
Objects
For
used
interfaces
for
goes
a
are
interfaces
Eective
drawn,
numerous
CEOs
and
are
user
be
As
that
programming
planning,
presidents,
to
user
of
computers.
pixels.
order
interfaces
algorithms.
pixels
In
need
ecient
concisely
read
graphical
graphical
user
and
interfaces
objects.
interfaces
using
tablet
Language
Images
technical.
representations
and
bytes
user
ese
graphical
paradigms
bits,
tactile
happen,
done
creating
T
o
world.
user
to
of
increasingly
pixel-based
graphical
represent
graphical
by
becomes
smartphones
made
pixel-perfect
around
world
with
1
vice
ends
drawing
but
with
I
never
every
communication.
”
Dalhousi
Rsarh
In
Univrsity
Motion
in
(makrs
Canada,
of
th
Sowar
Blakbrr y)
“W
e know that it is cliché to say that a picture is worth a thousand words, but
for us that is true. Both of us really enjoyed English, especially when we could
have a class discussion and say what we felt about a novel or a poem but we
really looked forward to art class every day. In art class we liked looking at as
many works of art as we could. W
e watched slide shows focusing on dierent
artists almost every day. But what we both loved even more was doing our
own paintings. A painting was absolute freedom and we really felt like we were
getting a chance to express emotions. While one of us really likes writing poetry,
we would agree that the images we created really were worth a thousand words.
As
we
were
portfolios
between
Every
studying
for
writing
image
tell
or
to
something
careful
their
part
the
part
of
helped
From
about
the
an
one
on,
nal
also
we
when
image:
highr
at
all.
be
we
our
art
to
read,
if
we
will
story
that
that
all
think
(nrolld
way
need
to
art
share
we
art
at
art
really
than
we
wanted
painting
had
to
that
thing
been
a
viewing
could
and
be
that
inspiration.
way
be
we
think
magic.
”
London,
shool
so
would
as
imitating
the
be
about
Picasso
and
in
everything
careful
had
must
shool
doing.
put
such
ideas
it
were
to
how
writing
together,
connection
mistakes
no
saw
the
be
purposefully
to
at
we
worse
the
We
about
come
that
was
the
not
seem
together
we
how
worked,
there
of
put
sculpture
nothing
images.
are
to
understood
writers
that
that
elements
studnts
is
that
with
authors
we
the
mistakes
see
even
and
realized
knew
work
way
many
we
began
understand
ere
way
made
to
tell
we
better
painting
We
the
as
we
needed
lines—to
started
we
the
we
piece,
the
especially
schools,
emotion.
create
some
lvl
and
gets
inuenced
images
art
and
must
when
the
We
art
right
understand
now
Two
of
and
to
shapes,
art
Even
years
us
an
the
no
our
detail.
over
art
story
colour,
that
stories.
chance
a
create
about
become
as
tells
together—the
to
IB
application
in
nrolld
Hong
Kong)
57
Space
Reception
Spa
and
is
all
mov
third
both
of

through
also
spa
torat
that
surrounds
dimnsion
worldbut
and
that
th
is
to
ar
four
shaps
in
of
ordr
our
spa
abl
a
drawings
in
In
to
sns,
rat
a
daily
only
attntion
By
of
to
to
to
dpth
us
w
a
in
imag
our
important
an
world
ways
spatial
in
rogniz,
rpliat
a
fw
w
a
whih
an
artist
Ovrlap
basi
and
Ovrlap,
mthods
th
illusion
advrtismnt)
play
with
ordr
is
to
our
and
dpth
than
b
an
as

part
of
th
a
towards
of
dpiting
in
siz
artists
uss
xd
point
58
during
linar
vantage
dgs
of
on
a
In
th
tabl
an
s
dp
how
in
an
dpth
usd
artists
objt
an
manipulat
that
vrtial
ral,
th
a
for
w
whil
in
ar
imag
th
also
of
fourth
th
is
an
abov,
a
or
and
of
to
imag
dpth,
is
at,
think
and
in
What
of
spa
rathr
irls
th
of
an
surral.
imag
th
way
in
viwing
or
analysis
onstrution
sond
ar
painting
imaginar y
imag
plamnt,
prptions
what
siz:
siz:
dpth
in
our
diminishing
may
irls
ar
perspective
mthod
that
manipulat
an
of
(whthr
knowldg
th
rat
thniqus
a
th
us.
diminishing
and
abl
illusion
art
purposful
t.
on
th
In
approahing
strwn
moving
Linear
ar
purposfully
whn
aidntal
arlssly
stadily
artists
rating
rality.
onurrnt
rat
important
of
of
or
of
in
dpth.
plamnt:
rating
illusion
pag.
diminishing
s
th
somthing
on
th
mark
xprin
objts
of
imag,
priv
Ovrlap:
Vrtial
basis
rognizing
fl
ar
Perspective
two-dimnsional
not
mak
blow
to
On
a
usd
motion.
sns
at—or
b
draw
and
dsignrs
spa.
an
us.
and
th
th
th
thy
th
th
th
Rnaissan
Our
w
y
sids
horizon.
way
rah
prsptiv
point.
oor,
as
of
thn
a
in
“s”
y
Italy.
in
th
follows
road)
ss
horizon,
as
objts
was
Whn
spa
what
thy
in
spa,
formalizd
w
of
look
th
should
onvrg
at
by
a
painting
painting
b
from
paralll
towards
arhitts
a
lins
(th
a vanishing
SECTION
1
Language
Activity
What
are
the
effects
the
formalizing
the
feeling
image
B
Image
A
Image
B
of
(on
of
the
the
a
way
dirnt
in
olour,
ral
next
similar
if
is
to
a
us
perspective
What
feelings
where
are
carefully
dramati
is
in
the
image
centre
generated
planned
sns
atmosphri
of
light),
to
look
lins,
in
and
A,
of
and
linear
completed
attention?
where
is
before
What
the
perspective
is
focus
is
in
used?
perspective
wr
dning
hangs
What
page)
(valu
w
space
perspective?
rating
fous,
light
world,
without
of
a
space?
Atmospheric
Anothr
of
linear
our
txtur
ovr
sns
a
of
of
spa,
whil
prsptiv.
and
vast
dtail
to
panorama,
spa
would
prhaps
Artists
rat
us
spa.
prhaps
om
a
rating
hangs
In
th
landsap
through
ths
intnsity.
59
Activity
What
are
the
perspective?
different
effects
How
from
is
of
space
the
images
A
and
Reception
Unity
is
imag
suh
on
and
as
as
a
to
unity,
of
in
w hol
work
an
t h
b
imag
or
us ag,
t h
to o
r ats
obj ts
artist
is
to
txtur,
t han
b ing
this
and
image
using
perhaps
atmospheric
meaning,
of
this
image
above?
lmnts
attr ibutd
 vr yday
vari ety
B
in
effect,
Unity
k y
olour,
rat hr
f rom
t hs 
An
an
lin,
sug gsts
of
created
general
as
is
of
for
to
an
t h
or
dsig n
ombination
shap 
s ns 
intrst
a
ovral l
and
of
of
a
divrsity
in
t h
 y
rat
w hil
unity
unity
by
work
an
A
a
of
ar t
imag
s ns 
of
as
of
som
ont rast
kp
of
dsig n
a
obj  ts
ti
aohrnt
of
word
togt hr
In
an
group
or
lmnts
t h
tt ing
t hat
of
ar t
visual
lmnts.
divrs 
using
work
Unity,
lmnts
or
a
var ious
haphazard
prdi t abl.
r at
of
of
p rsp  t iv.
s ns 
oll tion
bland
togt hr
dsignr
a
of
in
s om
 t.
th
followingthniqus.
■
Repetition
is
ratunity
hlp
rat
ofthr
■
in
an
sns
trms
artist
suh
is
ould
as
is
ts.
intnsitis
using
is
in
is
a
ontinuity
shaps
An
from
(as
in
a
by
may
prft
grouping
in
a
a
to
than
objts
to
groups
hav
work
singl
also
irl
rathr
that
som
onpt
using
shaps
hlp
of
thr
suggstd
groups
sph).
lmnts
artist
and
suggstd
trikir
onntion
simply
txturs
imag
ts
various
imag.
hav
an
strong
tying
and
olours,
Som
unity
Continuity
an
progrssion
Alignment
imag.
of
rat
in
rpatd
rats
Continuation
similar
■
using
togthr
than
olour
show
oval.
a
using
rptition.
in
a
rang
progrssion

ky
An
to
of
in
shap
ontinuity
rptition.
togthr
to
rat
unity
in
animag.
■
Balance Whil
balan
in
lad
painting
disturbing
an
sn,
unbaland
imag
balance whn
60
to
an
is
unity.
fl
an
an
A
of
dsign
baland
nishd,
sm
lmnts
lmnt
its
painting,
onvining,
haphazard.
(shaps,
in
An
olours)
vn
forful,
imag
ar
own
an
paralll
right,
of
or
an
balan
ativ
stabl.
or
An
hav symmetrical
in
a
work.
SECTION
Asymmetrical balance an
■
through
th
nar
through
wight,
b
mor
juxtaposition
txtur,
and
of
subtl
and
diult
lmnts
that
rat
to
1
Language
ahiv
los
symmtry
light.
Activity
How
is
the
objects,
have
painting
on
either
shades
(or
below
side
the
of
an
an
colours
example
imagined
you
of
asymmetrical
centre
imagine)
line,
balance?
balance
contributed
to
each
Which
other?
How
balance?
Extension
Unity
is
analysis
somthing
in
paper
disussion
to
of
onsidr
lmnts
an
of
th
in
a
to
1.
A
onsidr
ovrall
written
dsign,
advrtismnt,
as
lm
or
ar
many
imprssion
and
lm).
symmtr y
on
us
Scale,
things
A
or
in
largr
of
To
for
a
hild’s
lif-siz
is
onsistnt
of
th
and
th
is
xampl
of
famous
th
usual
statu
as

an
or
Unity
in
omparativ
naturally
oral
hlp
is
lad
also
activity.
your
of
of
a
objts
notiably
proportions.
of
th
art
to
a
th
as
somthing
ration
apital
dision
of
ah
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a
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further
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motion
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unity,
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rlativ
than
dirnt
into
basi
th
of
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balan,
gnrally
th
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or
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of
or
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Contrast, Repetition
Reception
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task
suh
a
in
disussion
and
had
ompard
proportions
to
may
61
have
been
strength
statue
usual
was
language
of
to
is
is
be
the
canvas
elements
contrasting
lines,
a
it
frame
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create
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elements.
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course,
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visual
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from
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keep
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elements,
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proportion
displayed
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and
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proportion,
Contrast
not
changed
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space).
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and
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created
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Images
–
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impression
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dynamic.
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images
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created
an
or
the
and
literature
course.
particular
text
that
creator
62
is
focus
is
a
passing
repetition
the
the
in
broader
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course
image,
time.
are
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–
however,
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In
entire
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IB
English
A:
communication
mass
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communication
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order
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mass
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fators:
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in
in
spak
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or
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individual,
larg,
som
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partiular
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lmnts
of
mass
following.
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is
a
as
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formal
organization
(from
a
ntwork).
fousd
b
publi
on
a
and
larg
an
audin.
rah
popl
ovr
a
ara.
audin
intrst,
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to
hav
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a
suh
ompliats
ommuniat
station
th
and
thought.
pross.
two
ar
and
ommuniation
ommon
various
known
rivr.
into
ar
or
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ommuniation
communication
mor
to
languag
undrstanding,
ommuniation
tlvision
th
Diultis
hannl
ommuniation.
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th
(also
formulats
stp-by-stp
undrstand
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a
th
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thr
to
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as
and
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partiipants
and
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mdium,
of
th
ommuniation)
or
dsribs
that
howvr,
media
th
brak
spokn).
od
logial
important
suh
tlphon
pross
a
assumd
xprssions.
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whih
is
by
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ontxtual
sparatd
mdium,
may
omplxity
mass
od
as,
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this
it
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stimulus
into
basi

Whil
to
whil
th
popl
■
■
is
popl
almost
suggsts
two
A
■
popl
of
ommuniation,
day
■
ar
most
follows.
individual
(or,
also
Whn
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b
lass—th
ommuniation
ommuniation,
stps,
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For
this
Language
t.
basi
th
in
group
should
and
omplxity.
somthing
and
with
txt
1
of
mass
thr
is
btwn
ommuniation
on
not
audin
oms
xtnsiv
togthr
intration
baus
of
or
mmbrs.
63
Mass
ommuniation
alld
reication
produt.
thn
th
A
spokn
broadast.
u,
”
numbr
mssag
othr
a
also
a
for
rharsd,
dosn’t
usually
dspit
th
that
a
rid
allow
that
on
is
by
rid
in
a
intration
it
is
is
shars
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transmittd
mdia
what
into
and
many
xd
may
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plannd
with
in
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that
traditional
it
“o
by
ts.
rspons.
intrsting
is
a
rordd
onvrsation
mssag
and
involvs
pross
uttran
ditd
it
omplx
xampl,
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fat
in
turning
spokn
ontmporar y
intrativity
mass
mans
ommuniatd,
popl,
hand,
intrsting
mssag,
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mass
of
is
whih
A
a
rid
th
allows
attributs
for
of
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Broadasting
was
ommuniation
allow
via
organizations
publi
dirtly
advnt
to
of
radio
in
shduld
is
most
ommuniat
form
and
th
in
th
histor y
with
programm
ommuniation
ar
and
of
in
and
of
ass,
widly
mass
1940s)
disprsd
soon
on
th
abl
idas
taking
about
by
(with
Whil
to
songs
ars.
most
ovr
ass
for
and
and
ar
of
audin
allows
os
ommuniation.
and
hangd
is
for
thnologis
programms
homs,
tlvision
th
our
a
mdia
broadasting
nws
thir
satllit
forvr
with
radio
th
in
dvlopmnts
Broadast
movis,
viwrs
1920s
today
important
audin.
programming
hanging
tlvision
th
larg
Tlvision
th
listnrs
dvlopmnts
too
in
of
a
to
air wavs.
ommuniation
fully
on
with

th
rst
signiant
broadasting
muh
instant
of
th
mdia
broadasting.
Noise
Nois
from
is
th
nmy
whih
sndr,
it
sounds
and
is
w
subjt
an
turning
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your
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ar
th
to
of
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ltr
and
ink
As
around
you
fousing
systm
or
ar
to
(hadphons
a
othr
at
th
attntion
ar
rdu
an
mssag
and
a
th
a
sam
(th
As
a
four
listnr,
nois)
b
asy
dsignd
during
a
th
by
onvrsation.
would
th
dvi
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whr
tim.
on
lavs
bakground
party
Mdia
of
information
mssag
sours,
at
on
it
nois
xampl
on
as
information
imprft
to
unltrd
bing
misundrstand.
mad
antuat
your
is
is
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about
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onvrsation
pross
nois
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mssags
pla
of
and
ltring
mass
a
hattr.
taking
parts
riving
nois:
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had
this
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disrn
irrlvant
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of
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for
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an
and
hlp
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Activity
Noise
is
interesting
communication.
model,
and
continuum
an
64
that
considering
can
a
help
the
to
mass
clarify
it
serves
about
message
institutionalized
television)
in
Thinking
all
addition
deviate
as
of
a
the
of
from
confuse
metaphor
steps
noise,
its
communication
or
good
in
at
the
which
original
the
points
(such
complexity
of
communication
intention
apparatus
messages?
for
basic
as
along
as
the
thought?
broadcast
Does
to
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of
works.
in
th
is
th
study

study
in
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of
signs
rlation
study
of
1900s
Charls
Sandrs
Barths
pushd
to
and
th
smiotis
with
his
Pir
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Language
Semiotics
Background
Smiotis
1
study
analysis
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latr
of
sign
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arguably
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of
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and
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systms
bn
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Conurrnt
broadr
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Frdinand
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mdia
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thorist
study
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Saussur
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how
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all kinds hav maning in ultur. T
aking a smioti approah to txt – that is,
broadly
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A
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73
advrtismnt
for
Whil
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Activity
viwrs
know
thy
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Choose a signicant story in the today’
s news and compare how it is reported
wathing
an
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inthree newspapers either from the same city or from very different markets.
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Look at the elements above and make a chart comparing the way the story
gnr
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usesor reveals the different elements. What does your comparison suggest
an
b
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about bias? What are the possible reasons for the different biases (economic,
political, cultural, market size)?
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74
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and
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work
though
th
blow.
Activity
1.
Categorization
Newspapers,
categorizing
at
hand.
“chief
An
re
magazine,
terms
article
to
describe
about
investigator”.
discuss
other
level
experience.
of
television
elements
On
a
For
of
a
re,
the
John
the
news
person
for
programmes
in
purposes
Smith’s
other
a
example,
hand,
of
way
the
identity
the
that
could
and
is
such
as
article
media
relevant
interview
article,
same
other
there
his
to
John
is
age,
might
use
the
piece
Smith,
no
a
reason
to
appearance
cite
the
or
“new,
u
young
chief
re
investigator”
giving
us
the
impression
that
perhaps
we
should
75
Activity
view
his
opinions
with
a
bit
of
scepticism. Using
any
of
the
articles
or
3.
blogs
in
this
book
or,
better
yet,
a
full
issue
or
page
of
a
magazine
Stereotyping
The
newspaper,
write
down
as
many
categorizing
phrases
as
you
can
nd.
any
stereotypical
images
or
ideas
conjured
by
these
phrases?
school
Are
all
negative
or
neutral
connotations
to
these
is
kinds
a
of
breeding
ground
stereotyping
of
there
students,
positive,
school
Are
for
there
and
or
teachers
and
support
phrases?
staff.
How
many
phrases”
can
that
be
may
“categorizing
you
come
used
in
up
with
positive
or
Activity
negative
2.
Diversity
media
has
for
groups
or
format
below
magazine
Name
of
in
often
simply
to
been
not
portraying
perform
order
to
criticized
a
or
the
“diversity
consider
newspaper
for
the
and
of
of
an
a
portraying
community.
individual
effects
of
minority
Use
the
newspaper
basic
or
articles
in
Total
#
of
stories
or
articles
featuring
issue:
minorities,
the
view
teachers?
each
What
Was
portrayal
the
portrayal
negative?
and
its
of
Was
effect
on
it
the
minority
neutral?
meaning
or
or
minority
your
the
point
of
group
positive?
complexities
of
the
following
lm
excerpt
version
issues
involved
below
touches
sexuality
even
in
the
then,
lm,
this
representation
particular,
of
you
the
The
the
on
change
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image
of
in
the
in
in
Games
attitudes
gender
male
or
consider
the
or
a
of
example
(for
graphic
in
the
the
the
on
of
identity.
a
Was
the
the
Huck
207.
this
How
stereotypes?
brief
the
of
do
discussion
of
this
do
and
gender
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of
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Language
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The
following
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placement.
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text
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advertisements
to
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teach
what
above?
message
ways
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do
do
were
how
these
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created
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by
the
recognize
advertisements
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US
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forms
conform
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in
to
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product
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attributes
creative
ways?
advertisement:
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article
children
(or
an
advertisement
in
a
magazine
that
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made
to
look
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advertisement
in
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of
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support
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by
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intrsting
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of
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onis,
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and
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an
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always
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on a systmati argumnt that is larly outlind in th body of th artil.
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of
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to
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of
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body.
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opinions.
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interpretation—an
approach—an
authority
opposing
and
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or
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or
praise—an
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to
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to
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and
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A
brief
The
editorial
editorial
yourself
the
editorial
features
type
of
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listed
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allowed
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from
to
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selected
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editorial
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write
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political
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close
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the
task
produce
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should
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a
some
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for
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positive
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all
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cooperation
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main
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government
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party,
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budget
passage
of
session.
the
Arun
pension
Jaitley’s
fund
statement
regulatory
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the
development
BJP
authority
item
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on
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reforms
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current
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policy
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gets
and
cracking
spooked
on
reform.
If
when
passed,
the
pension
Bill
is
expected
to
open
up
multiple
savings
and
investment
on
on
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statutory
backing
to
the
pension
regulator,
the
legislation
will
steer
a
funding
for
sources
of
long-gestation
infrastructure
sectors.
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it
would
facilitate
alternative
example,
low-cost
retirement
savings,
and
ensure
a
market-linked
safety
net
for
workers
both
organised
the
and
unorganised
sectors.
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far
the
Left
parties
and
the
BJP
have
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clearly
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stalling
the
Bill.
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a
result,
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has
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for
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features
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up.
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class
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accepted
cooperation
endures,
mention
its
amendments
the
forthcoming
to
the
pension
Bill.
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the
present
spirit
of
study
Parliament
session
could
well
turn
out
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productive
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read
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be
support
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separate
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cousin
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discussed.
exercise
in
passing
fruitful
legislation.
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for
this
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need
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see
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collaboration,
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opposition,
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itself.
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by
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BJP
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pension
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and
within
amendment
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on.
ruling
legislation,
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aiming
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the
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voting
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and
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limit
from
85
26%
to
49%
legislations
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in
pushed
out
of
the
political
the
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present
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cycle
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you
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say
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of
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narrativ.
th
vr y
In
spi
thorists
of
and
Alan
popular
popular
vnt”
usd
to
song
a
is
song
know”
is
songs.
And
Know
I
don’t
Reading
You
[Gotye:]
Now
Like
and
when
then
you
Told
I
think
said
myself
But
felt
of
you
that
so
when
felt
you
lonely
so
we
happy
were
in
were
you
right
your
And
together
could
for
I
said
wouldn’t
you
you
you
live
every
that
catch
die
wanna
into
could
hung
used
that
word
to
let
up
way
you
on
say
it
go
somebody
that
know
me
company
[Gotye:]
But
that
was
love
and
it’s
an
ache
I
still
remember
But
Make
You
can
get
addicted
to
a
certain
kind
of
out
like
it
you
Like
resignation
to
the
end,
always
the
we
found
that
we
could
not
make
you
said
that
we
would
still
be
you
treat
I’ll
admit
that
I
was
glad
it
I
don’t
even
me
like
a
was
your
didn’t
have
to
cut
me
out
like
it
never
And
I
happened
don’t
even
and
need
that
your
your
were
nothing
love
and
that
feels
so
rough
didn’t
friends
have
to
collect
stoop
your
so
low
records
guess
that
I
your
and
then
don’t
number
need
that
though
off
Now
Make
off
we
over
I
you
need
stranger
change
But
me
that
friends
Have
But
cut
and
sense
You
Well
to
end
But
when
have
happened
sadness
And
So
didn’t
never
we
were
you’re
just
somebody
that
I
used
to
know
I
used
to
know)
nothing
love
[x2]
But
you
treat
me
like
a
stranger
and
that
feels
so
rough
Somebody
You
didn’t
have
to
stoop
so
low
(I
Have
your
friends
collect
your
records
and
used
to
know)
then
Somebody
change
your
number
(Now
I
Now
guess
you’re
that
just
I
don’t
need
somebody
that
that
I
you’re
just
somebody
that
though
used
to
know
(I
used
(That
Now
you’re
just
somebody
that
I
used
to
know
Now
you’re
just
somebody
that
I
used
to
know
(I
I
to
used
used
to
know)
to
know)
know)
Somebody
[Kimbra:]
Now
and
then
I
think
of
all
the
times
you
screwed
me
over
Source:
But

of
had
rst
th
me
thr
th
audin,
us
of
out
th
92
nd
why
words
sam
of
it
was
of
th
ontnt
straightfor ward
dsribs
th
vrss
rptition
rlativly

believing
fous
tim,
“thrs”
.
last
of
sh
on

song
that
and
something
ar
w
to
th
b
pain
motions
so
and
rptition
words
of
nd
of
ah
in
and
asks
or
lonlinss
th
baus
of
a
nal
song.
thy

rlationship.
listnr,
in
hr
an
th
rlationship.
on
nd.
At
rhtorial
musially
fous
is
spakr
implid
to
th
Somebody
Kimbra.
muh
languag

insistnt
strutur
words
th
2011.
featuring
lak
rspons
brokn
Gotye.
Mirrors”)
done
through
rhythmi

a
th
old
nhand
lin.
I’d
popular
outlins
drasti
ar
that
rmarkabl
larly
rlationship
had
th
thr
a
always
draws
varity
That
I
Used
To
Know
(from
“Making
SECTION
of
fling
sns”
,
or
th
was
spakr’s

song
ntrs
musial
pith,
as
th
saw
nd
his
nal,
known
of
th
him.
hurt,
song
suggsts
knw
ah
as
is
a
to
four
to
a
a
pop
vr y
ways
ar
xprind
w
Response
is
a
an
vr y
prsptiv
lovr’s
I
thy
rst
song
pla,
how
a
in
to
a
mdiatd
to
varity
of
out
h
as
and
is
and
as
if
lov,
b
had
had
hurt
in
to
sh
sh
had
so
nvr
hrslf
hr.

popl
prhaps
thy
who
nvr
passion.
a
vn
disussion
with
vnt?
nhand
spial
ways
s
it
was
had
if
sparatd
th
mdia
of
unison,
that
th
various
gnral.
on
or
work,
and
rval
trios
falling
on.
that
do
s
rsignd
brak-up
shard
ould
in
voi
sam
prsptivs
thought
two
analyti
w
at
man
but
thir
th
xist
xprin
in
singr’s
from
and
mor
suggsts
th
th
rising
sing
th
not
simply
suggst
wid
and
why
ton
“thrs”
.
to
viw
on
mor,
hlp
musi
distan
of
did
thir
w
of
also
vois
whn
that
blow
and
h
now
mak
th
fmal
with
btwn
who
dspit
do
kind
popular
th
nothing
“rading”
song,
if

r ying
howvr,
ar
rm.
btwn
points
hrslf
suggst
rspond
at
as
swiths
rpatd
and
wondrs
him
and
of
mal
rspons,
outlind
of
a
“not
highlight
an
a
pom.
How
ar
sph
of
an
trats
rsponss
languag
But
w
at?
natur
audin
basi
lik
vnts
show
that
ontxt.
1
rlationship.
listn,
thn
but
swith
whn
of
doubtd
that
slightly
altrnat
both
sadnss”
,
rlationship
paind
and
story
partiular
ativ
th
strssing
from
othr
th
on
of
phrass
Language
pain.
and
intrsting
but
Lambrou
th
his
in
phnomnon
is
only
his
mlanholy
from
tratd
had
rsponss
motional
th
nd
straightfor ward
listn
witnss

and
a
“kind
s
and
song,
“you”
tlls
ah
othr
Durant
w
not
know”
an
woman’
s
sh
to
sam
fls
woman
that
to
this
song
loss
th
ton
and
and

bn
As
th
“I”
ss
th
“usd
th
ors
rlationship
why
his
know”
.
prsptiv
and
song
xprins
In
hr
rmmbr”
,
to
prsptivs
throughout

listnr
still
qustioning,
givs
altrnating
batn.
th
swiths
qualitis
words,
“I
“usd
prsptiv,
and
and
song:
ovr”
,
thn
plaintiv
of
in
“it
1
prsonal

on
Response
singr
th
shos.
fl
th
song
has
basd
writtn
brak-up
is
song
omplx
on
with
is
lik
th
th
th
xprins
lyris
addd
rading
motions
of
th
a
and
th
insight
work
of
of
a
faild
song
of
givs
stpping
his
briy
non-tion.
into
Whn
I
singr-song writr.
2
It fls as if th singr is addrssing m in this song. Whn th mal voi
auss “you” of bing so old, I think about how I hav atd in th past or
how I might hav inadvrtntly hurt somon baus of my own motions. I
thn sympathiz with th fmal voi baus it is lik I am givn a han to
rspond. is song not only spaks to m but givs m a brif han to spak.
Response
3
I an ompltly idntify with th voi of th singr in this song. I hav had
this xprin bfor or a vry similar xprin. I “ry” along with th lad
singr and fl a sns of guilt whn th fmal voi bgins hr rspons.
Response

song
is
ssntially
gaind
th
4
lost.
oms
mad-up
a
song.
following
and
song
just
In

th
lyris
typial
addition,
mor
from
th
th
do
ruls
not
of
stor y
mattr
popular
itslf
sounds.

is
muh
song
basi.
baus
in
My
“popl”
in
thy
disussing
njoymnt
th
song
ar
lov
of
ar
just
haratrs.
93
Social
Reception
Soial
th
mdia
is
rvolution
part
of
wb
pla
for
mor
prodution
spially,
intration.
It
of
and
languag
th
us
natur
us
two
in
b
of
of
to
is
th
2.0
as
on
an
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th
broadr
sits
would
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into
to
distintiv
languag
ommunity
in
work.
Rih
Many
intrsting
and
in
by
languag
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and
to
th
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th
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modality
■
jargon
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dition
■
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and
and
in
hoi
of
in
ar
mdia
th
powr
ultur.
groups,
As
th
languag
might
languag
gnral;
as
in
words
idntity
a
mans
imag
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of
to
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tak
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to
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soial
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us
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thnolog y
possibl written
(for
ts
in
xampl
soial
tasks:
Twittr)
mdia
forums
disovring
Arabi)
ar
whih
xamin
and
on
rlation
Som
languag.
onlin
in
rgistr,
languag
thir
ts
in
onrns
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found.
study
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mdia
ways
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Language
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insight
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of
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Activity
an
The
hashtag
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a
symbol
used
on
micro-blogging
sites
such
as
Twitter
ssay
written
“tag”
or
indicate
help
categorize
location
international
of
the
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airport),
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content
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general
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would
message.
mean
emotion,
the
A
hashtag
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sentiment
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at
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re
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Perth).
is
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feature
of
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message
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is
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way
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the
or
are
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of
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furthr
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mor
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ladrs.
somhow
hang,
in
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spak
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othr
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nativ
English
rst
a
sond
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English
lik.
SECTION
Aglobal
th
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English
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and
mployd
Stats,
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how
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multinational
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th
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rlutant
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us
English
languag.
99
Texts
Men
in
GRAEME
battle: When
a
brotherly
bond
turns
deadly
SMITH
response
piece
based
more
in
these
inFriday’s
on
a
classied
troubling
killings
circumstances,
New
York
report,
possibility
indicate
an
but
a
raises
that
erosion
of
the
messy
sign
Times,
the
at
more
a
vulgar
defecate
these
results.
forward
in
phrasing
between
Afghan
relationship
into
battle
brotherly
love
romantic
bond.
relationships
can
be
between
together
as
men
who
can
be
intense,
strong
as
any
go
“[T]he
a
killings
report
symptom
when
such
plaguing
break
down
the
each
results
the
makes
have
But
deadly.
“Please
a
do
not
theshower.”)
on
the
battleeld
became
source
of
conict.
In
2007,
I
forces.
was
The
of
and
another
NATO
handwritten
contained
the
Performance
relationship
(One
base
of
a
the
side
far
the
deeper
war
holds
Times’
clear
become
effort:
for
the
that
(A
visible
contempt
other,”
writes
Friday
with
valley
the
was
us
a
British
of
a
rocket-propelled
a
nearby
troops
moment:
shower
reacted
of
convoy.
hill
dirt
beside
as
whistled
trees.
precisely
the
our
a
of
grenades
line
in
province
ambushed
terrifying
in
troops
Helmand
Taliban
exploded
from
Matthew
correctionposted
when
It
ailment
the
correspondent
Rosenberg.
Sangin
these
most
riding
The
the
British
way
they
France lost four troops on Fridayin what
on
the
New
York
Times’
website
notes
were
trained
to
respond,
throwing
their
appears to be a fratricidal shooting by
that
the
classied
report
vehicles
was
into
reverse
and
pulling
out
of
an Afghan soldier. During the Vietnam
described
in
an
earlier
article
by
the
the
kill
zone,
while
returning
re.
war, enlisted men threw fragmentation
Wall
Street
Journal.)
The
grenades at their superiors so frequently
that killing within the ranks became
The
known as “fragging”. In the Afghan war,
important
word
“contempt”
the catchphrase is “green-on-blue”
relationships
attacks in which Afghan forces (green)
Books
kill or injure their supposed NATO
bestsellingBlinkpopularized
allies(blue).
theories
part
such
of
Gottman,
has
recent
the
become
literature
civilian
Malcolm
an
on
claims
of
a
that
most
their
the
predicts
factor
local
isn’t
of
divorce,
seen
both
expressions
sides
of
the
Afghan
troops.
Sometimes
forces
same
as
were
allies,
but
obvious:
battle,
to
the
British
explain
that
to
tactical
their
retreat
cowardice.
many
other
occasions
it’s
been
the
iscontempt.
of
contempt
blue-green
among
was
the
into
not
Afghans
British
counterparts
NATO
I’ve
the
struggled
the
could
the
On
likelihood
I
their
After
opposite,
forward
what
at
expression
ofcers
to
the
bullets.
contempt.
the
did
straight
oncoming
screaming
the
poisonous
marriage,
consistently
charging
understand
world.
Gladwell’s
psychologistJohn
reaction
health
that
in
as
who
emotional
the
of
Afghans
and
on
divide,
of
troops
failing
obtained
to
a
stand
and
classied
assessment
NATO
accusing
of
an
the
local
ght.
In
forces
2008,
I
military
insurgent
ambush
The international forces recently took
the
foreign
soldiers
on
a
combined
French
and
Afghan
steps to conceal thescale of this
seemed
willing
to
give
their
local
force
in
the
Uzbin
valley
east
of
Kabul.
problembut it’
s impossible to hide major
counterparts
the
benet
of
the
doubt,
The
Afghan
National
Army’s
role
in
the
incidents.Paris suspended training
and
some
of
the
Afghan
troops
openly
battle
was
summarized
with
obvious
operations and threatened to withdraw
admired
their
international
allies.
contempt:
“The
ANA
force
spent
much
its forces from the country after Friday’
s
of
More
often,
however,
the
two
the
time
lounging
on
the
cultures
shooting, the second such green-on-blue
battleeld,”
clashed.
Afghans
considered
the
report
said.
their
incident in a month for the French troops.
foreign
French
military
ofcials
counterparts
unhygienic
suggested
that
their
men
could
killed
Taliban
by
a
member
sleeper
who
feelings
agent,
to
for
touch
allowing
the
toilet
their
the
Afghans
the
are
having
look
relationship
bare
seats
in
of
the
Afghan
latrines
on
nothing
like
military
bases,
traditional
which
squat
army.
100
the
no
wonder
and
international
trouble
making
work.
Globe
and
Mail.
Such
standard
troops
the
toilets—
NATO
troops
complained
about
2012,
are
it’s
the
and
explanations
that,
a
inltrated
Source:
ranks
like
have
bums
been
With
disgustingly
immediately
NATO
posted
online.
20
January
SECTION
Truth, lies
and
In
R-Texas.
Afghanistan
January
into
How
military
leaders
have
let
As
a
representative
for
the
the
Equipping
down
Force,
I
set
out
to
talk
to
troops
LT.
COL.
DANIEL
L.
about
their
needs
and
last
year
in
the
talking
with
U.S.
Along
the
way,
Afghan
a
patrol
mounted
and
partners.
My
Army’s
Rapid
in
patrols,
spending
time
Equipping
into
the
Cavalry.
to
the
northernmost
every
eastern
U.S.
Afghanistan,
we
at
signicant
an
Afghan
and
Special
station
that
National
had
Police
reported
being
Forces
Force
troops.
me
visit
with
attacked
took
to
32nd
duties
conventional
the
border
Squadron,
dismounted
(ANP)
with
1st
I
arrived
their
trip
province
troops
combat
and
rst
Afghanistan,
conducted
and
Pakistan
of
position
visiting
my
Kunar
their
On
spent
of
DAVIS
circumstances.
I
made
our
troops
BY
I
mountains
Language
Rapid
near
us
2011,
1
I
interviewed
or
by
the
Taliban
2½
hours
had
area
earlier.
conversations
where
our
soldiers
engage
the
the
course
of
12
months,
more
than
9,000
in
the
miles
traveled
and
patrolled
in
Khost,
Paktika,
Kandahar,
Kunar,
eld,
from
the
lowest-
Through
19-year-old
and
echelon.
private
staff
to
division
members
police
captain
originated,
at
I
spoke
at
length
with
of
a
security
ofcials,
I
saw
bore
no
resemblance
ofcial
saw
statements
by
leaders
and
the
a
few
village
about
incredible
force
conditions
a
to
had
the
side
mountain.
are
your
like
normal
these?”
procedures
I
asked.
in
“Do
have
to
you
any
form
them?
pacify
up
Do
a
you
squad
and
go
periodically
after
send
area
of
any
of
harassing
those
patrols?
What
do
out
you
do?”
on
I
heard
many
stories
of
how
As
the
interpreter
conveyed
my
ground.
insurgents
controlled
virtually
every
questions,
Entering
this
deployment,
I
of
land
beyond
eyeshot
of
a
hoping
to
learn
that
International
Security
true:
that
looking
conditions
turning
to
were
improving,
that
government
and
Force
(ISAF)
I
little
saw
to
no
evidence
the
towards
military
to
self-sufciency.
witness
were
able
to
provide
hoped
to
to
be
reassured,
see
basic
We
trends,
battalions
to
evidence
see
produce
needs
Afghan
sustainable
I
success
on
the
people.
I
but
minimal
the
people
didn’t
want
to
after
them,”
he
said.
absence
dangerous!”
cover
to
a
predatory
or
of
government.
From
time
time,
I
forces
observed
collude
of
the
run
but
to
the
cavalry
troopers,
rarely
leave
the
the
the
checkpoints.
In
that
part
incapable
or
local
to
policemen
be
with
province,
the
Taliban
literally
free.
Afghan
In
the
go
be
with
progress.
witnessed
laughed.
Some
talked
Afghan
Security
Instead,
of
civilians
of
companies
even
don’t
would
According
the
connected
positive
he
I
said
merely
Then
for
dramatic
of
improvements
incredulous
were
the
need
interpreter
an
local
“That
not
the
base.
governments
progressing
at
with
the
“No!
local
rst
me
in
expression.
Afghanistan
wheeled
Assistance
and
were
head
the
or
claims
captain’s
U.S.
around,
sincerely
the
was
piece
did
attack
elders.
difculties
would
single
provinces;
the
the
pointed
U.S.
even
military
he
to
military
rosy
the
provinces.
I
What
asked
Afghan
situations
other
where
and
nearby
“What
and
I
Balkh,
civilians
Nangarhar
interpreter,
Ghazni,
Afghan
Kunduz,
the
with
every
troops
250
and
commanders
talked,
than
I
ranking
covered
more
enemy.
soldiers
Over
with
June,
I
was
in
the
Zharay
district
of
the
Kandahar
of
province,
returning
to
a
base
insurgency.
virtually
every
from
level.
From
bad
to
a
were
My
arrival
in
country
in
late
the
start
of
my
fourth
of
what
and
my
second
A
Regular
Army
Armor
Branch,
I
served
Desert
Storm,
let
reports,
in
2005–06
In
the
middle
eight
Reserve
years
and
held
jobs—among
correspondent
affairs
for
in
a
the
for
Sen.
and
in
my
U.S.
Iraq
wrote
Bailey
patrol.
the
Gunshots
Taliban
about
one
attacked
mile
a
away.
in
I
can’t
talk
about;
I
remains
classied.
entered
that
such
But
reports—mine
to
illuminate
the
career,
commander
on
the
ground
civilian
and
I
can
relate
experiences,
foreign
Hutchison,
of
observed
all
of
a
few
the
over
representative
kind
the
a
Two
live
video
ANP
feed
vehicles
of
the
were
the
the
main
attack.
road
The
leading
re
was
to
the
coming
progress.
from
And
post,
were
and
Army
of
staff
gulf
site
of
command
his
I
I
statements
unit’s
and
and
blocking
conditions
the
the
in
legislative
defense
Kay
or
battle.
number
them,
read
in
of
checkpoint
watching
say
ofcial
spent
alone
in
between
2008–09.
U.S.
my
the
others’—serve
Afghanistan
during
in
can
Operation
saw
As
ofcer
information
the
I
in
ofcial
Afghanistan.
as
combat
deployment,
deployment,
audible
2010
Much
marked
dismounted
abysmal
that
I
country.
as
a
behind
two
a
motorcycle
toward
haystack.
Afghan
the
men
and
began
Afghan
We
watched
emerged,
mounted
moving
policemen
in
u
theirvehicles.
101
The
U.S.
and
told
make
commander
the
sure
Afghan
the
turned
radio
policemen
around
operator
halted
to
and
The
radio
operator
shouted
radio
repeatedly,
but
got
before
the
husband
above
died
meaningful?
for
something
How
do
I
do
that?”
August,
I
went
on
a
One
dismounted
of
the
senior
enlisted
leaders
into
patrol
the
was
occurred.
the
In
men.
that
incident
with
troops
in
the
added,
Panjwai
“Guys
are
saying,
‘I
hope
I
live
no
district
of
Kandahar
province.
Several
so
I
can
at
least
get
home
to
R&R
answer.
troops
On
the
men
screen,
slowly
vehicles.
watched
motored
The
stop
we
past
policemen
out
to
the
radio—until
the
two
out
of
men
the
as
the
the
ANP
neither
nor
two
got
answered
motorcycle
was
killed
popular
One
of
the
these
men
out
a
man,
the
U.S.
ofcers
in
that
me
102
the
they
had
Afghan
nothing
troops
in
but
their
senior
the
after
recently
whom
me,
eye
day
What’s
a
soldier.
“How
do
ask
I
look
them
to
lose
before
a
which
lot
limb
be
of
two
foot.’
How
do
I
my
really
I
get
it,’
or
‘I
Sometimes
it
might
left
up
living
be:
foot.’
condence
levels
they’re
these
harder:
leave
only
ofcers
and
on
been
was
experienced
asked
in
day
[my
soldier’s]
wife
in
the
that
really
here,
hope
they
I
‘Maybe
They
the
only
even
don’t
have
area—
the
what
situation
is.”
Source:
I
get
back
and
tell
her
that
www.armedforcesjournal.
her
com/2012/02/8904030
a
leadership
understands
what
say
it’ll
eye
contempt
when
for
and
had
of
unit
look
told
unit
one
unit’s
rhetorically
missions?
To
the
action,
very
go
sight.
from
in
2
Literature
Literature: Texts
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and
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components
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literature
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or
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or
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readers,
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we
and
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historical
literar y
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the
the
cultural
are
how
ough
texts
published
It
on
literar y
this
work.
inuences
is
of
“Literar y
construct
the
works.
production
literar y
read.
focus
elements
notes:
when
to
literar y
the
social
from
from
of
these
actually
know
or
of
guide
again,
dierent
in
both
meaning
meant
formal
part
of
written,
when
quite
the
this
subject
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is
meaning
inuenced
change.
”
and
of
course
of
elements
“know”
but
the
and
or
that
and
times,
even
time
know
imagine.
One specic focus of this part of the course will be on works in translation.
e intention of the use of works in translation is not simply to illustrate
how dierent cultural contexts and heritages may lead to the development
of unique kinds of literary works but also to allow us to become aware of our
own knowledge, understanding or ways of knowing that may be inuenced
by our culture. One of the aims of this part of the course, then, is to know
ourselves and our own culture as much as that of others.
An
important
beyond
social
elements.
on
what
myriad
and
how
ways
in
of
■
political,
■
literar y
■
critical
■
and
ough
possibilities
foci
aspect
of
the
historical
an
he
or
she
religious
or
movements,
reception
production
to
life
and
writes,
culture
approach,
you
may
formal
lenses
the
only
would
text
section
signicant
certainly
aims
to
both
or
aspects
may
be
as
to
move
cultural
an
impact
expand
Among
the
varied
production
artistic
is
have
greatly
understanding.
(for
elements
a
contexts
considering
norms
(that
as
course
our
be
and
times
this
aects
social
dierent
texts
background
author’
s
which
leading
literature:
and
the
many
as:
reception)
intentions
approached
from
dierent
readings)
elements.
Activity
Context
Often,
can
even
contextual
impact
cover
work
•
on
physical
on
the
How
different
Outsider
do
What
the
the
and
next
chosen
ideas
versus
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attitudes
covers?
as
suggested
presentation
(whether
attitudes
translation
What
by
transmitted,
viewpoint
the
versions
in
(The
•
be
the
might
of
historical,
approaches
page
of
across
are
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through
literary
social
we
or
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Albert
work
a
variety
betrays
interpretive)
have
Camus
as
a
or
readers.
of
means.
particular
can
have
Consider
text L´Étrange
(a
an
the
popular
schools).
by
the
different
translations
of
the
titles
Stranger )?
covers
be
the
IB
conveyed
The
a
convey
further
strangeness,
associated
with
difference
these
or
ideas,
alienation?
as
evidenced
u
103
•
How
or
•
might
the
the
time
What
and
basic
based
covers
culture
ideas
solely
on
part
of
complete
■
paper
using
Most
also
the
the
2
study
essay
you
written
task
1
■
written
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2
skills
relevant
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and
ideas
paper
1
textual
be
of
oral
very
events
events
oen
and
to
one
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what
culture
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story
itself
novel?
the
novel
might
be
about
and
of
3
to
to
six
and
contexts,
the
contexts
you
will
be
asked
to
IB:
questions
that
must
be
answered
study).
do
some
of
the
following
which
may
level).
develop
(higher
in
this
section
will
also
be
particularly
give
or
in
(such
internal
a
may
the
as
(standard
level)
and
paper
1
comparative
level)
activity.
simply,
that
may
occur
factors
texts
asked
higher
Plot
Reception
is,
regarding
of
and
covers?
your
analysis
analysis
further
Plot
have
submission
IB:
you
time
to:
textual
■
for
the
(at
the
publication
literature:
also
to
either
literature: texts
from
will
submitted
the
response
works
■
e
(a
you
in
of
of
various
following
two
likely
be
do
the
Assessments
As
suggest
the
“what
story
not
meaning
appear
form
society,
factors
happens”
of
evil
as
and
a
story.
eect,
either
villain
or
conicting
Generally,
though
chronological
conict,
an
(such
in
in
order.
between
parents)
desires,
a
or
the
plot
sequence
Events
in
character
between
hubris
or
is
a
series
of
these
story
and
a
a
very
external
character
envy).
ough on some level every story has its own plot, students of literature may
nd it useful to identify general patterns that describe many works of ction.
With plot, the events of a story (regardless of where they fall within the
narrative) generally fall within the bounds of Freytag’
s pyramid that identied:
■
exposition:
against
■
rising
action:
tension
104
the
which
in
a
basic
events
initial
stor y
setting,
will
characters,
background
and
description
occur
conicts,
complications
or
events
that
create
SECTION
climax:
■
which
falling
■
the
all
high
action:
towards
understood,
A
all
close
by
the
events
the
of
reading
of
Dave
that
of
if
stor y
where
tension
is
greatest
and
towards
occur
in
help
stor y
works.
a
a
result
of
the
climax
and
leading
stor y
where
conicts
are
explained
or
solved.
us
and
e
Eggers
of
entirely
can
a
as
conict
not
plot
meaning
writer
a
conclusion
even
consideration
appreciate
of
Literature
build
resolution
denouement:
■
point
events
2
more
is
a
deeply
part
following
demonstrates
of
understand
formal
example
an
from
analysis
and
analysis
of
a
involved
(ver y)
short
in
stor y
plot.
Activity
Read
side
through
will
the
draw
The
Fighters
You
all
get
following
your
out
of
your
teenagers
in
them
Walking
you
this.
have
short
attention
theirs.
ruined,
cars.
The
story
some
You
to
occurs
their
to
Dave
alone
was
car,
you
by
aspects
are
accident
over
it
to
an
that
in
your
if
Eggers.
of
yours,
fault
old
and
the
The
comments
on
the
plot.
and
and
there
you
walk
restored
three
are
over
Camaro
teenagers
are
The
three
to
tell
scene
this
encounter
could
be
unpleasant.
You
pulled
into
to
be
obstructing
upset,
or
them,
livid,
or
and
even
their
car
violent.
hit
As
yours.
you
They
have
approach,
you
are
all
driver’s
exit
eighteen,
You
also
century.
That
the
“Yeah,
You
You
or
much
any
even
more
other
thin.
what
so
made
more
he
sorry.
a
thankful
remark
to
have
for
says,
That
friendly
You
you
car
and
your
You
about
them,
your
all
of
of
him
and
his
tell
and
to
the
you
will
which
driver,
some
yet
as
further
a
possibility
and
tension
conveyed.
you
is
think.
are
has
you
than
punched
not.
you
are
possible
psychic
all
minute
are
that
sorry.
cover
yourself,
realize
is
stated
They
He
you
you
you
is
Camaro,
that
nd
conict
conict
twenty-rst
teenagers
friends
and
says.
person,
in
further
that
cars.
him
you
the
it,
that
drunk,
and
the
driver
bad
buy
these
being
particularly
a
and
them,
around
the
to
fault
information,
with
are
against
sub-merged
walk
You
sighs.
none
in
today,”
teenager
was
that
done
a
pushes
stuck
this
ask.
then
it
driver
are
door
bought
insurance
connected
way.
odd
The
drivers
side
“Just
an
today,”
so,
open.
where
“Today?”
ever-more
become
won’t
passenger
exchange
minute,
you,
the
blond,
are
door
scenes
damage.
think:
you
costs.
of
through
inspecting
by
side
reminded
no
rising
every
see
is
their
conict
an
clearly
right
with
which
evident ,
intersection,
set
apparent .
angry
Though
teenagers,
is
immediately
in
harm,
and
The
conict
shifts
from
that
of
the
you jeopardized their health, and now you are so close you feel like you share
a
heart.
and
He
knows
because
because
and
all
and
cry.
want
you
you
are
contact
so
In
a
your
got
so
so
makes
to
close
lonely,
moment
badly
name
hurt
us
of
so
so
and
but
grateful
you
other,
know
didn’t,
lonely
clarity
each
you
you
always,
we
rest
and
want
and
want
nally
can
his,
to
you
to
all
cry
on
contact
and
understand
their
fall
almost
chins
on
him,
is
of
weeping,
and
boxers,
the
him
the
can
lean
against
one
another
like
tired
lovers,
so
of
and
to
that
internal
other’s
thankful
for
internal
conict
reaches
its
a
even
as
the
external
conict
rest.
has
DAVE
character
forces
cry
climax
moment
external
who
The
shoulder,
and
elements.
contact,
dance
why
killed
character
fallen
away.
EGGARS
u
105
The
resolution,
unspecied,
Noticing
the
plot
allows
us
to
piece
together
events
in
ways
tension
and,
thus,
larger
eect
or
meaning.
ough
above
happens
in
a
relatively
straight
for ward
nature
manner,
the
employ
ver y
complicated
plots
where
causality
can
be
story
to
discern.
In
all
cases,
however,
an
awareness
of
plot
will
help
you
and
explain
purpose
and
impact
in
works
you
and
some
many
are
not
for
isolation
Extension
page
Become
it
a
Writer.
develops
What
■
204
is
future
and
and
Make
then
the
the
in
note
of
the
from
plot
points
following
and
how
Lorrie
in
Moore’s How
the
work
and
to
how
questions.
might
this
contribute
to
work?
■
Where
■
What
■
How is resolution connected to theme or larger impact in the work?
seems
central
excerpt
the
setting
the
to
be
tension
the
Setting
place
is
the
(most
obviously
suggest
the
setting
such
use
speech,
of
clothing
historical
time
daily
period
genres
dramatic
performance
physical
drama,
Most
106
the
can
can
of
be
of
in
of
the
may
be
such
work?
in
literature
of
take
other
of
in
a
stage
forms
also
or
through
or
desert
a
more
or
arrangements
the
occupations,
narrative
or
the
place.
Generally
of
speaking,
props,
of
placement
literature
do
not.
In
staging.
somewhat
rather
location
takes
most
may
spiritual
physical
characters
but
conveyed
caves,
takes
appear
mountains,
through
uniquely.
setting
plot
emotional,
narrative
part
narrative
Settings
conned
use
a
geographies
recognizable
of
that
a
or
ocean,
and
the
ways
the
a
as
signicant
much
place).
of
commonly
conveyed
dark
action
social,
most
setting
makes
ver y
background
is
which
convey
be
and
mannerisms
arrangement
setting
students
with
also
the
locations
cultural,
scener y
can
which
time
Setting
windows,
or
or
or
Dierent
and
as
physical
location—which
topography
the
against
historical,
space—but
as
of
environments.
geographical
climax
resolution?
identied
guise
particular
economic
generic
background
simply
in
or
Setting
Reception
it
the
answer
central
conict
is
read
than
as
a
for
of
the
clearly
readers
protagonist’s
to
helps
a
reader
understanding.
“events”
stated,
in
the
this
plot
read.
allows
Turn
conicts
to
story
recognize
illuminate
internal
dicult
Though
to
the
some
come
works
of
the
in
example
somewhat
further
that
the
highlight
though
helps
granted,
signicant
associating
aspect.
and
deep
pain
to
imagine
the
loneliness,
more
clearly.
SECTION
Setting,
period
details
and
however,
piece”
true
Ivor y
Howard’s
too,
can
in
to
can
lm
that
End,
e
focus
location
and
comment
to
to
more
helping
narrative.
or
the
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larger
Setting
is
not
non-literar y
signicant
found
and
in
social
use
of
or
to
we
and
useful
limited
to
to
develop
recognize
e
many
Golden
referred
or
to
as
the
(in
of
Merchant
space
plays
used
A
View,
Literature,
customs
a
characters
feature
“the
exact
With
regionalism.
setting
actions
of
and
location
elements,
with
on
Room
Bowl).
manners
signicant
only
you
to
an
will
in
range
to
of
a
However,
or
time)
or
signicant
or
events
create
in
the
and
and
elements
analysis
used
towards
sites
associations
will
Many
also
literature-like
setting
attitudes
particular
literature.
course
from
networking
strong
of
the
stylized
particular
elements
aspect
study
highly
social
such
in
as
attention
example A
the
the
narrative
Literature
in
mood,
work.
is
emotional—with
in
lavish
found
for
setting
explain
being
convey
role
that
Day or
most
a
works
in
the
universal
the
of
as
lms,
presenting
and
setting.
found
such
specic
television
help
setting
Because
be
language
lm
media
cultural
can
of
or
atmosphere
stories
sometimes
a
convey
dominant
of
era
on
is
on
general
to
a
popular
Remains
to
in
of
exclusively
whether
speak
on
historical
productions
particular
role
take
(remakes
2
of
a
in
the
setting
issues
advertising
subject
text
of
make
to
implied
messaging.
connotations—both
of
setting,
many
it
becomes
language
ver y
works.
Activity
Consider
the
different
settings
down
many
as
descriptions
based
•
on
“It
•
“In
a
the
and
and
of
sentences
Make
aspects
can.
forward
land
valleys
you
apparent
dark
step
two
created.
possible
as
their
was
dare
following
What
a
of
from
note
of
setting
predictions
children’s
how
stories
setting
suggested
might
you
is
and
the
conveyed
through
make
the
very
and
write
brief
about
the
stories
settings?
stormy
night
where
not
even
the
lowliest
creature
would
unaccompanied.”
Vesulvius,
shimmering
lled
with
streams,
lush
there
forests,
once
broad
lived
a
elds,
terrible
beautiful
creature.”
Extension
Now
Tess
■
turn
of
the
How
is
mood
■
to
What
page
201
read
the
excerpt
from
omas
Hardy’s
D’Urbervilles
the
or
vale
described
and
what
is
the
impact
on
creating
a
feeling?
predictions
setting
and
suggested
do
you
have
based
on
the
brief
description
of
here?
107
Background
Literature
material.
creative
reports
to
as
provoke
can
meant
a
to
connection
tends
ways
not
an
of
(form)
e
term
it
purposes
language
a
of
is
idea
both
to
of
from
laborator y
used
poetr y,
to
refer
drama,
literature
create
eect
can
be
and/or
communication
in
this
more
to
of
a
to
is
(that
part
not
literar y
simply,
that
In
of
a
about
but
is
the
literature
the
unique
other
way
of
work.
language
highlight
unique
a
“answers”
,
any
(content).
and
as
course
forms
but
and
literar y
approach
idea
idea
to
or
other
means,
that
an
of
discourses)
content
(content),
articulates
emphasize
commonly
course,
literature
from
anything
information.
style
which
spoken
including
works
this
or
describe
order
genre
literar y
form.
of
in
formal
with
to
most
convey
study
an
is
written
works
including
“literature”
with
used
scientic
distinct
of
is
any
words,
expressing
idea.
it
challenging
for
information
much
on
students
is
experience
gurative
syntax
visual
literature,
we
are
combination
about
content
far
more
a
intends
either
but
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to
uses
or
change
of
in
us
the
however,
as
unique
use
communicative
of
it
of
language
clearly
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regular
that
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some
meaning)
to
literar y
or
as
of
world
them.
be
this
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the
distinct
impact,
(whether
and,
thereby,
or
familiar
may
cognizant
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construction
or
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take
Such
traditional
traditional
and
can
too
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expression,
language
their
then,
aesthetic
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prove
focus,
gurative.
ough
literature
dening
in
of
change
eect.
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eect
their
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To
aect
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retain
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right
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rhetorical
will
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such
ways
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that
about
substantial
words,
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that
familiar
habit
course,
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ways
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to
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or
and
other
and
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considered
in
oen,
words
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in
is
disrupt
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this
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in
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signicant
meaning:
dissimilar).
most
as the
from
language
or
Literature
appropriately
for
of
communicating
(such
away
meanings
meanings
strange,
is
language
of
or
familiar
the
students.
than
eect
similar
is
but
the
too
Literature
if
the
both
skills
which
to
or
simply
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literary
and
one
not,
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answer
the
following
questions.
•
What
aspects
•
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are
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108
are
the
the
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major
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qualities
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distinguish
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two?
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poem
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to
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intention?
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work?
be
the
subject?
SECTION
Text
Day
All
day
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long
waves
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My
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at
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waves
CARL
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and
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ultimately
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meter,
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few
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local
example,
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waves
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breaking
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come
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notice
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to
and
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sun
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long
hour.
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to
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of
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sea
moon
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level
sea
sea
in
relative
is
level
and
due
by
to
Tides
they
gravity
to
level
shore
surface.
kilometers,
changes
away.
are
due
to
Earth.
this
chapter
you
will
learn
how
to
describe
ocean-surface
such
quantitatively.
In
the
next
chapter
we
will
describe
waves,
offshore
wind
The
another
wave
for
decreases
meter.
motion
tides
change
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coast
time
waves,
hundred
hour
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wave
in
a
waves
as
coast.
offshore
closely
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tides,
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waves
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and
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about
wave
the
we
storms
increases
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vast
changes
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between
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height
on
are
around
distance
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notice
constant.
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notice
with
top
take
around
we
we
vertical
the
the
California
Waves
shore,
surface
might
crests,
the
carefully,
sea
height
bottom
prominent
sea
Looking
reach
Southern
from
sea
Literature
1
All
The
2
waves
generates
and
waves
alongcoasts.
are
the
Source:
http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/ocng_textbook/
chapter16/chapter16_01.ht.
waves,
Assessments
As
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111
Generating
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Students
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SECTION
2
Literature
W
ork with your teacher. Y
our teacher’
s role, as mentioned above, is to
■
assist and not to frustrate. Y
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in
this
from
to
means
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starting
start).
frustration,
the
end.
ough generating topics is only the rst step in the nal production of any
assessment task, a good-quality topic will go a long way in smoothing the
remainder of the process. Ultimately, the work here will be more than worth it.
Theme
Reception
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is
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on
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a
theme
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part
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meaning”
.
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actually
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be
ambiguity.
meaning
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literar y
as
may
“the
exact
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students
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themselves.
consider
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theme
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eort
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students
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theme
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and
take
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reading
and
coursediscussion.
Activity
•
Look
at
the
excerpt
anon-ction
than
the
•
tennis
work
Now
there
•
any
such
In
what
itself.
and
look
to
work,
at
Andre
excerpt
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what
the
from
this
theme
aspects
of
Agassi’
s Open on
seems
or
you
are
the
able
to
focus
themes
Edna
to
suggest
St
identify
page
on
seem
excerpt
poem Recuerdo by
themes
to
in
an
run
Though
more
through
and
Vincent
this
202.
element
this
support
Millay
piece?
If
on
so,
this
is
specic
section
of
these?
page
what
206.
Are
leads
you
conclusions?
ways
respective
do
the
works?
two
In
excerpts
what
ways
share
do
they
elements
differ
that
suggest
themes
in
the
substantially?
113
Extension
Cinderella
and
the
Politically
Cinderella’s
“Fairy
for
However,
the
ball.
makeup,
that
that
jealous
her;
of
women
dance
the
they
men’s
produces
so
remove
their
deaths,
only
to
their
they
to
be
own
take
men
the
mad
go
for
one
mad
she
for
is
comfort.
clothes
dresses
and
clothing
to
a
and
up
open
for
a
brawl
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at
begins
rst
back
to
that
killing
real
up
and
women,
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shoes
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clothing
turn
on
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other
her,
impractical
the
her
clothing
again,
of
ending)
dress
beauty,
Instead
Covering
kingdom
practical
and
them.
her
the
shoes,
transformed
comfortable
and
her
of
of
agrees
impractical
last
feet“.
synopsis
reluctantly
her
and
her
bare
over
and
in
of
Story (a
goes
corsets
and
in
every
make
jealous
“shifts
comfortable
of
midnight,
happy
now
male)
ballroom
death
strikes
is
attractive
the
the
Bedtime
and
behind
company
that
women.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politically_Correct_Bedtime_Stories#Cinderella.
What
■
is
(who
so
ability
they’re
in
is
in
in
clock
garb—and
around
Source:
male
results
the
decide
however,
she
Cinderella’s
however,
peasant
Godperson“
every
eventually
Correct
theme
appears
through
the
modied
version
of
“Cinderella?”
■
How
■
Do
is
the
you
new
believe
“politically
version
the
theme
correct”
simply,
suggests
as
it
suggests
tangible
to
the
that
word
“cat”
there
are
metaphor
a
another
object.
of
their
can
be
eect
use
of
a
frequently
its
in
in
why
to
or
the
original
or
in
the
not?
ends
in
also
be
where
an
some
and
image,
to
an
image
or
a
may
becomes
mammal)
should
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detail
or
level
symbol
by
the
be
used
just
but
in
such
for
our
that
to
than
an
a
or
once,
in
refer
refers
frequency,
essential
of
meaning
that
rather
symbol
noted
name
of
refers
something
more
be
that,
or
as
to
symbolism)
association
to
component
combined
It
another
then,
refers
or
(or
refers
functions
feline
image,
distinguished
repeatedly
are
separately.
still
also
other
“t”
symbol
any
to
idea
but
language
dimensions.
of
be
(it
itself
domestic
treated
refers
itself
other,
occur
substantive
in
two
symbols
oen
non-literar y
distinguishes
suggesting
114
forms
said
is
“a”
small,
are
that
from
symbolism
occur
“Universal”
road
or
all
and
“c”
,
specic
metaphor
works:
what
more
symbols
be
idea
and
to
the
which
will
may
overt
a
the
refers
or
idea
to
physical
centrality,
symbol
meaning
or
work.
and
however,
is
in
referred
Symbols
as
else)
as
that
level,
form
letters
specic
removed
Symbols
some
assume
image
Unlike
On
the
well
or
Why
something
physical
as
can
symbol
degrees
something
as
object
association.
two
its
several
or
is
else.
(just
symbol
purposes,
to
both
more
Symbol
symbol
reality
literature
as
a
something
is
version?
Reception
Ver y
achieved?
role
in
broad
are
a
helping
those
a
from
to
the
used
or
literature
language
symbol
types:
perseverance
in
works.
other
convey
universal
widely
voyage
but
such
may
As
in
images
purpose.
and
as
a
the
used
just
literature,
or
In
metaphors
either
case,
particular.
long
suggesting
be
life,
stretch
while
of
the
empty
more
SECTION
“particular”
than
are
through
constructed
more
within
universal
the
context
associations.
of
While
the
larger
symbols
work
2
Literature
rather
obviously
Extension
work
most
eectively
through
common
understanding,
dierent
literar y
Turn
movements
and
writers
have
experimented
with
symbols
as
to
poem
unique
and
personal
response
and
association
that
communicate
than
universally.
ese
works
experiment
with
e
an
expression
constantly
instead
to
of
“true”
remind
emphasizing
us
experience
of
the
the
lack
eeting
and
of
and
art
stable
and
these
writings
knowledge
incommunicable
to
Her
on
page199.
e
poem
indeniteness
employs
as
Bradstreet’s
Author
more
Book
privately
Anne
immediate,
and
the
symbol
of
an
seek
illegitimate
child,
is
unkempt.
one
who
meaning,
nature
of
dirty
and
Note
our
all
the
uses
of
this
symbol
understanding.
alongside
how
Activity
a
it
is
book,
output
Looking
at
symbols
the
or
following
meanings
list
that
A
wave
Desire
A
lipstick
A
kite
Hope
A
eld
abstractions
writer
might
and
objects,
associate
with
create
a
list
print
on
a
used
each.
■
How
napkin
■
the
What
this
fresh
about
refer
or
to
artistic
generally.
eective
is
the
use
symbol?
kind
feeling
of
to
writing
more
ideas
of
of
Love
Hate
a
of
your
of
does
symbol
tone
the
or
use
create
of
in
snow
yourreading?
Treachery
A
guitar
Reception
Style,
Style
may
in
literature,
emerges
style
What
implies
On
the
that
one
same
idea
writer
in
with
more
be
of
strives
a
to
for
Paying
the
can
Again,
break
your
writer
convey
to
in
one
In
(or
or
uses
of
arrangements
voice)
interesting
or
a
of
language.
of
distinct
point
unique
versus
style
to
with
down
of
and
is
In
On
words
approach
reception
and
that
is
something
to
how
more
literar y,
in
say
which
hand,
versus
the
way
leaves
that
certain
ways
with
one
exactly
however,
language
abstract
such
same
unique
cannot
way,
to
the
always
recognize
stylistic
and
how
many
accurately
many
them
and
conventions
individual’s
ideas
discuss
language
ideas
be
the
ever y
style
refers
allow
writing
concrete,
it
to
as,
sincere
comic.
something
reading
the
other
can
and
can
one
unique
the
we
unique
identify
in
theor y,
approaches
generic
a
words
styles
through
way,
versus
of
two
singular,
own.
this
more
dicult
study
No
idea.
recognizing
ough
them
an
arranges
conventional
serious
practising
own
recognizable
extraordinarily
coming
their
expression
be
writer
style.
one
than
all
or
attention
expressed.
that
a
journalistic
tremendously
and
dictions,
style
writer
unique
easily.
articial,
unique
makes
ever y
a
style
general
example,
versus
individual
something
more
categorized
unique
dierent
generic.
hand,
individuality
to
or
distinguish
writer
an
really
both
conventional
about
through
distinguish
writing.
is
Style
ideas
are
as
well
ideas
and
detail
discuss
styles
can
it
with
and
pay
as
helps
developed
students feel,
dierent
in
unique
o
is
an
or
aspect
specicity.
working
hard
handsomely
to
with
literature.
115
Activity
Read
through
makes
in
the
following
conveying
his
or
sentences
her
unique
and
note
ideas.
Try
the
to
diction
rewrite
choices
the
each
same
author
idea
Extension
in
Turn
your
own
words
and
note
the
different
style
you
produce
in
the
to
Andre
•
From
A
Portrait
of
the
Artist
as
a
Young
the
excerpt
from
process.
Agassi’s
Open
on
Man
page202.
What
elements
Every part of his day, divided by what he regarded now as the duties of his
can
you
identify
from
the
station in life, circled about its own centre of spiritual energy. His life seemed
work
that
work
of
reveals
that
it
is
a
to have drawn near to eternity; every thought, word and deed, every instance
non-ction?
What
of consciousness could be made to reverberate radiantly in heaven: and at
elements
seem
to
convey
times his sense of such immediate repercussion was so lively that he seemed
a
unique
style
or
the
voice
to feel his soul in devotion pressing like ngers the keyboard of a great cash
of
Andre
Agassi?
If
writing
register and to see the amount of his purchase start forth immediately in
heaven, not as a number but as a frail column of incense or as a slender ower.
about
you
JAMES
•
From
She
rang
a
shape,
No

From
The
her
to
my
feet
like
she
was
nothing
had
expended
friend
come
out
empty
so
have
bit—to
Huntley
solid
enough
would
a
an
hard
served
nd
out
in
&
Palmer
make,
work
me
what
on
and
her
better.
I
to
less
make
She
could
biscuit-tin
rather
had
me
love
given
the
kicked
pretty
me
her.
noting
do.
from
the
the
the
which
minds
supposed
MARY
•
From
The
of
always
was
calm.
engaging,
beautiful.
although
her
to
Yet
gazed
She
was
she
on
was
dressed
rendered,
appeared
and
by
in
the
mourning,
solemnity
condent
execrated
by
in
of
her
innocence
thousands,
for
emblems
and
all
and
beauty
might
morning
otherwise
have
excited
was
obliterated
and
at
who
Last
the
the
and
SALMAN
transformed,
IB
beginning
From
place
on
English
A:
to
or
oral
further
creative
option
is
to
but
writing
for
the
possible
is
the
expressive
116
the
enormity
she
was
and
late-year
you
strung,
Ina’s
cool
ask,
time’—the
highly
ruined
after
life
season,
and
city’s
my
death.
I
reply
nest
pedigreed
entered
It
was
and
a
it
at
Sunday
according
to
Bombay-fashion,
citizens
local
had
risen
steeds,
both
early
in
the
track.
language
and
some
activity.
course
and
reasons
is
to
through
to
the
tasks.
convey
more
it
the
content
pure
use
traditionally
there
the
texts
creative
in
ction
than
associated
for
the
this
task
is
is
1
not
not
a
an
assessment
issues
of
creative
though,
the
with
are
written
ction
of
and
Pastiche
may
that
of
aim
analyses
rather
the
clear
production
these
of
analysis
and
with
be
primary
with
convey
course,
should
e
engagement
opportunity
again,
creative
that
Fiction
literature
However,
assessment
approach
emphasized
the
days
Writing
intellectual
an
of
ancient?’
ancient
of
produce
formal
convey
there
of
RUSHDIE
opportunities
the
imagination
exalted
forty-one
Production
the
the
Sigh
racecourse
men.
taken
paddock
In
by
purely
writing
tasks
language
ways.
as
One
must
creative
ction.
and
Raymond
Preservation.
exercise
Agassi
above
work.
in
these
of
ction
What
200
particular
works
as
non-ction
respectively?
elements
in
particular
these
works
as
in
committed.
custom—‘How
“Ancient,

spectators
have
Moor’s
woman
ancient
style?
the
SHELLEY
The
Mahalaxmi
and
the
from
elements
entirely

the
would
distinctions
distinguish
kindness
the
what
page
stor y
distinguish
Justine
exquisitely
tremble,
to
excerpt
What
of
countenance,
turn
Repeat
a
Frankenstein
appearance
not
about
Car ver’
s
in
CONRAD
feelings,
did
I
Now
Darkness
under
inuential
JOSEPH
•
of
gutter;
but
chance
say
work,
JOYCE
Heart
along
this
be
unique
on
their
own?
SECTION
2
Literature
e most likely opportunities to produce ction formally include the following.
■
Pastiche—the
pastiche
■
of
recognizes
of
choices
highlight
to
purpose
Remediation—the
or
ction
drama
into
haphazard
and/or
into
if
a
a
strong
the
were
reasons
visual
dierent
seeks
to
textual
do
at
show
a
so
ction
such
to
to
simply
(Referring
it
is
to
is,
your
being
by
no
are
a
even
lling
series
in
as
may
the
be
use
of
ver y
doing
so
of
creating
out
a
task,
creative
details
letters
thoughts
other wise
it
engagement
in
stor y
But
stor y
there
forethought
simple
a
excerpts
from
range
possible
should
important
larger
Ivan
means,
short
avoided.
short
involve
such
and
exercise
a
a
aspects
original.
the
intellectual
an
be
highlight
or
or
pursue
intention
not
endings—many
will
and
drama
particular
rework
but
the
and
diar y
medium,
into
when
eect,
to
endings,
to
novel
highlighting
work
course
a
to
create
in
an
same
is
as
such
with
writing
exercise).
work
comments
the
choosing
sucient
writing
the
dierent
should
for
exist
motivations
highlight
samples
in
a
poem
beginning
developing
In
with
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original
that
in
producing
to
these
work.
simply
in
Strong
including
highlight
useful
alternative
explore
student
of
as
as
be
an
diversions,
than
but
work
can
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style
writer.
imitate
novel,
poetr y
imager y
a
successful
to
words,
components
demonstrating
part
the
to
work
most
of
makes,
graphic
order
author’s
style
writer’s
writing
visual
example
seek
examiner
weaknesses
■
for
following
simply
on
creative
creative
Sample
the
of
rather
(though
e
elements
mentioned.
to
should
material
an
a
one
is
in
other
reproduce
characters
subtly
In
enjoys
Remediation
elements
works,
important
work
read
additions,
works
between
more
to
image.
additional
within
to
one
of
of
Remediation
writer
attempts
into
purposeful
work.
a
and
poetr y
substantial
capitalize
Creative
formal
a
particular
choices
eect,
lm,
because
employing
a
reproduction
into
in
of
understanding
rather
themes
student
one
or
poetr y.
but
poem
imitation
stylistic
awareness
whether
■
act
of
shed
to
longer
light
works
aimed
approaches.
on
remember
relative
that
Some
of
strengths
these
excerpts
and
only
whole.
Turgenev’s Fathers
and
Sons)
I
…
Pavel’s
views,
but
However,
that
He
to
he
is
reects
understands
when
reects
also
stay
sonnet
he
sees
upon
protective
true
to
that
of
he
chase
his
does
Bazarov
Bazarov
his
Nikolai,
that
for
is
is
a
approve
an
kissing
brother
which
not
intelligent
Fenechka,
woman
and
why
he
of
he
wishes
it
could
for
interrupts
Bazarov’s
man.
is
I
possible
not
appreciate
made
am
clear
still
sonnet
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Millay’s
poem
sad,
the
the
does
holistic
■
rhyme
of
(happy,
How
Vincent
following
the
structure
tone
St
physical
touch.
sight.
evoke
evoke
smell.
taste.
121
Imagery
■
can
tied—an
also
occur
image
phenomenon
■
in
various
forms.
representation
such
as
“It
was
a
Most
commonly
dark
and
commonly,
associated
stormy
images
with
a
appear
as:
real-world
night”
.
free—an image representation that is unique and based on free association
rather than a more common association such as “e cricket ball was hit
and moved with a pace like a ery meteor hurling through space”
.
■
literal—“ e
ames
rose
as
high
as
the
adjacent
skyscrapers”
.
■
gurative—“e bull danced around the ring, moving as though a
dandelion spread by a gentle, invisible yet deliberate and thoughtful wind”
.
Activity
Read through the following images noting what kind of image is evoked and how the language or structure reveals such an image.
The
Open
None
Boat
the
of
them
knew
glanced
level,
and
swept
slate,
toward
save
the
were
them.
for
the
color
These
tops,
of
the
fastened
sky.
upon
waves
were
which
were
colors
of
of
Their
the
of
eyes
waves
the
hue
foaming
turquoise
of
bodies.
of
iron
of
the
men
narrowed
knew
and
the
widened,
and
the
dipped
sea.
and
The
rose,
The
water
drives
a
wedge
of
white,
through
the
iron
edge
and
of
all
sea
that
the
cliff;
whereupon
the
stars,
horizon
and
at
all
pink
times
its
edge
was
jagged
with
waves
that
seemed
thrust
rice-grains,
up
in
points
bath-tub
sea.
larger
These
abrupt
like
and
rocks.
than
waves
tall,
Many
the
were
and
a
boat
which
most
each
man
ought
here
was
have
rode
wrongfully
froth-top
to
and
a
upon
the
barbarously
problem
ink-
a
bespattered
lilies,
and
jelly
crabs
like
green
submarine
in
toadstools,
small-boat
sh,
slide
each
on
the
other.
navigation.
All
STEPHEN
CRANE
external
marks
The
of
deant
Fish
all
wade
through
Of
black
the
adjusting
the
opening
mussel-shells,
one
keeps
present
on
this
edice—
the
physical
features
of
shutting
cident—lack
of
ash-heaps;
and
are
ac-
jade.
crow-blue
abuse
itself
cornice,
hatchet
like
out
dynamite
strokes,
on
it;
the
grooves,
these
things
chasm-side
burns,
stand
is
an
injured
The
of
dead.
fan.
barnacles
the
wave,
there
for
which
cannot
the
encrust
the
Repeated
side
evidence
hide
submerged
shafts
of
the
on
what
its
has
can
youth.
sun,
MARIANNE
split
like
glass,
into
in
122
spun
move
the
themselves
with
crevices—
and
out,
illuminating
spotlight
swiftness
MOORE
proved
not
The
that
it
can
live
revive
sea
grows
old
in
it.
and
SECTION
Imager y,
however,
representing
the
tends
to
physical
ser ve
a
purpose
universe
or
in
literature
physical
beyond
phenomena.
2
Literature
merely
ough
it
may
Extension
well
be
that
imager y
does
describe
the
physical
world,
it
is
likely
that
there
Turn
will
be
an
attendant
intention.
Among
the
most
common
the
■
conveying
a
rhetorical
■
conveying
a
psychological
pattern
that
appears
repeatedly
to
in
a
imager y
reality
in
which
the
work
is
(oen
■
as
reinforcing
creating
■
and/or
levels
a
or
and
of
irony,
emotive
confrontational
indicating
a
deeper,
in
note
the
from
Folman
gurative
Waltz
and
With
meaning
Bashir.
What
images
created
are
the
physical
allegor y)
contradicting
sense
producing
narrated
of
and
either
Polonsky’s
produced
207
used
work
excerpt
or
page
are:
that
apparent
humour
power
with
or
the
meaning
of
a
work,
oen
is
farce
use
of
this
What
familiar,
sacred
or
done
in
larger
associations
images.
we
Imagery of some sort is found in virtually all, if not all, literary works. Partially
due to its ubiquitous nature, imagery can be challenging to dene precisely but
in
take
order
the
how
work?
psychological
or
from
to
and
meaning
this
do
imager y
develop
a
larger
meaning?
it is always an eective device to consider when approaching literary works.
Individual
Production
e
individual
allowing
and
from
course
commentar y
to
interpretation
excerpts
the
oral
students
showcase
of
works
(literature:
approximately
40
should
entire
use
remain
receive
e
■
the
process
for
Students
enter
randomly
■
Y
ou
have
through
an
■
a
20
the
Passages
the
from
that
the
your
content
and
to
meant
of
change
will
two
practical.
formal
e
commentar y
these
to
prepare
marking
the
attention
to
questions
develop
will
of
be
excerpt
time
when
preparation
will
you
will
time.
follows.
where
guiding
the
by
a
depending
rooms:
one
be
literar y
totality
questions
to
of
on
the
they
receive
their
aspects
will
the
not
asked
for
your
as
reading
developing
or
Guiding
thematic
helpful
rather
response.
than
by
the
school’s
may
set-up
and
the
one
but
for
of
points
questions
Responding
only
to
signicant
assessment
(Y
ou
questions
elements
anchor
demonstrate
room.
preparation
and
commentar y.
readings
of
including
notes
questions.
seen
recording
for
making
guiding
should
knowledge
move
commentar y
text,
signicant
larger
guide
your
the
presentation
accompanied
then
of
passage.
for
to
room
as
4
commentar y
selection
is
short
part
excerpts
20-minute
preparation
select
the
task
understanding
of
allotted
commentar y
super vised
your
will
part
poetr y
oral
locations
generally
when
with
as
individual
comprehensive
Students
Generally,
though
assessment
detailed
teachers
studied
of
Guiding
which
are
study).
and
part
minutes
be
Y
our
and
Commentary
formal
as
passages,
will
draw
text.
the
highly
work.
read
length
passage
selected
organization
will
■
the
in
poem
until
selected
have
a
sophisticated
literar y
critical
lines
unknown
the
a
you
is
Oral
not
task.
physically
there
are
presentation.)
123
Y
ou
■
will
further
speak
commentar y
asked
intended
to
allow
attention
to
elements
analysis
to
questions
external
Perhaps
specic
the
is
a
it
is
course
into
at
not
(or
themes
to
oral
it
if
clarify
minutes
ese
interesting
your
for
followed
follow-up
possible
and
by
any
questions
ideas,
attention
Commentaries
les
and
the
too
that
with
as
the
poems
eects
a
draw
or
are
your
extend
your
follow-up
submission
text
is
context
dicult
to
make
in
of
and
you
how
for
the
body
an
of
you
will
what
you
the
larger
your
texts
in
that
study.
in
might
of
points
the
of
walk
should
case
with
Y
ou
body
about
4
will
1.
knowledge
the
nd.
or
paper
part
Y
ou
familiar
oral
in
you
arsenal
work
be
that
formally
individual
work
study,
unknown
encountered
entire
with
oral
an
recognizing
have
expected
meaningful
works
individual
receiving
classroom
(or
that
anticipate
in
the
it
your
work
extract
“know”
time
memorize
of
letters)
and
a
preparation
larger
the
commentar y
matter),
result
or
from
recognizing
unseen
students
for
with
between
preparation
words,
that
part
students
balance
come
commentar y
as
you
for
the
will
the
ngertips
place
nd
other
any
such
be
Ultimately,
10–12
demand
audio
minutes
from
expected
trends,
not
20
passage
in
enough
pieces
able
for
teacher.
analysis.
as
challenge
with
in
your
familiar
short
may
understand
diers
individual
already
and
to
class;
commentar y
the
your
further
superior
unknown
as
to
that
recorded
greatest
passage
studied
you
by
moderation.
the
same
While
show
are
commentar y
be
your
questions
of
the
of
stylistic
should
work
work.
individual
Activity
•
Read
a
oral
transcript
work
commentar y
is
an
opportunity
to
showcase
this
knowledge.
Do
through
the
individual
oral
commentar y
is
not
an
impromptu
can
exercise
or
prepare,
whether
practising
assessment
of
task
is
understanding
for
through
the
reviewing
similar
of
the
commentar y
the
to
all
work,
others
(both
works
in
its
interesting
are
of
your
encouraged).
demand
analytical
for
a
ideas,
part
literar y
features,
careful
and
pre-planned
on
accurate
language.
With
good
study
habits,
assessment
oral
in
task
class,
and
commentar y
124
an
awareness
some
should
of
the
demands
pre-commentar y
be
a
place
to
of
an
awareness
and
the
preparation
the
preparation,
shine.
Edna
poem
St
is
Vincent
Recuerdo
(seepage
206),
she
an
is
not
but
note
rubrics
the
for
author
that
featured
of
the
prescribed
list
of
use
and
this
could
not
be
and
the
participation
examiner
commentary
demonstration
organization
consistent
The
4
authors
of
student’s
the
is
on
some
from
and
Millay’s
study
a
excerpt
remember
based
you
of
alongside
comments.
that
the
the
individual
an
basis
of
a
authentic
commentary.
commentary
individual
for
oral
SECTION
Sample
Edna
a
St
Vincent
memor y
happy
of
or
a
their
Millay’s
shared
courtship.
because
misleading
interesting
elements.
part
It’s
poem
can
but
of
the
by
is
memor y
lovers
a
never
on
the
it
“Recuerdo”
e
two
Really,
love
simple
purpose.
poem
of
is
love
note
this
poem
be
a
seem
on
the
that
of
leads
be
the
is
is
the
a
height
but
slightly…
of
many
the
about
about
in
part
so
to
is
us,
surface
this
this
use
tells
case
to
simple,
Actually,
which
complexity
in
who
really
is,
the
most
contrasting
simplicity
This
of
an
interesting
demonstrates
feeling
and
emotion
and
this
is
supported
by
internal
pain
and
structure
create
a
ere
is
pleasure
and
simple
a
six
each
stanza
the
lines
a
e
rhyme
and
rather
but
consistent
than
of
to
that
here
lines
anything
pattern
is
happiness.
an
the
aa
bb
jarring
or
meter
consists
ere’s
create
a
bitter.
does
of
into
also
uses
three
It
isn’t
it
a
and
stanzas,
couplets
a
analysis.
underneath.
giving
regular
soothing,
give
meter
happy
quite
a
lullaby
simplistic
quality
Recognizes
that
probably
hides
the
couplet
oen
the
combinations
some
speaks
of
the
about
complexity
a
of
meaningful
the
or
meaning.
powerful
Also,
point
couplets
here
don’t
emphasize
with
demonstrate
instead
each
of
line
just
help
usually
the
structure
contrasting
the
consists
back-and-forth
So
give
of
poem
two
itself
seems
and
sing-song
clauses.
give-and-take
elements
a
that
simple
ese
creates
and
juxtaposed
quality.
clauses
some
soothing
elements
of
also
tries
to
effect .
a
little
the
unclear
about
authority
couplet .
Finally,
create
the
but
that
but
authority
and
but
features
but
I’m
of
that
thinking
the
harmony
complex
divided
cc.
elements
and
more
poem
further
Millay
unexpected
actually
as
of
these
and
create
are
scheme
all
quality
the
poem
structure
long.
poems
challenges
contrasts
love
clear
each
to
these
or
approach
extended
contrasts
and
of
Literature
work
recollection.
moment
maybe
um…
student
2
also
can
a
kind
contrast.
has
actually
OK .
suggest
e
the
more
rst
stanza
poem.
repetition
“we”
is
poem
again,
but
it
creates
us
of
the
And
the
memor y
stanza
of
because
than
here
one
might
couplet
works
an
emphasis
only
a
simplicity
contrast
but
each
still
more
the
than
with
subject
important
about
lovers.
starts
Actually,
punctuation
remind
complexity
but
it
the
is
this
kind
of
about
that
it
person’s.
the
We
throughout
with
Even
is
use
also
of
we
not
a
dierent
this
reinforced
anaphora
highlights
learn
shared
can’t
surface.
refrain.
and
might
the
couplet
e
immediately
on
repeated
content
poem.
individual
is
is
a
visible
that
ends
as
the
be
that
that
this
it
experience.
really
really
be
a
know
to
with
is
is
a
two
Maybe,
shared
for
sure
if
it
Great
is
rst-person
plural
or
just
a
single
narrator
that
recalls
on
of
of
both
the
parties.
e
rest
of
the
two
lines
also
set
up
point
really
they
are
opposition
doesn’t
described
here
disrupt
contrast
so
all
on
night
between
the
well.
the
as
again
second
ferr y.
”
tired”
“tired”
poem,
e
“ver y
ere
and
and
“merr y”
because
line
says
isn’t
a
“ver y
the
“We
the
gone
here
ere’s
contains
back
but
the
A
good
poem
job
and
into
possibilities.
an
opposition
structure
had
contrast
merr y”
.
but
notice.
engaging
contrast:
digging
rst,
to
behalf
the
and
this
forth
“back
and
Y
es.
forth”
of
the
contrasting
actually
shiing
and
ferr y
poles
sets
up
the
like
what
between
forth”
,
and
their
ride
“tired”
is
to
“we”
of
the
and
come
contrasting
mimics
the
“merr y”
.
movement
So
throughout
this
the
elements—“tired”
plural
or
the
“we”
as
ver y
poem:
and
between
rst
couplet
there
“merr y”
,
remembered
is
a
“back
by
one
u
125
person,
and
a
couplet
that
is
sing-song
and
soothing
and
sweet,
OK .
even
read
e
too
easily
next
back
not
word
that
and
or,
in
like
you
common
and
internal
en
of,
is
the
it
last
the
new
the
a
even
know
it
is
and
bringing
back
seem
or
might
then
or
little…
starts
back
in
the
the
that
there
is
easy
paradox
dierent
will
but
and
dierent
there
come.
pleasant
it
and
is
the
this
is
the
the
there’s
so
a
movements
though
a
the
the
hill
but
the
the
broken.
but
sort
then
there
contrasting
achieve
and
are
so
contrast,
harsh
So
with
within
“on”
the
maybe
this-and-
continues
through
there
or
a
love
things
even
are
is
be
contrasts
a
harmony
maybe
like
dierences
dierences,
but
love.
you
these
Y
es.
dierent
pieces
can
come
together
when
you
Good.
it
rocking
like
across
again
contained
and
a
three
“leaned
they
might
soon
because
line
disjointed
the
that
with
between
couplet,
“W
e”
line
these
people
a
contrasts:
which
to
reconciles
like
the
all
makes
“smelled
some
“we”
these
it’s
um…
sixth
blowing,
structure
of
with
to
“dawn”
always
kind
a
of
at
constant,
and
and
with
that
mimics
and
rocking
re”
but
memor y.
be
and
forth
and
contrast
the
way
associated
the
together
and
more
couplet
two
a
is
anaphora
day
It’
s
like
there
not
into
whistles
because
seems
again
positive
and
internal
moon”
are
seems
“looked
and
the
that
a
underneath.
bright”
case,
move
between
elements
line
contrast
“bare and
ordinar y
then
the
in
deeper
some
parts
anaphora
“under
some
together
something
ferr y :
just
experience
makes
work
continues
the
next
this
ere’s
all
suggest
is
and
these
just
of
or
the
connection
it’s
all
there
great
“But”
table.
”
a
forth
so
so
poem
and
But
couplet
and
stable,
”
is
sweet.
don’t
expect
it
Good
extending
make
a
harmonious
whole.
Even
though
the
stanza
is
in
points.
Good
attempt
and
the
and
explaining
your
past
analysis.
tense—actually
memor y,
if
it’
s
the
whole
shared
or
poem
is—and
one-sided,
that
we
still
might
have
be
to
part
question
of
the
the
paradox
Very
of
love.
Y
ou
have
to
believe
in
it
or
think
of
it
like
Millay
does,
interesting
shows
this
kind
of
structure,
so
that
it
can
have
Metaphor
Reception
this
eect
and
and
be
realized…
Allegory
Metaphor
Metaphor
rough
are
in
is
an
an
ascribed
to
literature
or
metaphorical
language.
lled
In
with
phrase
analogy
the
as
“transgress”
used
as
a
metaphorical
It
may
of
put
(“trans”
metaphor
and
that
use
we
do
eggs
“gress”
doing
are
to
is
we
or
the
idea
with
second
not
in
used
to
so
not
extensively
in
fully
one
ever yday
realize
basket”
literally
wrong
much
even
another.
object
or
idea
communicate—either
used
use
something
oen
of
language—indirectly
metaphor
your
object
strange
of
exclusively),
we
one
qualities
language
when
all
for
association
metaphor
but
the
the
seem
another
even
“Don’t
was
126
much
identies
process,
comparison,
fact,
like
employs
rst.
through
metaphor
such
that
imaginative
of
of
the
Whether
use
a
words
line”
refers
ever yday
is
we
single
“cross
now
it.
English
situations
even
mean
but
our
aware
it.
or
through
in
approach
that
with
to
that
the
language
sophisticated
reading.
at
SECTION
Metaphor
in
heightened
we
or
frequently
idea
using
into
For
the
one
the
use
“as
a
the
is
of
one
occurs
repeatedly
extended
ver y
with
to
is
prevalence
back”
As
practice,
for
the
you
texts
and
with
it
is
simple
and
that
of
can
a
gain
almost
case,
of
for
be
this
certain
the
a
the
is
idea
or
broken
expressed
through
landscape,
to
death
this
refer
or
idea.
extended,
while
oen
conveyed.
used
is
object
similar,
barren
be
tenor
event
dying
Finally,
metaphor.
extended
forms.
It
is
to
metaphor
these
allegor y.
it
so
a
challenging
frequently
which
course,
that
of
may
literature
technically
idea
dierent
with
is
In
equates
them
expressing
to
makes
former
Literature
create
dyingoccurs
complex,
in
rise
perspective
aspects
a
work
can
or
to
above.
tenoris
weather
singular
give
it
death
and
a
metaphor
Because
all
will
such
e
association
vehicle
throughout
sophistication.
“pull
both
isolated
metaphors
analyses.
In
(the
makes
whichthe
for
e
the
Metaphor
vehicle.
inhospitable
the
latter
creative
to
simile
the
through
and
similar
allegor y.
the
winter.
itself.
nds
is
and
metaphor
becomes
metaphor
colourful
two;
even
and
and
life
idea
image
of
be
metaphor
and
the
season
season
literature
the
or
tenor
hibernation
the
process
common
Simple
e
is”)
the
conclusion
while
to
if
object
vehicle
of
lengthy
the
or
parts:
example,
tends
even
encounter
with
“like”
two
while
in
literature
eect
2
the
metaphor
to
make
key
will
aspect
used,
to
it
a
treat
be
dicult
sophisticated
success
be
to
can
key
is
continued
component
of
study.
Allegory
Allegor y
of
is
a
a
is
series
really
or
collection
represent
appears
a
on
stand
for
on
the
outside
or
the
religious
avoid
that
to
is
or
literature
events
or
and
and
the
to
work.
the
work
its
to
than
itself.
within
In
eect
It
together
situation
work.
a
what
In
work
most
to
a
work
convey
and
that
to
eective
simultaneously :
within
intend
a
come
images
interests
events
collectively
cumulative
across
that
extrinsic
outside
the
social
metaphorical
foci
aspects
these
and
political
concept
ideas.
use
truly
of
of
In
more
W
estern
but
boundaries
the
in
all
likely
is
to
many
so
too
more
of
work
one
one
on
exist
hard
and
in
fact
such
nd
to
must,
all
as
a
recent
well
and
however,
else:
totalize
a
common
meaning
literature
Many
employ
trends
as
allegorical
required.
most,
have
More
allegories
One
tend
nor
themes
(ideas
above
to
with
mythical
overseer).
satirical
literature
eect
more,
evil
aspect.
guaranteed
allegorical
typical
eectively
and
so
associated
Christian
have
but
literar y
literar y
neither
convey
a
been
literature,
social
as
works
is
has
powerful
political,
“meaning”;
to
allegor y
motifs
literature
outcome
endeavour
said,
established
allegor y
overlook
have
be
cultural
for
an
can
outsmarting
wider
now
such
or
or
metaphors
oen,
of
dierent
allegorical
students
they
where
some
moral
looking
for
most
range
images,
such
cross
make
allegor y
error
if
journey
works
two
metaphor,
several
work.
and
tend
and,
signicance
prominent
hero’
s
or
character
total
idea
evokes
Traditionally,
that
the
characters,
ideas
been
is
extended
all
metaphysical,
surface
it
of
of
symbols,
dierent
allegor y
the
of
the
words,
a
form
dierent
other
use,
a
collection
works
eect;
and
of
only
meaning.
127
Activity
•
Using
the
Extend
larger
•
list
of
yourself
ideas.
ideas
to
Try
and
objects
produce
and
below,
interesting
create
a
mix
of
ideas
Balloon
Salt
Carpet
Mistrust
Orange
Delivery
Shell
Disbelief
Barrier
Long
Soar
Machine
Read
through
Orwell’s
what
kinds
particular
From
the
Animal
of
seem
Animal
to
own
viable
and
for
metaphors.
expressing
similes.
Juice
paragraph
Though
allegory
your
Glacier
following
Farm.
but
metaphors
Love
pants
create
can
this
you
suggest
from
only
detect
the
beginning
represents
arising
and
a
of
fraction
what
George
of
aspects
the
work,
in
this?
gure
Farm
beast,
At
one
end
of
the
big
barn,
on
a
sort
of
raised
was
already
ensconced
on
his
bed
of
straw,
under
twelve
years
his
a
lantern
which
hung
from
a
beam.
He
was
and
had
lately
grown
rather
stout,
but
he
nearly
was
still
ordinary
nose
fact
old
after
he
pig,
with
a
wise
and
cut.
in
spite
Before
of
long
the
the
fact
that
other
make
themselves
his
tushes
animals
comfortable
began
had
to
Firstcame
the
three
after
dogs,
their
and
then
the
immediately
pigs,
who
front
of
in
Bluebell,
settled
the
Jessie,
down
platform.
in
The
themselves
up
to
the
on
the
rafters,
window-sills,
the
sheep
the
pigs
and
Boxer
began
and
to
chew
Clover,
and
the
came
in
the
slowly
lay
care
and
lest
setting
there
down
should
their
be
The
together,
vast
some
hairy
small
in
approaching
the
straw.
middle
Clover
life,
who
was
had
a
stout
never
off,
ies.
Note
any
all
vehicle
128
editorial
the
that
or
political
metaphors
make
up
used,
each
any
but
he
and
in
was
his
steadiness
work.
After
the
of
character
horses
and
came
and
oldest
Benjamin,
animal
on
the
the
donkey.
farm,
and
in
the
He
seldom
make
some
talked,
cynical
and
when
he
remark—for
did,
it
instance,
say
that
that
God
he
had
would
given
him
sooner
a
have
tail
to
had
keep
no
tail
the
and
Alone
If
among
asked
the
why,
he
animals
would
on
say
the
that
farm
he
he
saw
hoofs
got
laugh
at.
Nevertheless,
devoted
to
Boxer;
without
the
two
of
openly
them
admitting
usually
to
it,
he
spent
with
Sundays
together
grazing
mare
her
your
intended
never
nothing
two
motherly
addition
the
appearance,
intelligence,
in
the
small
paddock
beyond
animal
quite
column
in
and
for
of
goat,
the
to
but
ORWELL
Extension
Read
as
down
walking
GEORGE
■
white
was
tempered.
orchard,
concealed
stupid
stripe
down
their
great
strong
white
pigeons
cows
cud.
powers
usually
would
was
very
A
the
to
cart-horses,
somewhat
rst-rate
respected
the
laughed.
behind
together.
hens
no
uttered
a
of
put
and
ies
perched
as
enormous
different
he
straw
and
an
never
was
Pincher,
high,
was
arrive
worst
fashions.
hands
Boxer
a
Benjamin
and
foal.
benevolent
Muriel,
been
him
not
tremendous
appearance
fourth
eighteen
horses
gave
was
universally
majestic-looking
her
platform,
two
Major
back
local
the
newspaper.
tenor
eect.
and
the
side
by
side
and
never
speaking.
the
SECTION
Literary
Production
2
Literature
Research
Literary research is, as the name implies, research but focusing on literary
aspects. It is likely that you are already familiar with research though
frequently you have done research papers on a wider array of topics (the
extended essay is a research project; one option involves literary research
though the majority involve something more akin to social science or scientic
research). Literary research involves common components of research
including nding a topic, performing research, narrowing a topic, organizing
research, developing a thesis, organizing and writing results and citation.
Selecting
With
the
random
a
topic
array
research
is
interest.
with
more
work,
a
genre
historical
era
other
or
any
analyse
texts
Literary
of
your
and
of
or
research
research
analyses
conrm
into
or
your
discard
to
a
is
ideas
but
(either
operating
product
One
all
readers
can
have
ideas
of
it
alone
se.
aspects
literature
meaningful
is
sharing
others—that
is
a
ideas)
the
a
as
is
With
independent
your
an
and
these
valued
and
own
on
a
aid
in
all
t
to
the
a
artistic
or
way
to
results
readings
are
and
not
work
or
of
be
a
your
is
or
own
a
answer
of
contextual
research
or
asset,
reading
discipline
an
eect
work
an
back
involve
exploring
and
to
apply
create
does
and
the
interpretations
interpretations—even
most
a
order
literary
can
an
writing,
“reinserted”
a
from
an
you
in
absence
singular
interesting
that
own
ndings
analysis
academic
in
topic
is
have
reception
as
some
poetr y).
your
about
internally
of
is
on
have
you
style
the
that
range
criticism
see
presence,
work).
in
research
not
a
knowledge
you
literary
may
at
literar y
based
you
information,
styles
research
topic
work
when
which
and
inform
research
your
a
something
painting
of
or
a
favourites,
further,
research
research
as
of
in
involved
body
information
emphasize
of
as
operating
be
new
study
research
literary
around
still
issue
then,
Literary
out
explore
than
investigating
writer
and
research.
selecting
successful,
class
further
take
challenging
a
to
biographical
other
rather
literar y
psychoanalytic
help
will
outside
always
element
research,
you
should
while
to
that
be
modernist
from
stand
externally
result
should
unique
literary
the
literary
literature,
of
to
eyes
arise
to
example
Typically,
rather
aspects
the
per
like
to
simply
familiar
your
author’
s
hypothesis,
(including
aspects
With
a
readings:
question,
projects,
than
and
contextual
diers
analyses.
question
or
(for
means
of
eras,
your
should
would
intended
challenge
own
independent
research
also
rather
investigating.
you
period
inuence
are
arise,
route
unique
exposure
open
already
then,
particular
the
to
be
and
While
can
are
the
literature
may
writers
likely
you
along
particular
production
that
you
research,
interesting
author’
s
to
which
Literar y
area
impossible.
unknown
much
something
one
literatures,
becomes
completely
found
is
of
when
works.
the
nal
ideas.
belief
and,
that
with
informed
by
highly.
If you are exploring contextual matters, including an author’
s biographical
data or the historical context inuencing a writer or important in a work,
it is likely your research will proceed in a familiar pattern with Google
searches, making use of the library and an array of digital and print sources.
But more specic literary aspects are oen treated more explicitly within a
range of reference texts devoted to literary criticism. Y
our library may own
sets of reference works devoted to literary criticism (such as the Gayle group
collections on contemporary criticism) in either print or digital form but
many of these references are usually in the form of academic journals that
your school library is unlikely to possess. However, it may be that you have
129
access to many of these sources online via the use of popular online databases
such as JSTOR or Project Muse. ese are excellent resources but a warning
before you approach them: they contain academic papers written for a very
specialized and learned audience and many of the works can be dicult
to read and understand. is should not, however, put you o. Spend time
reading the abstracts to glean whether a paper truly addresses a topic you are
thinking of exploring. If you believe you have a paper worth reading, skim
the article looking for material pertinent to your subject. Finally, be patient
and read carefully—ideas will become clear. Literature is a demanding subject
that deals with complex material: the existence of university departments
devoted to its study and equally complex, even esoteric, language when
analysing literary works only further attests to this complexity. But the
personal reward for managing such complexity and developing a cohesive
reading of your own is well worth the eort and brings its own reward.
Literar y
research
would
essay
group
a
in
higher
work
level
with
develop
1,
only).
your
topics
Read
use
and
some
necessarily
but
e
they
all
of
(or
discuss
the
external
these
or,
the
for
a
part
possibly,
case
tasks,
of
further
a
an
of
an extended
written
you
will
extended
task
2
want
(for
to
essay)
to
research.
work
example
little
comments
paragraphs
research.
exemplars
a
formally
assessment
in
avenues
literar y
demonstrate
be
activity
adviser
following
represent
examiner
likely
oral
student
through
of
With
teacher
Sample
most
further
of
variety
may
ese
exactly
help
with
note
that
samples
what
do
students
var ying
the
have
not
must
degrees
dierent
made
of
do
success.
strengths
of
eachapproach.
1.
In
Unnatural
V
oices
by
Brian
Richardson,
the
implied
author
is
The
use
of
dened as such: “
…the gure constructed by the reader of the person
point
who produced the narrative, and who may dier signicantly from
measured.
the actual esh-and-blood author.
” In the case of Freedom, the implied
the
in
author—Patty—diers signicantly from Franzen; both are opposites
W
omen
however,
the
implied
author
is
fused
with
the
real
author;
It
denition,
to
could
be
candidate
denition
real
extend
into
In
case,
is
in
Franzen’
s
the
her
time
is
the
anti-mimetic
contrast
only
in
period
memoir
to
terms
of
adds
her
a
construct
Freedom,
of
the
life.
where
location
Patty’
s
further
layer
use
to
in
which
Patty’
s
of
her
of
third
the
the
life
novel
childhood
person
narrative
is
intersects
set.
each
the
to
dene
texts
after
text
is
will
a
be
citing
positioned
denition
helpful
appearances. e point where the implied author diverges from the
author
is
the
and
to
another.
both share the same name, the same birthplace and the same physical
is
source
which
Immediately
relation
one
in terms of gender and the married lives they lead. In Notable American
this
against
to
here
reword
on
his
a
or
for
the
her
succinct
the
critic’s
own
main
and
to
idea.
with
home
and
pronoun
framework,
in
and
further substantiates the separation of the author from the narrator;
Patty’
s
irreconcilable
use
of
“I”
with
herself
shows
the
distinct
this
outside
dierence with which she views herself and her written self. Hence,
Franzen
signies
the
“death
of
the
author”
,
Marcus
raises
is
research
interesting
while
it
clear
has
starting
which
her
the
like
implied
context
the
use
in
of
overlaps
130
in
“ e
reader
which
“you”
with
T
ell-Tale
and
the
the
real
second
engages
the
Heart,
”
real
the
reader
Marcus
reader
person
reader,
in
the
dierentiates
through
pronoun
the
“you”
sense
that
is
the
in
Poe’s
the
between
var ying
used.
Although
short
stor y
protagonist
the
provided
point
an
from
the
the
candidate
issue of the inuence that the author has on the text, and vice versa.
Much
that
u
own
analysis.
develops
his
or
SECTION
already
his
deems
opinion
e
“you”
moment
makes
“you”
from
of
the
in
a
of
in
the
himself,
Marcus,
the
as
which
the
role
direct
and
characters
are
on
with
more
and
true
the
being
for
to
the
father,
Ben
real
and
“you”
much
to
see
in
to
of
her
like
the
letter
how
the
the
the
reader
relationship
This
by
works
in
comparison,
makes
certain
does
not
address
presumptions
on
the
the
reader
part
of
her
autobiographer,
mindful
of
her
reader
and
the
e
reader
has
no
doubt
heard
about…
”
use,
loss
third-person
pronoun,
combined
with
the
the
presumed
reader,
Walter,
makes
the
Patty’s
indirect
narrative
names
the
real
reader.
is
ties
in
with
the
address
layer
heteroglossia
novel,
about
the
which
make
relativity
of
the
reader
ctional
omniscient
and
It
is
the
important
principal
however,
Emma’
s
to
note
in
the
audience
aair
as
we
are
is
play
that
cheating
likely
meet
her
present
as
real
Jerry
for
the
states
audience
when
to
on
form
husband,
because
their
hence
audience
is
made
aair
aware
both
of
their
husbands
a
strong
whereas
the
characters
or
opinion
Jerry’
s
wives;
only
wife
in
Emma
than
I’ve
that,
“T
o
liked
be
you”
Jerry
has
of
honest,
(p
87).
mixed
use,
of
authors
a
more
and
of
consistent
can
be
helpful
for
a
and
avoid
mixing
the
of
slightly
title
and
author
these
paragraphs.
and
begun
Robert
to
are
best
disintegrate,
the
nature
of
Emma
I’ve
Here
always
it
is
liked
[Jerry]
interesting
to
further
and
not
quite
requires
work
a
as
little
explanation.
This
bit
idea
needs
to
be
explained
a
further.
might
Robert’
s
rather
note
does
friends,
“I
and
quote
self-evident
on
Judith
relationship, for example when Robert discovers the aair he comments
to
rather
brings
remind you that your husband is my oldest friend” (p 52). Furthermore,
the
or
in
remains in the dark. Emma’
s betrayal of Robert is a lot more striking
and
helpful
some
reality.
Pinter’
s
relationship
a
distinct
This
2.
be
is
little
to
through
the
is
a
use
awkward
to
would
There
Applying
reader
the
which
even
he
approach
of
detail,
though
topic.
contrast
directly.
texts.
suered…
the
reader :
of
“ e
more
explanation
this
confusing
Patty
extend
approach
further
level.
to
providing
good
with
Franzen,
Literature
reader.
context
disengages
reader
personal
contrar y
the
tone
accusator y
the
address
enables
a
also
alters
mother’s
sympathize
father’s
outsiders
however,
narration;
reader
passive
between
listeners
2
With
this
such
a
complex
deserves
make
the
a
little
point
set
of
more
“affairs,”
space
to
clearer.
more
that
this
exchange occurs in T
orcello, which is, as Linda W
ells writes, the place
where
Robert
and
Emma
came
on
their
wedding
trip
at
the
start
of
their romance and is now the place where their romance ends (W
ells,
The
1983).
As
the
play
progresses,
the
audience
becomes
idea
created
aware that the relationship between Robert and Emma may not have
been
a
Emma
By
happy
for
one,
thus
engaging
contrast,
the
in
enabling
an
audience
them
adulterous
is
unlikely
to
possibly
relationship
to
feel
much
begin
in
the
to
forgive
rst
emotion
place.
towards
Jerry and Judith as Jerry’
s indelity is not placed in context like Emma’
s.
Reference:
“Betrayal”
Language
3.
Wells,
Linda
Modern
Studies
S.
(1983)
Language
Article
A
Discourse
Studies.
Stable.
Vol.
13,
on
Failed
No.
1
Love:
(Winter).
Harold
Pp.
that
different
contexts
are
increasingly
an
Modern
these
to
interesting.
it
may
be
be
follow
This
the
earlier
seems
more
to
as
point
contexts
though
but
effective
help
support
and
react
differing
primary
much
the
will
these
is
would
relationships
audience
differently
coming
Pinter’s
22–30.
that
in
the
used
reader
above.
www.jstor.org/stable/3194315.
In common with other genres, Southern Gothic literature comments
on reality blending realism and grotesqueness to result in a gloomy
version
thereof
(Boyd,
Burns,
Gleeson).
e
latter
is
highlighted
Why
would
through common themes such as miscegenation, sexual deviance
common
and violence (Gleeson). Even though it is shocking and unsettling,
sexual
you
link
themes
deviance
and
and
the
grotesque,
miscegenation,
violence?
it is usually masked or soened by adding some element of humor
or irony into the stor y (Burns, Boyd). What makes Southern Gothic
literature so appealing is its ability to shock readers, thereby holding
their
interest.
e
extraordinarily
makes
excite
this
and
colorful,
strange
genre
allow
abnormal
plots
fascinating.
for
a
good
and
e
stor y.
an
characters,
element
morbidity
of
combined
humor
and
is
with
what
grotesqueness
This
of
is
a
these
reasonable
critical
represents
good
consolidating
interpretation
denitions
work
the
and
at
critical
work
ofothers.
131
Irony
Reception
Irony
is
image
quite
play
a
broad
where
appearance.
It
works
something
quite
expression
(again,
opposite
horror
scar y)
easier
or
to
because
Irony
is
great
detect
of
oen
much
is
on
considered
with
used
a
for
spectrum
the
most
or
or
humorous
between
(from
outcome
is
used
than
in
or
most
playful
of
these
sarcasm
and
to
an
small
In
fact,
it
can
most
usages
and
not
irony
is
all
much
perhaps
implies
Irony
helpful
innuendo
it
at
of
exchanges.
irony.
bitter).
as
its
words,
be
that
expression
usually
than
irony,
nd
ironic
convey
written
hurtful
intent
but
non-verbal
facetiousness,
sophisticated
to
or
masking
an
makes
subtly.
though
the
simplest,
through
harsh
gesture
from
something
more
gesture
more
its
someone
indicate
conveyed
verbal,
one
At
image)
much
sarcasm,
and
any
dierent
expect
occurs.
to
speech
dierence
we
is
example,
used
clues
obvious
oen
the
for
tr ying
be
image,
confused
more
as
also
as
gesture
when,
sensor y
more
understand
sarcasm
in
other
words,
suggest
intent)
actually
when
can
to
real
eectively
(as
fear
irony
something
is
in
used
(or
dierent
meaning
but
term
reality
to
and
Irony
involves
an
Activity
emotional
detachment
associated
with
manipulation
and
critique
of
oen
but
can
conveys
also
understatement.
be
a
grim
used
Beyond
to
humour.
praise
verbal
It
is
through
statement,
most
Irony can make for interesting
clever
irony
humour or make a poignant point,
can
especially as situational irony (a
occur
in
event,
setting,
structure
and
situation
as
in
the
scenarios
of:
situation that includes sharp
■
an
assembly
■
an
isolated
■
an
ode
■
a
of
mourning
during
a
birth
contradictions or sharp contrasts).
to
and
lonely
distrust
or
individual
amidst
a
celebrating
crowd
Look at the following image and
analyse the irony and how it
sadness
isused.
sudden
Finally,
in
and
drama
performance
irony
and
in
irony
involves
other
contextual
some
characters—and
while
other
could
turns
of
it
is
argue
speech
information
Most
during
operates
the
oen,
in
a
able
is
that
a
wedding.
unique
to
more
not
make
mean
such
ends
use
more
available
the
fashion.
of
Because
these
drama
structures
“three-dimension-like”
.
to
audience—know
characters—usually
ignorance.
132
you
storm
audience,
irony
in
what
violent
than
all
and
can
victims—move
are
tragic,
they
seem
characters.
at
In
predict
forward
least
relies
to
on
create
Dramatic
because
this
events
of
way,
to
come
unknowing
temporarily.
and
SECTION
Structuralism
Background
and
2
Literature
Post-Structuralism
Structuralism
Structuralism
is
primarily
language
systems.
language
is
replicate
them
does
the
the
(for
so
not
thing
by
social
any
for
all
one
to
hand,
is
does
but
not
posited
that
and
are
this
there
that
that
merely
is
might
a
seeks
system
can
use
any
arbitrar y
as
On
that
the
notion
that
in
organized,
for
but
developed
hand,
to
of
not
creature
been
other
do
standing
feline
system
sense
language
easily
is
make
signs
the
the
this
to
posited
in
mean
just
object).
we
that
words
inherently
“drat”
represent
theor y
structuralism
means
name
“cat”
languages
language
linguistic
association;
noun
structuralism
the
they
instance
English
xed
On
mimetic.
a
as
however,
not
make
arbitrar y,
sense
of
system.
Structuralism focuses on two distinct components: the langue and the parole.
e parole suggests the actual speech or language used to make sense within
any language system while the langue suggests an underlying grammar that
governs the language system. ough we could use many—perhaps innite—
combinations of parole, or actual words, the thinking with structuralism is
that all groups of words must adhere to a nite, or set, number or grammatical
permutations (the langue). In other words, structuralism posits that there is
a governing system to language and though very likely a complex system, a
system nonetheless that includes rules, operations and procedures that can be
studied, understood and predicted (hence, a grammar).
Structuralism
system
is
of
case,
our
of
use
most
though
the
of
an
help
that
realities
we
may
black,
language
in
recently
that
simply,
colour
“black”
suggest
most
“mythic”
suggest
use
is
mythemes
means,
system
this
of
most
any
of
black
of
of
the
with
of
recognized
English
adhere
a
via
to
variety
evil
and
bad,
or
so
of
a
a
governing
language.
of paroles
ever y
how
as
language.
literar y
underlying langue
(regardless
evil,
the
conveyed
number
another
meaning
uses
language
be
example,
or
pragmatically
the
uses
must
employ
for
form
underlying
all
that
associates
one
and
govern
that
that
governs
instance
overt)
In
of
the
would
malfeasance.
Post-structuralism
Post-structuralism
systems
of
the
or
langue
universal
focused
and
on
works)
Central
to
as
is
the
the
and
absolute
the
In
of
the
system
this
way,
to
all
that
on
such
term
the
via
grammar
be
only
is
the
the
notion,
to
a
notion
of
rise
“drat”
the
have
idea
for
idea
of
a
to
irreconcilable
of
Post-
literature
(and
allows.
or
lack
thereof,
word
language
the parole,
believed
(a langue)
as
all
the
the
post-structuralists
whole.
singular
Since
also
arbitrar y
could
gave
unied
(looking
through
rejected
Instead,
undecideability
refers
system
as
came
undecideability
simultaneously.
established
not
more
meaning
that
inevitably
than
thought
is
semiotic
signs)
semiotics.
post-structuralists
could
for
wholeheartedly
language
rather
focused
play
signied.
known
governing
underlying
top.
signs
ultimately
But
but
understanding
readings
structuralists
looking
understanding
post-structuralist
arbitrar y.
on
for
and
transcendental
absolute
upon
or
structuralism,
how
structuralists
a
in
system
contradictor y
other
built
identifying
that
ultimately
all
there
underneath
language,
that
is
of
is
arbitrar y,
meaning
was
and
that
or parole,
meant
not
an
this
system
the
feline,
133
domestic
with
animal
right,
(rather
purity,
Post-structuralists
asking
In
that
other
warm”
,
or
if
variety
of
certainty
it
or
that
to
possibilities
challenge
term
being
poles
Point
of
view
external
Point
of
view,
author’s
the
of
on
materials
of
may
and
Point
■
of
a
the
Second
■
the
read
may
in
person
stor y
■
but
ird
only
or
a
or
works
others,
and
view
and
be
e
narrator
point
a
of
useful
both
is
view.
question
serious
points
even
can
the
tool
the
is
of
of
of
fact
one
view
a
a
is
truly
play
“not
it
on
reader
a
the
any
Narrator
the
or
form
voice.
which
of
an
characters.
stor y’s
An
voice
can
presented
another,
“in-
impossible.
the
take
or
ignorant,
with
determining
narrative
versus
by
langue.
popular
character
are
with
means
signied,
eect
you
to
only
use
have
with
the
and
an
the
same
stor y
the
all
of
though
a
of
rare
“he”
,
events
may
of
of
as
be
and
just
so
is,
as
e
a
kind
an
thoughts
and
“they”—oers
character)
setting,
by
called
without
and
“they”
experienced
what
view.
on.
one
“she”
,
variously
of
reader
eect.
the
action,
“he”
,
receive
“they”—oers
to
of
and
motivations.
point
the
“she”
,
(oen
use
of
“she”
,
regard
characters,
the
and
viewpoint
perspective
may
specic
setting,
of
you
use
the
limits
through
“he”
,
with
use
through
thoughts
ver y
a
single
point
contemporar y
in
a
single
points
a
stor y
so
a
on.
—oers
the
an
the
in
character
objective
comment
or
on
thoughts.
story
narrator’
s
the
of
tease
view
and
a
judgment
employ
from
or
form
a
a
many
multiple
point
the
of
of
author
works.
regardless
important
reliable
reader
are
to
eect
becomes
while
an
there
attention
some
it
accepts
of
that
available
in
view,
judgment
but
meaning
exists
reader
view
Paying
not
the
of
of
ction,
work.
out
point
reliability :
and
a
following:
necessarily
for
action,
what
helping
of
the
focalized
perspective
and
of
characters
determining
the
to
that
the
as
If
point
“you”—is
used
the
view
narrator’
s
receive
work.
that
works
or
the
and
of
of
of
look
whether
scope
of
“cool”
part
universal
“voice”
all-knowing
among
in
a
majority
character’s
voice
employ
teller
Aer
question
of
summar y
of
a
reliability,
this
use
considering
statements
134
of
of
characters,
ction
the
“I”—presents
presenting
particularly
shiing
a
of
point
consider
panoramic
of
form
of
is
motivations
word
signicant
to
objective—again
expositor y
the
of View
vantage
all-knowing
characters,
interior
use
some
associated
dierently.
stor y
all
easily
readings
recognition
and
read
one
be
with parole
being
perspective
has
limited—again
of
person
scenic
Many
of
not
the
omniscient—the
person
perspective
the
narrative
a
of
and
either
if
without
view
you
perspective
motivations
ird
a
of
is,
available
knowledge
of
part
source
the
person—the
unlimited
■
to
occur
narrative
of
from
ver y
take
reader
character
ird
the
way
stor y
strangeness
of
is
character.
signicant
■
the
point
person—the
single
asks
a
view
First
of
a
could
Post-structuralists
through
information
even
look
to
or
then,
choice
type
impact
refers
narrator
works
Point
Reception
“black”
suggests
because
the
but
fairness.
assumptions,
problematic?
between
“cat”)
and
dierences
if
refers
and
to
our
what
“hep”
,
misguided
seek
revisit
words,
or
crowd,
”
we
than
goodness
narrator
of
to
without
mustquestion
unreliablenarrator.
SECTION
2
Literature
Activity
A
consideration
of
cultural
context
Correct
Bedtime
perspective
of
a
clearly
“true
the
of
as
from
perspective
be
an
literary
Stories
different
to
their
the
to
Billy-Goats
three
Billy-goats
On
the
round
First
way
all
“Who’s
“Oh,
the
it’s
“Oh
TRAP!
“Oh
Just
over
ME!
do
kind
of
through
be
one
work
view
the
feminist
rescued
of
from
critical
the
that
critique
and
goats
course.
the
name
or
character’s
activity
the
nd
could
and
where
the
sweet
of
all
grass
three
grew.
was
There
Gruff.
they
One
would
day
the
eat
and
roared
bridge
there
lived
a
troll.
hills
to
His
eyes
were
to
cross
the
the
and
the
bridge.
bridge.
Troll.
I’m
going
off
to
the
make
myself
fat,”
said
voice.
said
too
this
poker.
went
Gruff
the
the
Troll.
little,”
said
the
billy-goat.
“Wait
until
the
second
up!”
that.
Wait
you,”
said
big
my
said
until
the
TRAP!
creaked
the
I’m
hadn’t
the
the
went
the
bridge.
Troll.
going
such
off
a
to
the
small
hills
to
make
myself
voice.
Troll.
big
billy-goat
comes—he’s
much
bigger.”
Troll.
Gruff.
TRIP
TRAP!”
beneath
bridge?”
BILLY-GOAT
and
who
Billy-goat
TRIP
TRAP!”
roared
Gruff,
Gruff,
you
Troll.
TRIP
bridge?”
Billy-goat
over
under
a
Gruff
tiny
TRAP!
my
and
a
far
said
TRIP
TRAP!
as
trap!”
up!”
I’m
and
long
bigger.”
you,”
the
groaned
BIG
you
Billy-goat
with
trapping
THE
hills
stream,
was
such
me.
over
came
TRIP
the
Billy-goat
in
gobble
don’t
bridge
that
to
(either
the
billy-goats,
bridge?”
much
with
to
my
littlest
TRAP!
off
along
TRAP!
“Who’s
“IT’S
be
trap!
second
coming
a
nose
take
second
please
the
off
to
over
his
gobble
the
then
“TRIP
that
to
only
well,
This
are
to
as Politically
through
insightful
women
work
which
such
tales
and
rewrite
issue.
with
versions
character
you
three
off
Gruff,
tripping
I’m
no,
“Very
the
TRIP
the
as
a
and
Billy-goat
that
said
Pick
Trip
don’t
“TRIP
fat,”
set
comes—he’s
well—be
it’s
which
lens
fairy
lucid
youngest
me,
“Oh,
in
a
Trip
Billy-goat
“Very
“Now
the
trap.
coming
were
bridge
and
only
please
“Who’s
a
tripping
billy-goat
task
playful
offer
excerpt
critical
fat.
that
I’m
no,
was
came
littlest
“Now
Gruff
were
Trip
d’être.
a
common
contextual
there
saucers,
trap!
Even
present
world
written
time
they
as
of
“Trip
a
a
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DASENT
135
Romanticism
Background
e
an
it
Romantic
artistic
began
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the
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and
psycholog y
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focuses
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■
Romanticism
celebrates
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136
for
Classicism
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literature
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Romanticism
individual
attitudes;
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identify
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education
commonplace
ordinar y
person
and
untended
precise.
and
and
and
basic
and
is
beyond
society.
natural.
humanity.
SECTION
Close
Production
In
an
on
close
(in
at
fact
how
the
is
earlier
background
textual
with
the
not
only
skills
Close
reading
Close
reading,
features
of
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and
this
for
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all
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Literature
Commentary
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formally
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literar y
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ability
language
and
Criticism
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skill.
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and
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137
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13.
the
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laborer
Whitman
manner :
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of
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and
sun
falls
polish’
d
u
138
SECTION
and
perfect
worker’s
physical
“perfect
and
image
he
is
limbs”
.
“polish’
d”
almost
and
limbs”
.
of
the
says
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out
to
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already
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place.
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what
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use
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behold
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erotic
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to
the
picturesque
to
image
speaking
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of
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what
is
apparent
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Whitman
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love
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2
and
what
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might
this
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Simply
this
examination
will
reproduce
in
class.
convey
the
of
“right”
Students
an
works
ability
unique
answer
who
to
in
or
produce
engage
and
the
answer
“stock”
with
agile
works
ways
they
answers
To
of
you
what
said
to
at
extent
be
least
have
is
two
studied?
their
and
have
do
true
works
4.
understanding
often
issues?
not
passively
not
independently
simply
to
received
adequately
and
Focusing
works
more
could
on
at
least
studied,
than
be
one
made
two
show
that
interpretation
of
those
works.
critically.
143
Sample
“In
drama
Discuss
that
e
to
than
a
lot
of
a
lot
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comes
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action
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and
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in
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of
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two
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during
piqued,
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a
for
this
of
there
men
than
statement
women.
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and
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four
actions
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in
play,
upon
well
is
as
the
play,
provides
the
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it
tempted
also
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roles
of
speak
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therefore
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have
spark
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impressions
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to
do
scrutiny,
play
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for
Shakespeare’s
principal
with
roles
characters
closer
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to
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actions
actions
analyse
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male
eir
men’s
will
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women
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know
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know
kind
of
that
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immediately
going
to
be
watch.
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instance
would
be
the
past
relationship
and
Beatrice;
insult
Benedick,
to
audience
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what
had
and
highly
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two,
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and
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so
bitter
Beatrice
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onto
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play
and
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the
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rather
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would
About
not
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characters
144
be
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out
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primarily
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[Benedick]
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come—the
to
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audience
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will
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interesting
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this
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one
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clear
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John,
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and
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hint
play
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audience
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and
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fuel
play.
female
submissive
to
men,
men
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that
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actions
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are
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Shakespeare,
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holds
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what
statement
Much
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there
makes
men
as
student
voice.
SECTION
John
(though
Don
John
Claudio
decides
John
to
such
e
spin
that
to
tr y
he
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he
though
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thinks
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has
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albeit
been
are
wonder
how
all
piques
slightly
Hero
reaction
humiliate
are
the
unfaithful.
in
understand
character’s
has
character
with
they
a
a
do
because
gets
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and
that
John
his
he
hand,
has
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discusses
likeable,
to
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also
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cannot
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wedding
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can
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behind
cunning,
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audience,
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wants
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her
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urge,
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nature
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to
even
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turn
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out
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large
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how
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audience
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shocked,
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terms
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about
the
knowledge
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and
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question—the
great
focus
if
on
they
what
understanding
quite
hooked
yes—and
women?
in
a
Literature
Claudio.
him,
that
the
and
defeat.
trouble
fact
his
that
audience
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that
and
to
ver y
John’s
done—he
has
can
enjoys
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motives
during
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e
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conict
of
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the
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interesting
Claudio,
led
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part
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nature.
is
and
“villainous”
audience
result
sympathize
end.
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relate
the
know
is
because
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a
brother
understand
the
evil
humiliated
though
likely
and
causes
actions,
he
in
interest.
because
his
deception
that
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that
does
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it
of
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instrumental
character
audience
gullible.
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web
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by
towards
admits
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want
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played
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ver y
fact
the
an
is
bitter
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himself
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is
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men
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take
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Reception
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playf ul,
denot ations
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all
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in
s ound
musical
as
works
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to
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can
help
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t he
us e
s er ious,
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of
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more
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sug gesting
t heir
accentuate
t he
larger
alliteration,
meter
and
s ound
inter play
s ounds
nds
wit h
conve y
rhyme,
is
t heir
esp ecially,
de vices
contrast
onomatop o eia
s ound
s ometimes
and,
de vices
literature
words
language
literar y
work
of
of
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of
de vices.
t he
g ive
eec t
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p ower f u l
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sp ecically
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common
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and
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rhyme
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forms
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used
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of
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advertisement.
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liberally
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be
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found
in
consonants,
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of
literature.
than
however,
works
following
words.
succeeding
the
poetr y
poetr y ;
language
e
between
and
understand
feature
based
literature
below
we
literar y
are
of
common
preceded
is
much
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described
to
include
syllables
described
all
correspondence
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rhyme
more
a
must
so
any
anything
are
such
rhyme
as
at
Generally,
in
prose
rhyme
of
from
among
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consonants
the
the
a
so
can
rhyme
be
political
basic,
is
a
rhymes
used
of
true
the
and
most
the
types
more
“cat”
its
a
on
in
rhyme
speech
likely
uses
of
nd.
145
■
Masculine
rhyme,
rhyme,
rhyme
the
is
nal
a
accented
technically,
at
“masculine”
anywhere,
perfect
Feminine
the
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rhyme
rhyme
both.
is
“erasing”
■
End
■
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larger
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of
notation
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marked
stanza
“a”
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repeated.
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couplet—a
■
tercet—a
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terza
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quatrain—a
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is
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rhyme
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of
be
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or
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restricted
e
rhyme
to
falls,
distinguishes
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exist
poetr y—obviously,
used
eectively
in
a
double
rhyme,
consecutive
a
rhyme
syllables
where
such
as
in
of
by
a
here
is
slant
a
and
lines
of
B ecause
is
just
of
and
rather
singly
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scheme
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letter.
lines
“a”
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of
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of
poetr y
or
sound
rhyme
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lines
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rhyme
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visual
of
with
sworn
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to
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as
simply
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scheme
than
at
the
part
end.
of
understanding
is
rst
rhyme.
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rhyme
for
system
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line
e
and
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next
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line
process
nal
of
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by
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of
rhymed
lines
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of
trios
four
give
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thence;
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a
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b
diligence,
b
consent
c
banishment.
rhyme
rhymed
foul
speedy
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Lucrece
thorough
Tarquin’s
with
advised
dead
body
everlasting
of
this
bear
plausibly
stanza
a
Lucrece”:
rhymes,
trio
and
genre
and
full
advertisement.
two
or
sequence
done
pairing
a
subsequent
publish
Tarquin’s
in
bleeding
Romans
as
useful.
rhyme
being
■
in
and
poem.
conclude
to
common
a
be
had
her
be
end
used
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all
not
to
within
marked
they
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may
are
did
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“cough”
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occurs
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show
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at
example,
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a
of
is
“full”
the
called
consonant
“smiling”
notes
is
does
Shakespeare’s
To
a
within
as
sound
“learning”;
scheme
that
poetr y
speech
referred
frequently
stanza
or
merely
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of
(“sh”
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“perfect”
beyond
sometimes
occurs
pattern
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can
rhyme
are
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words
line
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called
correspondence
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.
can
where
Examples
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is
sometimes
of
a
political
correspondence
and
of
from
exist
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rhyme
“lighting”
■
end
rhyme
rhymes
is
the
syllable
the
including
ever ything
■
which
where
scheme,
lines
(aa
c
include:
bb
cc…)
(aaa…)
of
lines
rhymes
rhymed
(aba
in
bcb
cdc…).
various
ways
(abcb
or
abac…)
Anaphora
Anaphora
lines
(or
is
clauses
connection
phrase,
Millay’s
its
to
as
repetition
as
may
rhyme
eect
poem
anaphora
146
the
as
a
on
example.
an
the
initial
case
because
sound
Recuerdo
an
be
but
of
it
device
page
in
is
is
206
word
or
prose).
a
phrase
Anaphora
repetition
more
of
obvious.
employs
in
both
the
has
a
same
Edna
“We”
successive
St
word
or
Vincent
and
“
And”
as
SECTION
Assonance, consonance
Other
■
common
devices
Assonance
is
text
a
(a
line,
rhyme,
sounds
“black”
assonance,
of
vowel
paragraph.).
feel
of
Technically,
“block”
,
but
in
Consonance
sounds
ough
and
consonance
words
such
clearly
is
as
also
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a
a
section
component
diering
repetition
frequently
and
small
with
dierent
“bell”
has
a
alliteration.
of
of
euphony.
sounds
be
a
exactly
create
should
aer
and
through
not
and
consonant
there
before
Literature
alliteration
consonance
“rhyme-like”
repetition
both
consonant
“elopes”
.
vowel,
of
such
associated
“tall”
relationship
or
to
as
with
“pass”
half
vowel
only
and
rhyme
and
rhyme.
Alliteration
■
the
sounds
and
end
eye
is
a
can
preceding.
consonant
the
repetition
stanza,
assonance
Consonance
■
the
include
and
2
initial
is
the
consonant
“elongated
repetition
sounds
alliterative
of
of
consonant
words
as
in
sounds,
“broken
most
frequently
battered
bush”
the
or
allegor y”
.
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Onomatopoeia
they
are
Meter
meant
was
device.
and
all
of
to
on
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or
disr upt
or
describe
or
Feminist
system
that
is
a
most
the
term
popular
by
values
as
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of
on
treatment
feminism
prevailing
critics
outright
note
male
of
authors
seek
women
view
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in
or
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a
some
page
by
but
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190.
p ositive
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sounds,
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authors
haphazard
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sounds
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refer
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rather
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mark
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actually
critical
study
critiques
and
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well
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may
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seeks
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By
arguing
general
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long-standing
and
even
re-approach
to
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literature
it.
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characters—including
critiquing
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cannon
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to
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patriarchal
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as
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literature
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term
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human
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female
general
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position
texts
treatment
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as
on
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representation
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patriarchal
would
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section
to
sound
is
experience
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critics
critical
school
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the
is
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focusing
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experience
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men,
feminist
Feminism
of
dissonance
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male
worldview,
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signicance
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interpret
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to
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“feminist
criticism
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words
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the
limited
fall
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147
reproducing
works
Sometimes
women’s
Today,
over
called
feminism
the
merits
are
concerns.
women,
ese
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conceptualize
list
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■
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and
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of
world
topic
than
on
gender
whole,
the
experience.
focusing
include,
feminism
school
possibly
broad
female
parts
critics
and
women
exceptionally
social
post-colonial
we
make
seek
a
to
general
feminism.
revalues
examines
how
many
nd
of
A
women
singular,
feminism
work
by
“g ynocriticism”
,
consists
likely
norms.
written
experience
feminism
you
patriarchal
specically
and
women’s
challenges
experience.
representations
of
women
and
men
in
literature.
■
It
examines
in
■
It
life
and
It
recognizes
explores
relations
challenges
constructed
■
power
the
role
appear
the
between
patriarchy
of
that
language
in
men
and
values
women
men
making
in
above
what
is
literature
and
women.
socially
“natural”
.
possibility
of
a
unique
feminine
language
and
understanding.
■
It
re-examines
rediscovering
the
existing
alternative
literar y
female
discovering
and
voices.
Meter
Reception
canon,
and
Rhythm
Meter
Meter
refers
unstressed
but
there
result
the
pattern
syllables
are
the
in
var ying
of
poetr y.
following
types
of
amphibrachic—three
■
spondeic—two
■
pyrrhic—two
following
common
dimeter—two
■
trimeter—three
■
tetrameter—four
■
pentameter—ve
■
hexameter—six
syllables;
of
feet
feet
feet
stressed
unstressed
unstressed,
stressed,
syllables;
syllables;
feet
feet
stressed,
syllables;
forms:
■
148
syllables;
consists
a foot
that
feet:
unstressed,
syllables;
called
syllables
stressed,
var ying
stressed,
❘
unstressed.
numbers
of
stressed
unstressed
stressed
unstressed,
❘
unstressed,
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feet,
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categorized
by
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■
is
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dactylic—three
meter
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of
unstressed
and
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unit
and
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■
basic
stressed
regular,
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trochaic—two
most
of
almost
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■
poetr y
syllables;
or
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iambic—two
of
e
orientations
■
line
regular,
(
A
in
to
SECTION
■
heptameter—seven
■
octameter—eight
Finally,
there
are
combinations
most
of
common
2
Literature
feet
feet.
some
types
common
of
feet
types
and
the
of
meter
number
that
of
employ
feet
per
specic
line.
Some
of
the
include:
Activity
■
iambic
■
blank
pentameter—ve
iambs
per
line
Compare
free
■
verse—unrhymed
verse—poetr y
iambic
without
any
pentameter
xed
meter
the
employed
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Identify
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identify
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the
case
meter
the
and/or
following
meter
rhythm
that
that
is
rhythm
texts.
used;
occurs;
of
prose
works,
gives
these
texts
in
consider
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what
Rhythm
is
closely
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recurrence
of
patterns
recurrence
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sounds
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enjoy
cadence).
from
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When
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meter,
emotional
appears
may
lack
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introduction
mood
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and
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set”
just
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really
■
Identify
As
long
the
as
will
some
dicult.
a
to
reader’s
the
have
with
the
regular
and
most
(sometimes
stressed
readers
meter
•
associated
referred
patterning
that
to
arises
made
•
as
great
the
and/or
page
206,
page
page
with
impact
the
use
or
of
rhythm:
Edna
St
Vincent
Recuerdo
202,
the
fromAndre
•
this
effect,
purpose
Millay’s
rhythm—or
non-ction—can
note
apparent
through
use
rhythm;
the
regular,
writers
is
or
the
199,
excerpt
Agassi’s
Elizabeth
Browning’s
Open
Barrett
Grief
Point
your
and
■
Establish
the
■
Establish
a
topic
entire
of
a
genocide
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scene”
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focus
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an
or
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armed
into
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solid
only
also
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sets
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audience
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conict
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would
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audience
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function.
and
work,
Employing
convey
at
become
is
more
prepares
an
more.
described
above,
an
introduction
objectives:
the
may
reader’s
more
into
a
the
main
argument
communicates
least
elements
way
important
to
attention.
slightly
■
including
the
produced
introduction—for
it
your
of
an
Producing,
introduction
additional
expand
the
also
complete
focus
your
has
presentation,
“setting
seeks
Get
for
would
appreciate
this
only
■
you
of
created
meter
well
either
syllables
become
and
While
as
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audience
communicating
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to
work
the
discussion
but
dressing
audience
any
perspective.
serious
that
much
than
patterns
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Introduction
language
inappropriate
“mind
of
alert
particular
introduce
be
some
prose—both
dened
rhythm.
introduction
tone,
prose
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(largely
response
eects.
in
it
unstressed
syllables).
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e
and
patterns
rhythm
poetic
stressed
as
sound
achieve
poetr y,
meter
and
heightened
lack—to
with
of
with
a
functional
be
included
benet
variety.
and
these
or
idea
points
eectively,
introduction.
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for
might
your
Examples
are
However,
enhance
own
as
(thesis).
as
the
an
writer—or
follows:
topic.
language.
framework,
touching
on
blueprint
main
or
points
road
to
be
map
for
covered
the
or
rest
even
of
the
hints
work,
of
the
conclusion.
While
you
points
that
may
nd
must
be
these
additions
helpful,
again,
it
is
the
rst
two
bullet
emphasized.
149
Aer understanding what is required of an introduction, the next step is
to actually produce one. W
e must emphasize that there is no set format
for an eective introduction and that there are variety of approaches. It is
appropriate to get the reader’
s attention before conveying the thesis, but
beyond this order of “
events” there are a variety of possibilities. Some like to
think of an introduction as an inverted pyramid where you begin with general
(larger) statements to get a reader’
s attention and then gradually move to the
most specic information by the end. While this is a perfectly acceptable
framework that may be useful to you, it is by no means the only approach.
Most
students
before
writing
opener
list
of
have
or
an
Briey
■
Make
topic
to
summarize
Include
an
■
Ask
■
Provide
or
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what
a
quote
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you
you
about
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to
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of
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sense
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What
rst
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their
thesis)
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follows
is
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employ.
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genre
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typical
“real”
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text
type
and
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your
trends.
question.
from
the
text
that
highlights
an
element
you
will
emphasize.
■
Give
a
“hint”
■
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a
denition
topic
supports
■
Make
■
Give
Again,
an
a
it
is
back
even
occurred
of
an
of
point
you
and
and
that
you
the
as
want
to
of
how
your
and
thesis.
suit
both
at
this
best
for
dierent
more
can
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ser ve
work
you
as
it
As
a
is
writing
reected
in
and
assessment
a
the
point,
blueprint
It
is
some
tasks
about
nal
always
conclusion.
your
with
comfortable
introduction.
written
of
experiment
for
the
necessar y
possible,
change
has
introduction.
work
introductions
examiner
your
feel
quality
course
points
works
introduction
have
and
text.
should
may
prepared
the
aspect
main
what
introduction
sample
comments
Y
ou
will
a
or
your
see
you
an
with
your
the
of
or
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introductions
through
with
to
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topic
approach.
student
through
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account
while
may
this
producing
work,
review
along
about
practise,
in
that
your
term,
undermines
“correct”
introduction
well
related
introductions
noting
likely,
below
a
dierent
As
Sample
Read
or
competent
worth
go
and
no
that
best.
more
remainder
to
is
kinds
topics
of
conclusion.
straightfor ward
understand
and
your
unusual
there
dierent
or
of
choice
from
comments.
making
use
the
Tr y
of
commentar y
your
the
hand
ideas
at
writing
above
as
below.
1.
1.
Moreas
Z ogoiby,
Rushdie,
magic
in
the
many
realism.
narrator
ways
Moreas
of e
embodies
nds
Moor’s
the
himself
Last
ideals
aging
at
of
Sigh
the
an
by
“strive”
not
“strife”
Salman
book’s
genre:
accelerated
Are
these
ideals
of
the
genre?
rate,
Perhaps
“similarly”
is
not
quite
yet aside from his visionar y “dierentness”
, he continues to strife
right
for
nor ma lit y.
Simi l arly,
in
mag ic
re a lism
t he
mag ic a l
word
and
Whose
unrealistic blends into a realistic background. is passage covers
writing?
Rushdie’s?
an
important
development
in
Moreas’
struggle
with
himself
and
provides some insight on the motives behind his writing. Rushdie
u
150
here.
Zogoiby’s
or
the
SECTION
This
can
be
Literature
confusing
emphasizes the sincerity of the narrator’s revelations through the
causality—does
simple, ver y controlled sentence structure. Nevertheless, the ow
convey
of the writing is not disturbed since ideas are continuously picked
or
the
something,
stand
2
in
in
terms
writing
hide
contrast
to
of
style
something
something?
up again. Moreas’ situation is made clear by means of a comparison
to
anot her
charac ter
in
t he
b o ok
and
t he
us e
of
This
seems
This
introduction
a
different
topic
or
focus.
met aphor
hints
at
some
andallusion.
elements
2.
The p ass age I have chos en st ar ts f rom t he l ast p arag raph of p age
precise
311 of The Moor’s L ast Sigh by Sa lman Rushdie. Wr itten st raig ht
results
af ter
des cr ibing
p a s s a ge
sp e a ks
disinterest
Fielding ,
in
his
Na d i a
of
a
Wad i a
v ar i e t y
women ,
ag ing
his
b o dy
and
of
Fi eld ing
t h i ng s
s at isfac t ion
and
its
ef fe c t
fanc y ing
i n c lu d i ng
of
on
work i ng
his
work.
her,
his
t h is
re c e nt
for
but
and
in
of
unity
2.
This
is
singular
a
controlled
there
more
a
lack
focus
of
that
haphazard
approach.
A
than
general
lack
prevails.
R aman
does
a
good
job
of
providing
Th roug hout
context .
t he
p ass age
t here
s e ems
to
be
a
g re at
s ens e
of
s oph ist ic at ion
This
d e r iv i ng
f rom
his
us e
of
i m a ge r i e s
an d
d i c t i on
w h i ch
remains
terms
incre as es
t he
ef fe c t iveness
of
t he
imp ac t
towards
t he
vague,
such
as
b eing
s e emi ng ly
st raig ht
for ward
in
e ach
on
“sophistication”
and
re aders .
“effectiveness”
D espite
relying
a ls o
s entenc e
but
without
specic
of
reference
as
to
what .
t he p ass age, I b elie ve t hat wit hin Rushdie’s imager ies and dic t ion
This
could
prove
a
reasonable
focus
lays s ome s arcasm w hich ac tua l ly depic ts Mo or’s re a l and honest
but
needs
more
attention
and
t houg hts.
clarication.
3.
I’m
not
sure
how
this
all
As most people would recall, 1492 was an important year for Spain,
links
to
the
context
established
above.
for late in that year Christopher Columbus discovered a New World
3.
that
was
to
enrich
Spain
for
centuries
to
come.
Lesser
This
is
kind
of
a
clever
and
fun
known,
“attention-grabber”.
though
no
less
important
historically,
it
was
also
the
year
of
the
moor’s last sigh. Moor’s ancestor, Vasco da Gama explores the path
The
to
India
unfortunately,
to
establish
for
disputes
trading
their
among
Rushdie’s
novel,
which
rule.
the
he
became
When
Indians
had
convenient
Moor
against
mentioned
was
the
in
for
India
the
he
politicians.
about
the
strike
foreigners
studied
In
the
that
the
mid
was
of
held
the
is
is
rest
of
never
the
workers
due
to
critical
conditions
which
prevailed
at
start .
capitalize
What
sentences
and
the
“sigh”
the
seem
statements.
on
a
There
series
is
a
of
lack
that
clear
focus
and,
as
a
reader,
I
am
period.
still
4.
to
mentioned
concluding
of
time
introduction,
fails
interesting
disparate
by
the
Sa lman
Rushdie’s
novel
The
Moor’s
L ast
Sigh
consists
of
chapters s ep arate d into four s e c t ions; t he s ele c te d p ass age (p ages
4.
This
the
285–286)
“B omb ay
s e r ve s
as
C ent ra l”
,
t he
i nt ro du c t i on
g raphi c a l ly
of
s e c t i on
i l lust rat ing
t h re e
Mo or’s
not
aware
seems
title
that
c at aclys m i c
“Allusions,
b e en
terms—even
for
such
dic t ionand
as
t he
t raf f i ck ing
shar p
explicit
of
narc ot ics .
s t r u c t u re ,
i mager y,
p oi nt
Rushdi e
of
T h roug h
v i e w,
emb arks
t he
to
is
to
suggest
illustrates
diction
imagery”
ar reste d
what
come.
that
this.
it
is
How?
name d
plunge into a world of ref le c t ion in a s adist ic mi lieu af ter hav ing
devices
of
t went y
l iterar y
a l lu s i on s ,
re ader
on
a
would
to
These
help.
what?
and
explicit
remain
slightly
For
very
more
example,
What
kind
of
vague
detail
allusions
imagery?
t rans cendent yet unp a lat able voyage of sincer ity, le aving not hing
Phrases
to
like
ultimately
elements
quite
than
Realism
Background
Realism
is,
professes
in
a
ver y
allegiance
verisimilitude).
specically
centur y
or
on
this
nal
sentence
are
imag inat ion.
to
dened
to
an
the
by
its
to
But
sense,
the
of
opposition
the
the
reference
that
to
actual
to
that
any
occurred
and
romanticism
material
is
point
I’m
not
other
graphic
and,
unpleasant .
as
more
mid-19th
primarily
preceded
page
(known
slightly
the
the
particular
but
that
ction
from
can
on
in
relates
which
section
literature
world
realism
centur y
background
to
Some
mentioned
about
presumably,
reference
movement
decade
see
a
reproducing
here
artistic
nal
romanticism,
broad
sure
the
hollow.
are
be
it
identied
(for
more
136).
151
Realism
concerned
itself
Specically,
realism
actions
behaviours
and
common,
to
deal
with
ordinar y
with
the
to
nd
of
ever yday
the
address
of
conduct
exploring
such
and
the
real
realists
in
an
actual,
democratic
suggested
with
of
the
issues
believed
that
such
in
an
they
would
tradition,
could
to
had
exact
to
ethical
a
identify
laws
people
way
the
and
the
tr ying
and
immediate
concerns
responsibility
of
living
believed
change
world.
contemporar y
issues
an
Realists
governing
possibly
“real”
specic
ordinar y
transcend
discover
world.
nd
to
the
now,
”
sought
and
problems,
they
eort
and
phenomena
sought
the
name,
Realism
and
that
all-too-earthly
the
“here
common
Romanticism
were
by
the
veriable.
problems,
phenomena
here
as
experiences
humankind
the
with,
concerned
Whereas
ideal,
to
ver y
ver y
times.
was
that
norms
for
the
and
by
and,
in
a
better.
In the W
estern world, this was a time of rapid industrial development as
well as scientic progress and such an aesthetic movement makes sense
against this backdrop. Many writers, such as Charles Dickens in England
or Mark Twain in the United States, found plenty with which to nd fault.
Romanticism could feel overly sentimental and even false or pretentious and
realism as a movement was keen to deal with and treat the more authentic
problems that were highly visible. Interestingly, many of the writers during
the realist era—and even realist writers in a more contemporary era—
relied on satire and humour as much, if not more than, rant, protest or
tragedy. Regardless of approach, however, what the realists shared was an
intention towards mimetic art, or a one-to-one correspondence between
representation and the objects or ideas beingrepresented.
Activity
Read
the
short
Huckleberry
•
What
•
How
•
What
this
•
kind
is
passage
Finn
of
the
other
on
from
page
realistic
language
the
204
setting
used
elements
of
beginning
and
to
consider
does
add
realism
of
Twain
to
Mark
the
the
Twain’s The
following
Adventures
of
questions.
create?
sense
mentioned
of
realism?
above
are
already
apparent
in
passage?
How
might
this
text
suggest
Background
an
ethical
response
to
real
social
issues?
Modernism
Modernism was an artistic and aesthetic movement from the very end of the
19th century through much of the 20th century (its exact dates, of course, are
not xed and many attributes of modernism continue to inuence literature
but mid-20th century is a reasonable approximation). Modernism was a
period of incredible productivity, both in quantity and in quality, and the
era remains well-renowned for some of the greatest works of the century.
Modernism was a true movement that had an impact and inuence on all
of the arts and philosophy and was generally considered more widespread
and encompassing than movements before or since. ough still generally
limited to the W
estern world, modernism was both a trans-continental as
well as a trans-Atlantic movement that had far-reaching inuence.
Modernism
established
152
can
be
rules,
most
simply
conventions
characterized
and
traditions.
as
a
break
away
Modernism
from
sought
a
new
way
SECTION
of
perceiving
as
new
humankind’
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use
of
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in
bringing
refrain
surprise—as
in
relief
(this
failing
is
to
or
true
familiarity,
in
bring
music
the
as
especially
well).
expected
satisfaction
above.
repetition
can
occur
through
Sounds
Particular
Stanzas
Metrical
Allusions
Shapes
any
syllables
of
the
and
following.
words
Phrases
patterns
Ideas
Images
Activity
Read
through
features
each
does
seem
to
the
following
each
strive
employ
excerpts
to
towards
and
achieve
with
its
compare
repetition?
use
of
the
use
What
of
repetition.
purpose
or
What
effect
does
repetition?
u
157
Text
The
1
Bells
Hear
the
sledges
Silver
bells!
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How
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158
own
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EDGAR
Text
that
tintinnabulation
the
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Read
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t h is
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c onve y
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204.
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explanation.
may
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student
work
ere are three main acts of deception in Much Ado About Nothing:
the friends of Benedict and Beatrice luring them into believing the
other
is
in
love
with
them,
Don
John’s
evil
plan
to
make
Claudio
doubt Hero’s innocence, and Friar Francis’ idea to make the public
believe Hero has died. Although most characters in the play employ
Quite
clear
focus.
either deception or self-deception, their motives var y greatly. While
B eatrice’s
lovers
and
the
driven
B enedict’s
nal
solely
push
by
his
friends
towards
desire
to
use
deception
concomitance,
do
evil
upon
to
Don
others
so
give
the
John’s
as
to
two
plan
make
is
up
for his own unhappiness. e use of deception therefore functions
Y
ou
as
details.
This
answer
but
a
simple
between
Y
et
the
way
good
theme
of
characterization
and
of
evil
by
emphasizing
the
dierence
characters.
deception
also
allows
for
a
deeper
the
character’s
minds.
In
many
of
his
plays
crisis.
In
like
Much
characters
are
Hamlet
Ado
struggle
About
Beatrice
with
some
Nothing some
and
Benedict.
of
Both
sort
the
of
themselves
into
thinking
that
they
of
nice
notion
into
nor
deception
the
other
have
a
in
scenes
one
is
love.
It
in
is
love.
in
in
soliloquy
towards
160
fall
At
which
love
the
their
with
which
worth
beginning
friends
them,
they
both
trick
How
initially
never
that
the
their
their
of
these
general
support .
and
the
transition
to
dig
each
into
and
of
two
thinking
Benedict
initial
friends
play.
do
we
know
they
Again,
are
more
deceiving
specic
get
play
them
Beatrice
emphasize
noting
of
some
distinct
support
married,
to
strong
identity
most
them
will
a
needs
themselves?
deceive
get
is
Shakespeare’s
deeper
protagonists
to
insight
A
into
need
attitude
know
exactly
u
and
explanation
is
required.
SECTION
the
right
the
on
deceivers
the
been
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in
things
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deceived,
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is
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order
come
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the
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make
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Hence
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aer
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have
love
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Literature
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Beatrice
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strengthens
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to
across
self-perception
adds
the
in
portrayed
in
Y
et
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also
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are
say
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another.
realized
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2
have
Again,
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because
bylove.
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I
is
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think
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moments.
On the other hand, some schemes of deception challenge the play’
s
nature as a comedy. Although Don John claims of himself that he
Transitions
are
effective.
is a “plain dealing villain”
, his inner evil comes to light through his
plan to deceive Claudio into thinking Hero has cheated on him.
Although initially this is Boracchio’
s plan, it is Don Pedro who
nds a way to employ it. It can be argued that if Don John was
really a plain dealing villain, he would not have made use of such
an intricate scheme to get revenge from his brother. Although
plans are made at the end of the play to deal with Don John, the
play nishes on a festive note and the audience never nds out
what actually happened to him. Y
et it is obvious that Don John has
further alienated himself from the happy crowd due to his use of
deception. erefore as a contrast to Benedick and Beatrice’
s happy
ending due to the use of deception, the character of Don John ends
in vain. Although Don John’
s plan played an essential role in the
A
good
point .
There
is
a
clear
and
story line, towards the end of the play when most characters again
unied
approach
evident
here
but
nd happiness, it seems less signicance. Due to the nature of the
this
play, good defeats evil.
2.
“What
asks
is
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you
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onto
read
in
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further
express
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state
life”
.
in
either
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pull
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question
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Whitman
shade.
print
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Whitman
is
essentially saying that one look says more than a thousand words.
Whitman senses that the Oxen’s gaze is so deep and full of meaning,
and
deciphering
much
more
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it
knowledge
says,
that
and
understanding
ever ything
he
has
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read
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whole life. is is ironic as he expects the readers to read his lengthy
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In
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5
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“day
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161
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164
A
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very
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SECTION
controversial
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165
Post-Modernism
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aspects of post-modernism in earlier works, pointing to post-modernism
as less a time period than a movement with roots in many eras.
■
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or
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166
we
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SECTION
Regarding
■
irony
and
ironic
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2
Literature
post-modernism
Activity
looks
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past
but
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s How to Become a Writer on
Post-modernism
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page204 and Folman and Polonsky’
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■
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fruitful
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CHESTERTON
168
before
here
specially
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our
modern
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page
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strange
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and
death.
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London
merely
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paradox
mean
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next
such
digest.”
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with
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through
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lie
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acquaintances
fancy
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page,
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another
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life
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nonsense.
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the
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thesis
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work
In conclusion, this poem is expansive because it goes from celebrating
This
offers
larger
a
effect
concise
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summation
purpose.
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of
has
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nice
in
this
poem,
is
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barbaric
yawp
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roofs
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.
2.
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clear
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provoke reection on the actions of the characters. e plays seek
to emulate people and realistic scenarios, though each playwright
has done this in a way that reects the ideals and values of the time
periods,
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the
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of
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both
plays
of
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1870s
likely
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feel
of
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very
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sympathy and anger towards the protagonists, and this mixture of
manages
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is
situations
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is
achieved
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by
the
playwrights’
inducing
realistic
creation
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conclusion
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up
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beauty
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169
a
Concludes
also talks of oxen and birds and colours in nature with such uidity
4.
that
the
readers
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poem
in
is
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nature
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to
all
part
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nature
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is
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humans
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Dickinson
vice-versa.
uses
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larger
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various
This
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observation
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structure
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song—changes
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poem
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entire
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Further
Oral
Activity
e further oral activity will make up a part of your formal assessment
work that is submitted to the IB but the range and options for producing
the further oral activity may vary substantially from school to school.
T
echnically, during the course of your study you will need to complete at least
two further oral activities, submitting your best work. Of the minimum two
further oral activities, one must be based on material you study in part 1 of
the course (language in cultural context) and one must be based on material
you study in part 2 of the course (language and mass communication).
Given, however, that oral presentations, discussion and creative analysis may
form a substantial part of your class study, it is not inconceivable that you
will actually produce more than the minimum two further oral activities and
some of these may come from the literature parts of the course (parts 3 and
4). ough these may not be submitted formally, it is inevitably through the
range of oral work that much of your learning will occur.
Regardless
oral
■
of
activity,
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jobs
age
other
life
as
hobbies
experience
physical
a
or
writer
interests
health
friends
status
status
or
political
connections
views
psychological
health
179
Of
the
times:
historical
social
era
political
roles
literar y
artistic
world
traditions
trends
policies
social
events
norms
economy
technolog y
relationship
worldviews
religious
world
language
educational
usage
norms
norms
Activity
Try
the
this
following
can
Emily
lead
with
association
lifetime,
of
bucket
of
rarely
full
popular
contextual
from
in
Read
the
the
her
make
even
to
Butteries
Went
Two
butteries
went
And
waltzed
of
context
and
even
how
leave
poem
and
and
to
her
see
(by
home
children,
how
home
if
helps
she
to
this
may
the
albeit
This
focus
lived
be
her
work
light
on
her
still
dropping
a
contextual
on
a
of
was
by
the
life
of
with
understanding
shed
already
end
though
upstairs).
Dickinson’s
with
you
knowledge—her
parents’
window
attention
to
at
study
neighbourhood
imagination
Out
to
reclusiveness
her
connections
following
attention
her
bedroom
drawing
need
and
outside
to
helpful
no
historical
more
spinster
sweets
with
of
poet
is
single-minded
Two
a
candy
we
example
popular
ventured
as
an
very
of
imagination
poetry.
a
the
being
distributing
imagination
in
some
as
interpretations.
remains
with
she
knowledge
the
exercise
multiple
Dickinson
familiar
fond
to
role
of
the
imagination
of
Dickinson’s
thepoem:
Noon
XVIII
Then
stepped
And
rested
And
then
Upon
a
Their
spoken
If
met
in
EMILY
was
in
of
and
any
the
war
poems
•
•
then
of
bore
in
away
any
distant
port,
be.
bird,
merchantman,
to
me.
context
this
Does
this
If
how?
by
of
her
attract
wrote
but
omit
the
this
times.
the
a
has
event.
to
a
been
One
writer’s
paid
Dickinson
American
that
letters
who
contextual
might
the
signicant
would
to
of
duration
poem
closely,
seem
How
rmament
sea
by
the
information
180
yet,
conscripted
so,
the
sea,—
not
other
doorstep
nearly
through
DICKINSON
whatsoever
your
noon
beam;
the
or
at
stream,
mentioned
ether
consider
build-up
nor
by
frigate
Report
a
together
never
If
Now
on
coming
out
a
straight
shining
Though
By
above
to
War,
recovered
might
attention
friends
fee
Civil
was
yet
is
assume
(and
during
neither
there
that
the
being
a
war
the
this
poem
mention
war
just
beyond
followed
and
drafted)
in
any
Dickinson
regarding
avoid
writing
but
had
a
news
brother
Dickinson’s
event.
information
contextual
regarding
change
information
Dickinson’s
your
reading
reinforce
personality?
the
of
the
earlier
poem?
contextual
to
leaders
environment
past
SECTION
Motif
Reception
A
motif
is
building
like
a
a
a
a
direct
or
symbol
a
character
■
a
recurrent
■
a
verbal
■
a
symbolic
or
leitmotif
a
work)
terms
can
is
concept
similar
of
than
that
Both
“
A
the
of
musical
further
a
as
with
of
basis
narrative.
theme.
any
a
unify
for,
or
elementar y
Unlike
larger
many
ways,
related
a
symbol,
work
repetition
of
the
the
In
its
substitution
of
a
a
motif
(to
a
but
ideas
by
helping
motif
it
or
to
works
behaves
objects.
as
A
following:
to
“leitmotif ”
terms
and
can
of
their
ver y
the
terms
is
the
associated
over
be
evil”
better
with
the
work.
themes
body
poetr y
power
work.
notion
of
good
or
of
that
an
oen
that
of
the
though,
a
single
or oeuvre
Dickinson
from
literature
can
as
is
(for
her
use
imagination.
”)
come
from
same
of
theme
Leitmotif,
motifs
Emily
music,
thought
work,
interesting
in
In
of
the
a
“practice
However,
or
of
with
or
overall
synonymously.
familiarity
much
may
entire
What
a
more
literar y
used
application
anchor
repeated
and
in
the
are
phrases.
is
confusion
the
the
purity).
recurrent
of
myth,
triumphs
larger
the
on
or
leitmotif
are
leitmotif
emphasis
Greek
though
A
a
much
a
“good
avoid
unify
refer
musical
point
separation
motif.
across
and
example
“leitmotif ”
also
an
guided
of
helps
and
leitmotifs
provides
(for
to
common
“motif ”
and/or
a
form
theme
also
and
repetition
main
example
than
employs
nature
(for
a
sometimes
example
a
metaphor
than
the
concept
“motif ”
author
or
larger
helps
Leitmotif
image
perfect”)
“notion”
idea
or
and
ser ves
Literature
pattern
the
a
in
that
expanded
recurrent
rather
recurrenttheme
makes
element
extended
occur
■
A
an
is
dominant
may
evil
of,
motif
conceit
motif
simple
block
however,
for ward
any
and
2
the
is
the
the
said
and
way
repetition
which
be
music
connection
to
true
to
motifs
of
listener
be
refer
between
a
motif
can
in
be
literature.
Activity
Read
through
Goodman
the
Brown
excerpt
below.
establishes
the
reading
introduction
the
(innocence
used
to
and
unify
eventually
From
motif
of
purity)
the
purity
to
is
work
from
Nathaniel
Though
and
this
story
and
obvious,
innocence
should,
established
further
Hawthorne’s
somewhat
and
help
on
the
plant
story Young
introduction
part
though,
propel
short
the
of
Faith.
suggest
clues
as
larger
to
how
how
themes
just
motif
this
that
clearly
Even
will
be
will
appear.
Young
Goodman
Brown
The
Young
Goodman
Brown
came
forth
at
sunset
into
the
street
at
motif
evident
village;
but
put
his
head
back,
after
crossing
the
threshold,
to
exchange
thrust
pink
kiss
her
own
ribbons
“Dearest
were
in
dreams
of
to
your
and
with
his
her
his
such
head
cap
wife.
into
while
whispered
ear,
own
me
young
pretty
heart,”
close
sleep
tarry
with
she,
night,
that
dear
Faith,
street,
called
softly
put
to-night.
thoughts
this
the
she
“prithee
bed
And
A
off
she’s
and
rather
the
all
is
of
was
wind
play
until
when
herself
in
with
pure
love
is
the
pink
exchange
ribbons,
between
names
the
two.
Faith,
the
in
particular,
is
associated
this.
lips
and
Faith’s
such
sometimes.
the
and
named,
with
her
via
the
with
sunrise
troubled
nights
aptly
Brown.
sadly,
journey
afeared
of
wife
Goodman
woman
husband,
the
letting
to
your
lone
as
young
a
and
parting
of
Salem
purity
concern
Pray
the
year.”
for
is
her
references
reafrmed
husband
to
night
by
as
and
her
well
as
fear.
u
181
“My
love
and
my
Faith,”
replied
young
Goodman
Brown,
“of
all
nights
in
Again,
the
year,
this
one
night
must
I
tarry
away
from
thee.
My
journey,
done
’twixt
as
purity,
callest
it,
sunrise.
we
but
forth
and
What,
three
my
back
again,
sweet,
months
must
pretty
needs
wife,
dost
be
thou
doubt
now
me
nd
God
all
bless
well
innocence,
goodness
and
support .
already,
and
married?”
you!”
when
reveals
and
Here,
“Then
Faith
thou
you
said
Faith,
come
with
the
pink
ribbons;
“and
may
you
Goodman
reinforces
Faith’s
Brown
purity
further
and
back.”
goodness.
“Amen!”
bed
at
cried
dusk,
Goodman
and
no
Brown.
harm
will
“Say
come
thy
to
prayers,
dear
Faith,
and
go
to
thee.”
Faith’s
So
they
parted;
and
the
young
man
pursued
his
way
until,
being
about
her
turn
the
corner
by
the
meeting-house,
he
looked
back
and
saw
the
actions—still
husband,
Faith
still
peeping
after
him
with
a
melancholy
air,
in
spite
of
wishing
he
after
wouldn’t
head
go—are
of
watching
to
her
accompanied
not
by
pink
petulance
but
by
a
sense
of
ribbons.
continuing
“Poor
am
I
little
to
Faith!”
leave
her
thought
on
such
he,
an
for
his
errand!
heart
She
smote
talks
of
him.
“What
dreams,
too.
a
Methought
Even
as
she
spoke
there
was
trouble
in
her
face,
as
if
a
dream
had
warned
work
is
to
be
done
to-night.
But
no,
no;
’twould
kill
her
to
think
she’s
a
blessed
angel
on
earth;
and
after
this
one
night
I’ll
cling
skirts
and
follow
her
to
suspect
be
able
HAWTHORNE
different
to
Intertextuality
Reception
Intertextuality
another
argues,
works
is
a
that
already
new
a
end.
possible
play
and
for
is
this
draw
is
new,
the
been
that
in
182
to
to
have
word,
words,
say
but
be
its
a
text
one
rather
or
that
one
of
product
to
words
its
the
only
avoid
is
in
that
but
all
has
of
given
and
form.
allusion
simply
out
or
you
intentional
to
that
Where
come
all
towards
words
arise
consciously
cannot
isolation
type
intertextuality
meanings
be
in
forms
existence
any
of
structuralism
and
transformed
not
one
intertextuality
the
inevitability.
does
on
texts,
rework
can
and
cannot
and
texts
is
related
owes
to
own
example,
that
is
text
experienced,
for
All
work
constructed
intentional,
references
that
is
capacity
is
literar y
through
today
poetr y
the
produce
we
new
any
absorbed
poem
language,
may
kinds).
is,
then,
works
all
of
all
of
the
collectively.
through
have
about
the
known
intertextual
intertextual
reference
intentional.
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upon
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what
or
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way
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and
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ourselves
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resides
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when
Intertextuality
must
of
of
that
of
Intertextuality
avant-garde
cannot
reference
is
it.
No
language
a
texts
texts;
other
instance,
We
all
express
us.
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permutations
reference
even
most
“inventing”
before.
to
of
distinguishes
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interdependence
before
only
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unavoidable.
Even
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both
the
matter,
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mosaic
e
to
pre-existing
available
humankind
or
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previous
What
that
have
that
instead
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for
comprise
arguing
are
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refers
come
clear
work
does
avant
that
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before.
it
that
of
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give
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work
predecessors.
apparently
garde?
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basic
prefer
is
the
of
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its
is
most
might
work
that
original
ask,
the
the
constituent
term
creative,
the
Y
ou
answer
recontextualizes
critics
What
to
hide
Faith’s
truth
purity.
from
Though
Goodman
or
willing
Brown
to
will
keep
his
heaven.”
promise
NATHANIEL
to
to
not
her
need
speaks
it.
we
Well,
the
her
her
what
concern.
wretch
sense
power
parts
“cannibalized”)
then,
is
a
creative
artists
then,
that
of
of
that
from
if
being
a
work
have
works
reworking
ultimately,
in
Faith’s
future
his
is
goodness
desire
also
and
a
to
be
reference
purity.
SECTION
rather
novel
than
a
creative
manipulation
Intertextuality
may
somethingwith
creation
an
is
authenticity
of
a
world
tend
and
to
and
pursuit
are
of
really
to
and,
Intertextuality
paragraphs
When
we
all
texts
the
well,
it
is
read
builds
an
upon
many
of
instance,
tool
own
as
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the
as
its
of
in
as
all
of
actually
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style.
and
and
form,
in
the
of
context
at
fact,
is,
author
such
since
we
a
the
independent
even
plagiarism
makes
there
act
represents
individual
In
however,
an
authorship,
acceptance
individual
is
no
this
original
plagiarism—both
issue
our
of
production
bearing
of
or
reading,
borrow
the
of
interesting
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in
the
reception
that
this
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the
a
same
as
our
reading
intertextual
rereading
sense),
with
of
ever y
there
substantial
well.
before
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reader’s
as
experiences
experienced
broadest
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on
individual
heard
reading
(in
and
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experiences
may
ever y
“readings”
it
Such
individual.
and
exist
produce
literature
the
authorship
has
viewed,
all
we
about
notion
purest
an
terms
we
in
literature.
collective
fashioning
mentioned
make
is,
as
a
critics
and
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to
When
to
particular
context.
spoof
much
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as
or
to
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intertextuality
in
our
suggest
other
more
“show”
show.
refer
is
above,
literature
point
refers
again,
intertextuality
and
read,
as
the
cannot
employ
Because
language
necessar y
Simpsons
in
mostly
the
even
constantly
meaning.
study
resides
that
is
role
always
in
meaning.
component
a
new
texts,
function
rather
with
previous
of
such
there
Interestingly,
unique
element
we
study
of
Intertextuality,
that,
genius
context?
However,
widespread
to
can
or
thinking
We
to
intertextuality
have
knowledge.
producing
In
but
we
argued,
experience
of
treated
texts,
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body
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our
thoughts
focus
Notions
nothing:
(how
ideolog y
author’s
concepts.
in
you
deities).
of
enjoyed
arguing
above
for
the
a
from
experience
authority
the
only
to
prior
property.
by
therefore,
consider
arising
Literature
production.
much
shied
recent
problematic,
ideas
of
knowledge.
authorship
to
dened
which
relatively
idea
reser ved
tremendous
has
Renaissance,
no
intellectual
uniqueness
worldview
novel
reasonable
challenge
largely
grant
the
feel
in
absolutely
generally
interesting
endeavour
not
2
than
world
an
this
way,
anchorage
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as
reminding
Anchorage
popular
is
as
remind
in
well
shows
allusion
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eect. e
television
viewer
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is
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ways
draws
particularly
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for
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references
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work
is
in
convey
become
view e
makes
attention
common
inevitable
intentional
intertexuality
that
an
Simpsons,
in
the
only
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a
use
of
work’s
produced
in
a
advertisement,
culture.
183
Context
Issue
While
rst
the
of
to
most
context
author
author
In
historical
context
next
this
an
the
the
cases,
other.
in
But
work
not
but
play
world,
even
own
when
possible
into
context
the
of
context
approaching
of
another
of
a
time
likely
both
of
to
oen
the
be
an
lack
if
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and
times
will
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ver y
world
in
some
so
articial
a
larger
stor y
(for
or
on
instance,
even
probably
again,
by
adds
To
rarely,
ever,
historical
another
have
if
an
we
layer
elements
that
1997,
American
Pynchon
work
with
for
Mason
&
centres
Charles
Dixon.
on
the
author
of
as
they
e
and
plot
the
interest
one
time
line
Sri
the
novel
novel
English
was
in
1996).
sur veyors
who
live
second
the
Civil
the
novel
just
the
slaver y,
British
Not
with
out
race
is
even
written
that
diction
world.
clearly
the
time
in
the
late
20th
184
the
novel
incorporates
elements
closely
the
a
1992
novel
unravels
nal
days
the
lm
the
characters
of
together
in
(which
successful
several
war
villa
in
in
the
an
The
Italian
novel
as
considers
nationality,
could
be
love,
war
argued
to
be
and,
in
thus,
any
could
story
be
world
context.
on
what
world
you
war
know
(do
of
the
some
very
brief
and
if
necessary),
how
do
you
period,
some
of
the
following
topics—
to
would
from
provide
the
context
particular
of
1945
resonance
and
to
the
the
end
of
primary
the
second
issues
listed
world
spying
distrust
love
foreignness
atomic
to
the
survival
honesty
alienation
hope
revenge
including
war—
below?:
also
bomb
contextual
related
centur y
writer
the
syntax
contemporar y
But
as
of
which
considered
and
wrote
characters,
think
it
Canadian
issues
exploration,
during
writing
only
research
sur veying
a
novel
lives
such
second
and
place
colonialism,
historical
expansion
times
complexity
the
Based
authentic
and
Patient
The
considered
of
and
the
north
before
War.
deal
historical
around
descent,
world
timeless
does
to
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(also
to
literature,
that
in
society
2
protest
power
with
or
larger
or
of
a
are
may
society
husband
critiques
of
manifested
exist
on
(perhaps
and
a
social
as
smaller
power
wife)
but
reality.
even
Some
Activity
ofthe
more
likely
themes
around
power
and
power
struggle
include:
Turn
■
good
versus
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gender
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economic
to
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conict
social
■
control
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(social,
militar y
or
versus
economic,
political
poverty
or
authority
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self
or
psychic)
ofits
colonization/national
■
justice
■
literacy
set
the
and
is,
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visual
work
time
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Set
drama
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is
example,
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where
and
and
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the
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so
through
to
use
Closely
nd
combinations
of
language
analyse
ways
to
the
and
work
comment
on
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set
and
and
can
in
is
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to
hard
function
creating
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to
as
the
so
if
part
as
is
takes
not
of
all
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the
e
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and
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as
in
character
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of
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setting
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some
but
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performance
Just
element
enough
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of
interesting
unique
mood
it
attention
overlook.
a
but
narrative
set
most
much
briey
page)
embodiment
dramatic
makes
so
the
additional
physical
the
that
mentioned
it
establishing
it
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can
other
also
context
social).
nal
enactment
movement,
Taken
actual
the
the
together,
of
staging
and
play
be
in
is
these
most
never
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a
for
have
fully
combining
costumes,
elements
of
prose,
director
is
setting,
sound,
performance
may
reader
where
power
Staging
(not
important
visible
the
already
stage
and
where
is
and
deser ve
element
setting
setting
the
to
is
the
visual
place
lighting,
section,
way
on
performance
scener y.
earlier
the
signicantly
(historical
produce
is
works,
functions
Staging
and
set
drama
element
is
While
the
of
section
physical
however.
and
staging
literar y
dramatic
possible
and
education.
reception
unique
of
on
represents
rights
Reception
in
to
conict
each
e
McKay
poem
range
form,
themes.
might
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or
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trying
and
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critiques
struggles
■
poem
Claude
acomplex
conict
status
by
page201.
social
■
the
evil
play.
static
work
As
or
the
most
realized
with,
the
component
freedom
can
for
it
of
be
props
acting
mentioned
Instead,
(this
set
directions,
with
also
xed
instance).
the
stage
is
in
to
in
of
the
drama
the
staging
interpretation
true
of
television,
197
lm
and
example
video
with
productions
cameras,
as
angles
well
or
that
add
further
perspectives).
levels
One
may
of
staging,
accept
for
some
Activity
of
Look
the
staging
either
or
suggestions
needs
outdoors)
some
(for
or
of
example
desires
non-realistic
the
the
(for
playwright
size
of
instance
fashion).
a
or
stage
to
modify
or
stage
a
extensively
whether
work
it
is
to
based
be
realistically
indoors
or
in
closely
at
the
following
on
images
of
staging
designs
Titus
Do
for
set
and
Shakespeare’s
and
consider
the
questions.
the
speak
two
to
periods
versions
different
or
purpose
different
seem
to
set
a
For
what
director
choose
be
such
designs?
What
atmosphere,
tone
or
mood
is
each
of
created
versions
and
to
time
contexts?
would
compelled
•
different
Andronicus
following
•
two
in
through
the
what
elements?
•
How
might
physical
make
an
staging
•
Pick
the
any
sets.
198
different
impact
and
the
be
used
on
the
How
impact?
to
to
effect?
element
contribute
or
the
spaces
do
of
each
of
they
context,
meaning
SECTION
2
Literature
Texts
Grief
I
Of
tell
you,
hopeless
That
only
men
Half-taught
Beat
Of
In
shrieking
souls
Under
as
the
is
incredulous
in
upward
grief
anguish,
to
God’s
and
passionless;
Grief
of
Most
throne
lieth
blanching,
despair,
through
reproach.
countries,
the
the
in
Full
midnight
loud
air
In
access
If
thy
like
itself
Touch
silent-bare
vertical
for
a
it
it;
Author
to
Her
Thou
ill-informed
could
Who
after
Till
snatched
Who
thee
Made
thy
My
I
from
Thy
And
by
of
my
thence
exposed
halting,
errors
were
not
return
my
thee
by
visage
as
was
(in
one
so
public
to
the
was
print)
unt
irksome
being
Thy
I
mine
blemishes
washed
How
the
thy
own,
amend,
face,
Poor
at
wise
than
In
true,
to
may
In
trudge,
If
small,
my
but
so
I
more
thing
we
affection
enjoy
in
for
enough,
they
may
large
defects
I
badges
and
tell
in
England
numbers
No
of
doubt
fortunes
mantelpieces,
and
keep
but
constipated
at
on
is
the
nurses
about
at
them,
Spain,
I
was
the
and
they
to
see
in
X
bed,
still
the
You
nurses
the
let
out
had
a
military
almost
wouldn’t,
are
existed
to
in
the
wash
Hôpital
myself
X.
in
kept
food
and
there
a
huge
wear
Queen
you
of
lie
my
clothes
Hôpital
X,
were
and
Later
the
from
infested
grown
before
my
tinge
of
on
my
cloth
say
thou
alas
is
the
meet;
house
thou
are
thou
is
mind,
in
may’st
yet
to
than
feet,
nd.
roam;
not
had’st
I
known.
none;
poor,
send
thee
out
of
door.
its
in
on,
of
I
I
case
the
into
ward
to
was
found
which
were
crickets.
on
was
my
up
legs
and
I
ed
without
was
and
not
the
only
bareness,
its
hospital
sickly
I
have
smell
ed
and,
in
its
mental
atmosphere
stand
out
in
above
my
as
was
hospital
the
exceptional.
I
had
belonging
been
to
my
taken
there
because
arrondissement,
and
I
it
did
Union
learn
till
after
I
was
in
it
that
it
bore
a
bad
reputation.
A
their
year
or
two
who
was
later
the
celebrated
swindler,
Madame
Hanaud,
after
ill
a
on
days
remand,
was
of
managed
it
she
taken
to
to
the
Hôpital
elude
her
X,
guards,
took
a
was
more
taxi
and
drove
back
comfortable
to
the
there.
I
prison,
have
no
explaining
doubt
that
that
she
the
a
such
was
quite
untypical
of
French
hospitals
even
at
dirt
date.
But
the
patients,
nearly
resigned.
Some
all
of
them
working
men,
well
that
the
I
while
few
Gamp
take
ung,
When
It
Republican
England
when
gloom
laziness.
Mrs
ignorant
see
bathroom,
by
strong
time
thus
discharge.
but
surprisingly
scraps
and
had
from
of
them
seemed
to
nd
the
there
almost
comfortable,
for
at
least
two
were
of
malingerers
who
found
this
a
good
way
of
getting
the
through
wainscodings
she
even
unwashed
sheer
hospitals
too
either,
packing
dressings
was
vulgar
asked,
thee
aw.
BRADSTREET
destitute
dirty
thee
where
a
hobbling
homespun
her
made
make
more
Mother,
caused
still
to
trim
way
Father
conditions
was
to
memory
were
enough
go.
dumb
that
as
spot,
‘mongst
thy
HôpitalX
temperature.
and
wet:
and
nurses
tea-leaves,
of
don’t
unmade
Hôpital
later,
arise
not
BROWNING
run’st
something
and
The
are
advantage
well-trained
English
with
photographs
least
an
beneath.
saw,
not
Jack
woe
could:
underrate
nurses.
a
save
thy
medical
having
rigidly-disciplined
set
would
all,
we
eyelids
express
death—
moveless
dust
could
to
man,
sight;
Die
perhaps
the
joints
dress
they
from,
A
thy
thou
take
for
off
array,
Which
light,
in
this
And
call;
BARRATT
nought
And
judge.
mother
still
better
But
view;
all
not
length
if
it
like
statue
and
to
marble
rubbing
ANNE
Yet
watch
weep,
stretched
Yet
less
press
should
for
I
brain,
remain,
lessened,
blushing
brat
feeble
friends,
to
rags,
my
side
by
in
rambling
cast
did’st
abroad
thee
Where
At
birth
silence
monumental
the
Deep-hearted
eye-glare
Book
offspring
in
crumble
ELIZABETH
The
heavens.
dead
everlasting
Till
desertness,
absolute
got
the
winter.
The
nurses
connived
because
the
back
malingerers
made
themselves
the
of
majority
useful
by
doing
odd
jobs.
But
the
waiting
for
attitude
the
was:
of
course
this
is
a
lousy
a
u
199
place,
to
but
them
hours
what
that
before
should
die
chance
of
catching
home,
must
the
a
lingering
faded
doctors
if
army.
funny
to
start
There
were
at
eye
in
you
in
It
at
he
too
into
top
old
past.
were
to
this
stories
operating
out
of
before
sheer
you
If
to
for
own
to
nd
(he
which
that
about
thinking
it
be
situated
From
just
tales
about
beyond
the
a
little
some
Dreadful
said
X,
but
found
it
terminated
he’d
come
three
home
been
months
looking
on
the
ago.
pale
sofa
That
and
ever
day,
since
three
things
in
a
box.
“Happy
scared
Valentine’s
and
he’d
months
with
put
a
heart-shaped
Day”,
and
box
of
candy
Beam
on
on
the
the
kitchen
table,
too.
“I
table.
got
He
took
canned
off
today.
he
and
his
going
Sandy
and
whiskey
he
happen
her
and
might
houses.
to
to
husband
ate
the
us
sat
be
able
to
they
c o u l d n ’t
do
a
while
all
a
of
said
turn
up,”
Sandy
at
the
instead
table
They
of
think
said.
the
rest
she
was
scared,
too.
he
and
what
of
did.
He
where
made
he’d
his
slept
he
day
after
his
to
see
She
and
bed
about
roofs
anything.
wanted
on
every
He
to
ll
out
papers
he
to
said
the
night
there
went
and
no
jobs
in
his
line
of
His
face
began
to
a
He
inclined
the
milling
evening
he
be
sofa
or
as
men
on
it
were
held
on
by
what
of
was
200
his
time
supposed
there,
to
do
as
if,
now
atmosphere
not
of
the
the
therein
lay
go
two
talk
to
weeks
he
somebody
had
to
go
about
a
job
unemployment
sign
compensation.
he
stayed
on
the
sofa.
It’s
in
the
living
like
he
But
lives
He
lives
room.
Now
and
through
and
magazines
every
so
she
often
brought
she
home
came
in
to
from
nd
this
big
book
she’d
club—something
got
as
called
a
bonus
for
Mysteries
of
the
he
and
the
any
sleep
on
night,
had
to
job.
to
women
He
she
that
thought,
he
no
it
the
in
front
pages,
of
as
him
if
with
he
both
were
hands,
being
his
drawn
he
he
didn’t
was
reading.
But
after
a
while
she
noticed
in
that
seem
to
be
making
any
progress
in
it;
he
still
to
be
at
chapter
about
two,
the
she
same
place—somewhere
guessed.
Sandy
picked
it
up
once
it.
opened
it
to
his
place.
There
she
read
about
a
man
and
had
been
discovered
after
spending
two
thousand
happened.
the
other
tried
sofa.
book
over
in
a
peat
bog
in
the
Netherlands.
A
photograph
unemployment
another
in
the
new
But
line
down
was
longer
page.
The
man’s
brow
was
was
a
serene
expression
to
his
face.
furrowed,
He
wore
but
a
cap
and
lay
on
his
side.
The
man’s
hands
and
feet
of
shriveled,
but
otherwise
he
didn’t
look
so
awful.
She
to
in
the
book
a
little
further,
then
put
it
back
where
within
easy
reach
there.
gotten
it.
Her
husband
kept
it
spending
the
had
one
there
describe
began
on
state
the
all
the
would
which
and
to
at
encouraging.
that
since
for
work,
of
back
the
there
in
survive,
off
“Something
he’d
downtown
look
sweat
crowd
got
men
killed
repeated
what
she’d
That
at
book
head
read
Sandy
to
his
thought.
Past.
had
work.
every
store;
looking
leather
were
the
patient.
London
you
there
ofce
were
tale
in
drank
talked
putting
of
F i n a l l y,
termination
about.
had
time
looked
appeared
benets
of
paying
laid
do
years
The
he
collect
Sandy
grocery
who
t h a t ’s
a
of
and
And
on
hospital
to
he
his
around
But
managed
but
to
bottle
cap
Hey,
and
the
seemed
will
a
I
kill
now?”
chocolates.
But
was
hospital,
this
of
though
nearly
experiment
believed
patients
something
had
be
hear
some
it
tried
to
or
ago,
joining
think’s
but
have
used
didn’t
For
the
mischievous
hospitals
I
left
boy,
interest.
to
him
that
it
think
credible.
something
the
Jim
not
I
conrm
been
then
Sandy
should
a
to
nonsense,
ORWELL
in
there,
work
I
when
by
could
big
nothing
all
screams
Once
had
the
century
peculiar
dying
later)
subjects.
saw
sixteen-year-old
memory
perhaps,
nineteenth
possibility,
husband
be
a
I
were
to
Preservation
Sandy’s
of
kill
room.
they
‘under’.
operating-room
bathroom.
to
living
this
doubt
probably
dissection
GEORGE
dark
from
no
recovered
they
in
and
students
within
have
its
issue
appeared
have
methods,
almost
properly
two
Hôpital
you
to
stories
see
get
you
instance,
or
did
Well
your
as
now
their
said
these
may
are
in
were
him
your
interested
curiosity
were
people
there
just
three
on
you
once
have
England—stories,
open
that
treated
was
that
that
According
and
I
or
strange
wait
depend
discomfort,
of
seem
then
even
like.
be
hospital,
and
or
should
went
poor
not
and
soup,
bedside,
attention
as
did
ve
watery
hospitals
on
the
on
their
are
go
But
memory
cutting
day
what
you
expect?
woken
harshness
belief
from
one
must
with
the
be
medical
was
and
up
in
no
you
you
the
doctor’s
that
ill
put
would
starting
with
then
do
should
getting
traditions
seriously
else
you
thing
any
coffee
table
that
he
work.
RAYMOND
CARVER
stood
in
front
of
the
sofa.
on
SECTION
From
Tess
of
the
from
d’Urbervilles
this
green
The
village
of
Marlott
lay
amid
the
north-eastern
the
beautiful
Vale
of
Blakemore
or
Blackmoor
engirdled
and
secluded
region,
for
the
most
atmosphere
as
yet
by
tourist
or
that
landscape-painter,
that
what
hue,
a
four
hours’
journey
from
is
a
from
vale
the
perhaps
whose
acquaintance
summits
during
of
the
the
hills
its
recesses
droughts
in
bad
is
best
that
of
made
surround
summer.
weather
This
are
fertile
never
with
and
its
narrow,
sheltered
brown
and
the
tract
is
apt
An
to
tortuous,
of
springs
by
viewing
by
the
bold
Hambledon
chalk
Hill,
ridge
Stoy,
and
Bubb
Down.
unguided
and
never
in
dry,
miry
mantling
Vale
the
after
plodding
northward
is
embraces
traveller
for
a
downs
and
corn-lands,
of
one
of
these
the
to
behold,
bounded
the
from
score
of
suddenly
escarpments,
extended
on
differing
absolutely
like
from
in
which
Behind
elds
so
him
large
the
as
hills
to
is
a
the
of
landscape,
the
the
lanes
are
atmosphere
seems
delicate
to
scale;
be
the
white,
are
the
the
the
upon
mere
he
him,
has
sun
to
But
tas’e
you
blazes
in
low
the
smaller
paddocks,
You
want
‘Cause
petater
know
was
killing
a
you
an’
you
basketful
no
know
say
hard
fe
it
we
be
De
shamar
Is
killin’
Much
under
lyin’
somet’ing
less
de
which
‘tiff
we
like
for
cutlass
a
sun
hot
Shade-tree
like
when
made
till
found
that
look
Causen
we
we
job
must
in
bush
But
For
An’
dem
so
cut
we
we
done,
caan’
de
fe
bush
hab
naygur
workin’
re
moul’
caan’
it
yet
ef
nish
bank
sake
up
‘peak
but
grass
slight
and
dales
within
the
major.
Such
less
in
than
of
former
topographical
times
curious
legend
of
King
as
the
Henry
Forest
III’s
reign,
by
a
certain
which
the
Thomas
king
de
had
la
run
Lynd
down
of
a
and
the
occasion
of
a
recent
heavy
times,
ne.
the
In
those
country
now,
traces
of
its
earlier
was
condition
are
old
oak
survive
copses
upon
its
and
irregular
slopes,
and
belts
the
of
hollow-
that
shade
so
many
of
its
pastures.
have
remain.
departed,
Many,
but
some
however,
old
linger
customs
only
in
of
their
a
was
or
to
disguised
be
form.
discerned
on
The
the
May-Day
afternoon
dance,
under
for
notice,
the
guise
of
the
club
revel,
or
“club-walking”,
as
it
was
called.
more
reduced
that
HARDY
de
wantin’
vine
is
not’in’
little,
but
a
it
can
little
bear;
care:
You
see
petater
You
laughin’
tear
up
groun’,
you
run,
it;
sir,
you
must
be
t’ink
a
fun.
fe
cut.
el’
fe
pretty?
wuk
de
in
we
we
he
sake
dem
we
root
o’
it
we
couldn’t
an’
less
den
de
eben
in
‘an
lan’
dat,
is
fat;
‘toop,
We
dig
An’
keep
de
row
dem
a
line,
soup,
we
a
soon
o’
It
bes’,
it
clean—den
so
it
mus’
look
ne.
man;
ketch
eben
de
‘tan’
no
known
Even
the
yet
forests
han’.
tas’e
petater
an’
But
you
no
know
Yet
still
de
hardship
you
how
say
hard
it
we
sweet,
wuk
fe
it;
town;
caan’
lie
always
melt
away
down,
it
come
roun’
to
reapin’
day.
could,
an’
good.
CLAUDE
De
with
of
sweet,
wuk
pumpkin
temptin’,
wouldn’
and
comparatively
trees
Wheneber
Aldough
mass
the
You
De
limited;
rich
quattiewut,
how
t’ick
and
and
We
cowitch
few
broad
to
De
De
a
hart
wooded.
Aldough
how
also
down
valley,
and
so
Buccra
no
partakes
deepest
passed
It
You
the
a
character
hedges
Here,
a
a
hills
was
from
white
and
THOMAS
Quashie
of
and
beneath
unenclosed
colourless.
constructed
elds
distance
is
the
there
world
middle
beyond
over
in
plashed,
the
are
is
historic,
Vale
Hart,
instance,
the
with
coast,
reaches
which
open,
an
tinged
Dogbury,
miles
surprised
map
that
are
give
call
horizon
lands
minor
metamorphosed
upon
so
prominences
shades
through.
is
the
The
country
and
elds
trunked
delighted
languorous,
Blackmoor.
is
The
White
timber
verge
of
district
of
to
calcareous
is
ramble
densely
who,
dark
grass.
ways.
which
Nettlecombe-Tout,
The
the
prospect
is
days,
High
of
the
engender
country,
that
Bulbarrow,
artists
Arable
the
trees,
spared,
of
of
it
beautiful
south
network
it—except
interest.
dissatisfaction
a
green
though
The
into
appear
paler
London.
exceptions
It
beneath
while
ultramarine.
within
the
part
of
untrodden
hedgerows
aforesaid,
azure
and
their
overspreading
Literature
undulations
The
of
height
threads
2
we
deh
naybor
McKAY
dig,
pig;
do’n,
naybor
tongue.
201
From
“If
I
Wuthering
were
in
“Because
Heights
heaven,
you
are
She
Nelly,
not
t
to
I
should
go
be
there,”
extremely
I
laughed,
leave
my
“This
is
would
be
miserable
in
answered.
“I
it
tell
go
not
you
to
From
is
I
for
that.
won’t
bed,”
I
harken
to
once
your
that
I
dreams,
was
nothing,”
did
not
weeping
Miss
Catherine!
I’ll
EMILY
but
taking
a
shower
STRIKES.
The
night
before
the
and
disintegrate
kind
of
for
I
feel
the
hairpiece
Philly
bought
damned
in
my
conditioner.
thing
is
hands.
The
I
must
weave
is
have
used
coming
In
a
state
of
falling
abject
to
she:
to
be
“I
was
my
only
home;
going
and
I
to
say
broke
that
my
heart
to
come
back
toearth;…”
my
UP
BEFORE
hairpiece
to
THE
MATCH,
stay
on.
I
pray.
Under
Not
for
a
win,
playing
in
my
rst
normal
nal
But
my
tenuous
hairpiece
has
of
me
a
slam,
I’d
be
catatonic.
the
or
not
it’s
slipping,
I
imagine
that
it’s
slipping.
undone—
every
lunge,
every
leap,
I
picture
it
landing
on
the
apart.
clay,

motion
me
With
the
a
nal,
Whether
wrong
made
BRONTE
tense.
suddenly
cried
seem
circumstances,
I’m
I
again.
WARMING
CATASTROPHE
for
there.”
Open
THEN,
down;
heaven.”
dreamt
Iinterrupted
me
“All
with
“But
held
miserable.”
heaven
sinners
and
chair.
panic
I
summon
Philly
to
my
like
a
hawk
my
father
shot
from
the
sky.
I
can
hear
hotel
agasp
going
people
suddenly
up
from
the
crowd.
I
can
picture
millions
of
room.
Fucking
disaster,
I
tell
him.
My
He
examines
We’ll

With
let
it
dry,
then
clip
it
in
place,
he
My
other
and
version
game
timidity.
runs
he’ll
pins.
all
over
fold
Paris
looking
for
bobby
pins.
He
can’t
He
phones
me
and
says,
What
the
hell
kind
of
city
No
bobby
turning
to
dozens
Did
of
Andre
languages
Agassi’s
and
hair
dialects
just
fall
saying
off?
plan
for
Gomez
in
a
he
fth
long
reects
doesn’t
set,
I
plan
rallies,
my
have
to
grind
jangled
young
stretch
him
nerves,
legs,
out
down.
the
As
my
knowing
match,
the
match
however,
it’s
clear
that
Gomez
also
knows
his
age,
is
and
this?
TVs,
nd
begins,
any.
in
of:
Knowing
orchestrate
He
their
says.
what?
Bobby
to
it.
some

closer
hairpiece—look!
each

leaning
thus
he’s
trying
to
speed
everything
up.
He’s
playing
pins?
quick,
risky
tennis.
He
wins
the
rst
set
in
a
hurry.
He
In the hotel lobby he bumps into Chris Evert and asks her for
loses
the
second
set,
but
also
in
a
hurry.
Now
I
know
that
bobby pins. She doesn’t have any. She asks why he needs them.
the
longest
we’ll
be
out
here
is
three
hours,
rather
than
He doesn’t answer. At last he nds a friend of our sister Rita,
four,
which
means
conditioning
won’t
play
a
role.
This
is
who has a bag full of bobby pins. He helps me recongure the
now
a
shot-making
match,
the
kind
Gomez
can
win.
With
hairpiece and set it in place, and keeps it there with no fewer
two
sets
completed,
and
not
much
time
off
the
clock,
I’m
than twenty bobby pins.
facing

Will
it
hold?
I
we
Yeah,
yeah.
Just
don’t
move
around
a
Of
We
both
course
months
I
laugh
could
and
darkly.
play
months
too
self-conscious.
say
if
they
knew
time?
Win
or
They
at
would
the
Bollettieri
thousand
be
I
Is
been
can
at
Everything?
wearing
about
my
h a i r.
my
Cup,
eyes
a
talk
laughing
Davis
close
hairpiece.
criticism,
w o u l d n ’t
Academy
Germans
laughing.
Image
only
my
derision,
they
course
Pathetic,
without
of
I’ve
lose,
talk
What
hairpiece
about
my
at
and
me,
of
or
whole
all
playing
I’m
would
they
a
few
202
I
c a n ’t
who’s
his
kids
going
And
at
take
it.
game
because
not
to
He’s
a
me
to
a
and
to
it
I
AGASSI
plan
be
was
couldn’t
you
can’t
or
fresh
The
his
fatally
work,
win
throughout,
only
even
your
opponent
desire,
by
to
him
beat
being
conservative,
gives
heart.
this
slam
merely
might
him
is
if
aggressive.
orchestrating
start.
the
by
to
lose.
emboldens
be
to
the
long
for
rallies
a
from
how
of
knows
way
awed
matter
nal
long
who
no
the
waiting
orchestrate
veteran
playing
dominating,
It
lose,
slam.
belief
sees
would
it.
my
really.
attempt
shot
twelve
hear
My
Gomez.
this
game.
world
almost
match,
after
m o c k e r y,
Instead
the
But
ANDRE
know
guy
gove.
lot.
Of

a
ask.
his
take
last
away
When
instead
he
of
SECTION
From
White
A
Teeth
woman
needn’t
Then,
when
their
bumps
become
too
large
and
cinema
has
be
to
have
involved
t he
in
pr iv ate
2
t hings—a
body - business ,
in
a
Literature
husband
l a d y ’s …
seats
parts.”
no
longer
for
lunch
three
of
Alsana
accommodate
in
Kilburn
them
Park,
squeezed
presses
a
them,
often
on
thermos
to
of
the
women
with
a
P
.
the
Tips
to
meet
up
Niece-of-Shame,
generous
G.
begin
bench
into
the
teeth.
where
Clara’s
Niece-of-Shame, who is sitting between them, sucks her
hand,
“Bloody
without
milk,
cling-lm
like
to
balls,
with
lemon.
reveal
crumbly
Unwraps
today’s
Indian
peculiar
sweets
several
layers
delight:
shot
savoury
through
inside,
of
the
salad
yourself
kaleidoscope,
with
silly!
It’s
onion;
in
thin
saying
there,
pastry
to
with
Clara,
with
wallowing
around
up!
in
sometime,
or
“So
says
rude,”
old
to
starve
the
people
Clara,
for
on
But
I
that
for
despite
(three
you,
“Ultrasound,”
are
when
ultra-business
don’t
torture
it!
appearances,
living,
three
And
then
that
happens
I
a
bles sing,
t ur ned
my
thingum m y bob
correct s
C lar a,
the
let ’s
You
there
get
more
head
and
th e
saw
want
are
one
Neena,
six
girl
for
doing
If
th a t
me r ri e r.
I
almost
had
the
hear t
att ac k
to
that
m ou t hfu l
finish
one
on
fancy
of
ri c e .
a
laughs
he
me
o f f!
your
p a rt s
bloody
conception?”
to
C lar a
t oo
in
a
s nooty,
young
to
En g l i s h
kn o w
any
wa y.
b e tt e r. ”
A ls ana,
w it h
people
the
ar e
ac c ide n t a l
shar ing
the
mi r ro r i n g
sa m e
lay
t heir
hands
on
t heir
bu l g e s.
it’s
a
her s elf :
Any
M illar.
Muhammad,
is
I
t hat
caut ious ,
responsibilit y,
girl,
and
Em s
tink
I
a
li k e
M alana,
are
f unny
Wise— let t er
more
w ell…
Ho w
are
yo u
ideas ? ”
“M eena
and
and
“ Yeah…
you
good.
Mr
Irie.
It
th e y
g i rl s .
s tr o n g .
f ro m
tr us t.”
naming
t as k
patois.
are
are
M or ec a mb e ,
c an
bec ause
god- like
if
Em s
f or
a
s ee ms
me r e
Means
to
her
mo r ta l.
ever y t ing
Tw o !
cool,
peaceful,
you
know?”
isenough!”
and
says
s he
c an
imagine
S amad ’s
saw
dearie.”
is
horrified
be f or e
t he
s entence
is
fi n i s h e d :
fa c e
This
is
a
nam e
f or
a
child,
You
migh t
as
we l l
call
it.
her
“No,
im m aculat e
and
two
decisive.
Magid
Clara
“‘OK’”?
when
and
when
names?
is
fearful
Alsana
Clara
rude
both
Morecambe
OK,
Feeding
the
Alsana
redeem
Mahatma,
“If
“Yes,
this
so
Clara
to
boys:
But
a
in
to
…”
t hr ough
involv ed
belly,
Alsana
c om plaining,
been
beef
your
coming);
m us t ’v e
Stuff
Alsana.
“Nobody ’s
Children
tell
Woman,
For,
bench
boys
says,
straight.
menu.
bump?”
two
Alsana
the
is
be
experience,
waiting
he
the
spiced
“Eat
Alsi,
dough-
“Too
colours
hell,
of
Alsana
is
r epr oving,
tuc king
her
large
‘Wouldsirlikeanypoppadom w it ht hat?’
or
feet
Niceweatherweareha v ing’.”
underneath
He
wasn’t
the
folds
there.
I
of
am
her
not
sari.
let ting
“H e
him
didn’t
s ee
see
th i n g s
a n y th i n g .
l i ke
t h a t.
ZADIE
SMITH
203
From
How
to
Become
a
two.
Writer
When
everyone
First,
try
to
be
something,
anything,
else.
A
movie
you
is
arrive
sitting
at
Room
around
a
134
on
seminar
the
rst
table
day
talking
of
class,
about
star/
metaphors.
You’ve
heard
of
these.
After
a
short,
excruciating
astronaut.
while,
A
movie
star/missionary.
A
movie
star/kindergarten
this
President
an
early
of
the
World.
age—say,
necessary
so
that
Fail
miserably.
fourteen.
at
fteen
Early,
you
It
is
best
critical
can
write
if
you
fail
look
at
about
thwarted
desire.
It
is
a
a
wind
brushing
against
pond,
sparrow
as
vandalized
a
a
Count
the
tough
practical.
syllables.
Show
it
to
wing
leaving
She
has
a
son
in
your
Vietnam
mom.
She
may
because
then
it
back
“How
the
be
having
hides
up
about
forks
in
at
an
spots.
you
fork
She
She’ll
with
emptying
the
affair.
a
the
believes
look
face
briey
blank
as
at
a
dishwasher?”
drawer.
in
and
a
is
gas
station
Accidentally
glasses.
This
is
the
you.
This
is
only
for
your
your
high
school
Decide
are
You
the
Struggle.
eleven,
Write
thirteen.
class
look
important.
a
bad.
Perhaps
an
don’t
have
elderly
other
in
to
sonnet.
Decide
man
the
count
and
head,
only
Write
to
at
a
one
shotgun
one
night.
you
get
are
it
quite
which
Give
Count
who
result
back,
nice,
appears
it
to
he
but
Mr.
has
all
kids.
They
of
in
the
of
the
Write
Mr.
with
a
short
pencil
beneath
“Plots
are
for
his
Killian
as
no
in
your
on
your
it:
their
nal
the
die
a
child
people,
always
psychology
liked
birds.
Ornithological
From
The
up
Trip.”
Adventures
of
the
way
the
that
money
the
that
rich.
an
awful
We
got
six
Thatcher
us
a
body
took
it
could
me
was
dismal
204
he
dollar
took
a
day
tell
for
of
of
room,
story
you
for
It
book
the
have
of
plot.”
faintly
son,
living
regular
and
what
her
rough
it
and
to
in
put
all
do
the
“No,
your
as
schedule.
if
perhaps
Wonder
you
how
computer,
apparently,
has
the
made
get
up
to
leave
and
then
don’t.
The
lines
week
are
Perhaps
huge.
your
Perhaps
creative
you
should
writing
isn’t
stick
all
that
fate.
you.
jobs
You
tell
you
can
them
get.
You
stories
are
about
great
old
with
people
deaths.
You
sing
them
songs
like
“Blue
Bells
of
which
is
malfunction
their
favorite.
And
nally
stopped
pinching
when
they
each
are
in
other,
their
when
fast
asleep,
how
on
you
read
earth
every
anyone
sex
could
manual
in
ever
those
do
the
house,
things
someone
they
truly
loved.
Playboy.
Fall
When
the
asleep
in
a
chair
McMurphys
reading
come
they
will
tap
you
your
lap,
and
on
the
shoulder,
look
at
the
magazine
home,
living
your
grin.
You
will
want
to
die.
They
will
ask
in
you
if
of
took
her
medicine
all
right.
Explain,
yes,
she
did,
that
room
you
promised
and
that
will
exclaim.
her
a
story
if
she
would
take
it
like
a
big
girl
When
seemed
to
work
out
just
ne.
“Oh,
marvelous,”
they
images
When
you
scrawl
are
to
smile
proudly.
in
to
college
as
a
child
psychology
major.
called
and
up
is
“The
Thursdays
at
and
this:
MOORE
You’ve
Finn
hid
dollars
it
it
out
the
in
the
Tom
and
cave,
apiece—all
with.
house
the
was
at
year
The
allowed
decent
have
each
electives.
Tuesdays
winds
robbers
when
and
is
McMurphy’s
Apply
some
something
meets
thousand
apiece
out,
about
comments:
Huckleberry
money
booms
Here
so
when
rags
and
up.
interest,
gold.
Well,
and
it
round—more
Widow
she
all
piled
would
the
widow
time,
was
in
It
her
it
no
longer
again,
I
lit
and
out.
was
I
got
free
into
and
to
But
Tom
start
a
Sawyer
band
of
he
hunted
robbers,
and
me
I
up
and
might
said
join
if
I
he
was
would
was
back
to
the
The
widow
widow
she
a
lamb,
and
she
never
meant
MARK
TWAIN
me;
she
but
considering
all
stand
sugar-hogshead
and
be
respectable.
So
I
went
a
poor
back.
Judge
fetched
sivilize
couldn’t
made
than
Douglas
I
my
me
and
go
sight
beard
“Oh—right,”
at
The
babysitting
and
are
going
us
it
idiot
satised.
found
a
nine,
my
Now
with
pore-face.”
major,
Sign
Field
Say:
down
to
this
love
wonder
LORRIE
As
to
blank
the
ction.
project.
“Some
sense
own
black-inked
dead
and
about
shoot
inexplicable
mysteriously
have
of
face—giant
Killian’s
syllables:
accidentally
an
written
you
privacy
one
and
Try
home,
have
Someone
here.
mistake.
Take
Tracey
a
all
Shove
pain
villanelle
experiment
syllables.
woman
the
to
say:
Mr.
you
Look
up
registrar
this
with
ten,
clock.
start
with
and
pores.
isn’t
turns
starters.
English
faces
me,
and
brown
She’ll
away.
break
error.
they
face.
stops
writing,
donut.
required
ended
pajamas
In
seem
Writing.”
along.
Scotland”,
suffering.
They
Creative
all
you
who
freebie
“Excuse
class
husband
wearing
Look
The
is
at
who
difdently,
for
an
and
say
cherry
hell
mountain.
and
One-oh-one?”
haiku
knew
blossom,
hand
is
this
sequences
your
Birdwatching
at
disillusionment
long
raise
teacher.
how
ways;
cried
called
to
harm
over
me
by
me,
a
it.
lot
and
of
called
other
me
names,
too,
lost
but
she
SECTION
The
O
God,
To
Give
Dream
in
paw
Fear
the
at
kept
dream
the
for
air,
the
and
terrible
make
thirty-ve
for
years
horse
me
poured
Throw
began
with
his
him,
No,
blows,
through
his
mane,
she
him,
no,
I
said,
she
cried,
And
whether
But,
like
I
something
said,
he
some
hates
yield
or
poor
me;
not,
of
yours
thing
he
is
is
all
it
out
the
as
you
for
a
2
Literature
charm.
alone
claim.
harm,
same.
And retribution equally old, or nearly, breathed through hisnose.
Coward
When
complete,
some
strong
Another
woman,
Leapt
the
in
I
air,
lay
and
wept
creature
as
I
and
lay
on
the
appeared,
half
in
clutched
a
at
Pulled
ground
and
leapt
for
the
rein.
the
The
leather
and
from
to
Top
Girls
ANGIE:
“Driving
It’s
a
very
across
long
hot.
way
the
but
Wish
states
the
you
car
were
for
a
new
job
goes
very
fast.
here.
my
in
my
a
legend,
sweating,
beast,
side,
that
and
when
my
no
put
I
cold
one
ung
right
may
down
the
glove
hand;
understand,
his
head
in
love.
chain.
LOUISE
From
lion
terrible
Came
swound
a
Love
in
from
L.A.
BOGAN
JOYCE:
I’m
going
ANGIE:
I
JOYCE:
Then
bed.
JOYCE:
Then
I
want
to
to
get
show
cross,
her
Angie.
something.
It’s
Aunty
expect
it’s
in
your
room
so
off
you
go.
Marlene.”
JOYCE:
Did
you
MARLENE:
I
spent
ANGIE:
I
want
JOYCE:
She’s
make
a
lot.
to
go
a
lot
of
ANGIE:
to
America.
Will
you
take
going
to
us
your
aunty’ll
America,
she’s
been
Will
you?
Yes
of
ANGIE
to
shout
when
be
up
you’re
and
see
ready
for
bed
and
you.
course.
goes.
Silence.
America,stupid.
It’s
ANGIE:
a
me?
MARLENE:
not
Give
money?
cold
tonight.
She might go again, stupid. It’
s not something
you do once. People who go keep going all the
JOYCE:
Will
you
have
time, back and forth on jets. They go on Concorde
be
my
all
right
on
the
sofa?
You
can
/
bed.
and Laker and get jet lag. Will you take me?
MARLENE:
MARLENE:
I’m
not
ANGIE:
Will
JOYCE:
Angie,
planning
a
JOYCE:
you
let
/
me
you’re
The
sofa’s
Yes
the
I
want
JOYCE:
It’s
to
be
getting
MARLENE:
silly.
you
I
was
were
in
No it’
s not. / I don’t have to go to bed at all tonight.
JOYCE:
School
ANGIE:
I’ll
MARLENE:
They
the
ANGIE:
How
now,
you
know
how
you
I
get?
don’t
get
cut
But
it’s
ANGIE:
You
JOYCE:
You will not, you’ll sleep in your bed. / Think I can’t
ANGIE:
Mum.
JOYCE:
see
through
ANGIE:
It’s
/with
would,
a
to
a
walk
bit
down
you
not
the
down
late.
Is
the
it
to
the
estuary
just
the
same?
hedges
were
changed
reeds?
I
my
bed.
that?
us
I
the
I’ll
We
can
just
on
see
the
you
sofa.
going
talking.
would
go
to
sleep,
I’d
than
love
You
get
but
a
few
years
back.
Is
here?
down
used
us.
that.
to
strangers
they’re
lapwings,
yes.
MARLENE:
You
have
JOYCE:
Who
says
MARLENE:
Stop
getting
JOYCE:
How
could
MARLENE:
Did
JOYCE:
I
MARLENE:
If
night?
sleep
bigger
Iexpect
Yes, if that’
s all right. / I’ll see you in the morning.
have
staying
anyhow.
MARLENE:
I
you
I
Angie.
ANGIE:
Are
/
JOYCE:
sleep
it’s
the
end,
all
the
mud?
Are
to
pick
there
them
still
when
they
lapwings?
get.
JOYCE:
can
but
up.
on
do
it
since
were
Come
tonight
morning.
And
JOYCE:
rain
bed.
ANGIE:
wake
going
left
that
in
said
American.
JOYCE:
time
forecast
heldoff.
know?
I’ve
ANGIE:
ne.
trip.
could
you
said
I
you’d
I
at
/
at
there
the
on
mud
a
Sunday.
and
the
left.
wanted
me
have
want
how,
walking
looking
to
leave?
then,
you’re
really
boring.
left?
to?
how
wanted
could
to
I?
you’d
have
done
it.
secret.
CARYL
CHURCHILL
205
Recuerdo
We
were
We
had
It
was
very
gone
bare
tired,
back
and
But
we
looked
We
lay
on
a
we
and
bright,
into
a
hill-top
were
forth
and
re,
very
all
merry—
night
smelled
we
like
leaned
underneath
the
on
the
a
And
the
sky
went
And
the
sun
rose
wan,
and
dripping,
the
a
wind
came
bucketful
of
cold,
gold.
ferry.
We
were
very
We
had
We
hailed,
tired,
we
were
very
merry,
stable—
across
a
gone
back
and
forth
all
night
on
the
ferry.
table,
“Good
morrow,
mother!”
to
a
shawl-covered
moon;
head,
And
the
whistles
We
were
We
had
And
very
gone
you
ate
kept
tired,
back
an
blowing,
we
and
apple,
were
forth
and
I
and
very
all
ate
the
came
soon.
And
bought
And
she
And
we
on
the
a
dozen
From
Titus
of
each
we
had
III,
bought
Rome.
[Enter
A
“God
bless
which
you!”
neither
for
the
of
us
apples
read;
and
pears,
gave
her
all
our
money
but
our
subway
fares.
ST
VINCENT
MILLAY
somewhere;
Because
Andronicus
Scene
wept,
paper,
pear,
[Lieth
Act
morning
ferry;
EDNA
From
a
merry—
night
a
dawn
they
down;
died
the
in
honour’s
Judges,
&c.,
lofty
pass
bed.
by
him,
and
Exeunt]
1
For
these,
these,
My
heart’s
Let
my
My
sons’
tribunes,
in
the
dust
I
write
street.
Judges,
Senators
and
Tribunes,
with
MARTIUS]
deep
languor
and
my
soul’s
sad
tears:
[p]and
tears
stanch
the
earth’s
dry
appetite;
1140
QUINTUS,
bound,
passing
before,
Titus
on
to
the
place
of
[p]execution;
TITUS
going
pleading]
Andronicus.Hear
In
pity
of
mine
dangerous
For
all
my
For
all
the
And
for
Filling
Be
the
Whose
For
two
wars,
in
frosty
these
pitiful
age,
blood
me,
my
souls
and
whose
whilst
Rome’s
nights
bitter
aged
to
grave
fathers!
wrinkles
not
twenty
I
noble
tribunes,
my
I
now
you
1130
cheeks;
as
never
’tis
wept,
In
winter
keep
thou
[Enter
eternal
reverend
my
And
me
let
thee
these
I’ll
his
with
tribunes!
O
my
I’ll
that
now
the
never
SHAKESPEARE
with
his
melt
on
dear
blush.
rain,
urns,
showers:
thee
the
thy
and
still;
1145
snow
face,
sons’
blood.
drawn]
aged
doom
wept
prevailing
1135
all
gentle,
shame
ancient
upon
sword
reverse
it
more
two
drop
tears
drink
with
say,
make
spring-time
to
sons,
are
will
shall
warm
refuse
WILLIAM
206
April
LUCIUS,
tears
from
drought
with
Unbind
My
thought.
youthful
blood
befriend
distil
summer’s
O
see
will
In
So
shed;
watch’d;
I
shall
Than
And
slept;
sons,
corrupted
sons
spent
quarrel
have
which
in
was
securely
great
that
tears,
youth
you
condemned
are
earth,
That
stay!
For
O
sweet
men!
of
death;
before,
orators.
1150
SECTION
From
Waltz
with
2
Literature
Bashir
207
Index
active
reading
21–2
advertisements
political
Aeschylus
aesthetic
Agassi,
149,
177,
127–8
Rob
alliteration
178,
113,
187,
202
166
142
28,
18,
anaphora
31,
167
context
41
of
cultural
and
bias
hue
critique
and
Davis,
49,
Sir
Lt.
How
let
6
deontic
65,
66,
172
dialect
32–4
98–9
Louise
Booth,
Wayne
Bourdieu,
The
Dream
205
David
50
P
digital
The
37,
Author
115,
156,
broadcasting
Grief
199
49,
Slayer
167
50
116,
L
’Étranger
Raymond
censorship
Preservation
75–6
Cathedral
G
K
Two
work
Stor y
114
68
14–15
137–40
Hunger
92,
The
137–40
62–3
The
184
thought
63–4
70–2
persuasion
analysis
and
72–3
rhetorical
77–8
media
stereotypes
community
body
46,
169–70
essays
130
and
18,
45,
essay
163–5
46
non-factive
Conrad,
27–9,
30
Joseph
verbs
50–1,
Darkness
116
147
of
192–3
convergence
Effect
122
Genette,
Wal-
186
123,
Waltz
167,
of
Brian
Man
116
paradox
gesture
L
Toronto
(DeBacker,
70
107
Wouter)
91–2
communication
fields
54,
55,
70,
207
The
40
Thomas
Tess
107,
of
the
201
the
Dragon
plot
Elihu
89
Poe
Edgar
point
Farewell
popular
Ocean
Waves
109
course
study
43
44
and
media
190
Niccolo
Robert
L
Thomas
marking
a
Marxism
releases
print
media
propaganda
refrain
20–1
162–3,
175,
communication
50–1,
26,
Quashie
39,
176,
Herman
201
texts
That
Merchant
and
metaphor
126–7
Ivor y
148–9
174–5
133,
Budd,
72,
I
Used
to
187
192
133–4,
175
89
6,
114–15
30
66
155–6
28
45,
Times
28,
of
28,
bias
61–2
&
113–14
Henr y
India,
107
73
196
Fathers
Ivan
and
Mark
165
Sons
117–18
155
Finn
76,
152,
140–2
151–2
verisimilitude
Voltaire,
17–18
151,
184
François-Marie
Arouet
Candide
193
64
33
of
Wallace,
the
Day,
117
60,
107
183
157–8
Brian
130–1
Portals
Wilde,
of
Unnatural
Foster
112
54
24–5,
Whitman,
38,
Walt
109,
161–2,
114
169–70
186
Myself
Oscar
Winfrey,
149
David
pages
Song
80–1
145–6
Richardson,
web
websites
58,
80,
The
61–2
77–8,
Voices
85–6
39–40
204
23,
rhythm
191
The
191–2
Twain,
37–8
189
109
110–11
Turgenev,
Mason
99,
98
tragedy
truth
98,
103–4,
56
Thoreau,
trade
184–5
images
Gulliver’s
156–7
25–7,
texture
tone
77
Renaissance
rhyme
133–4,
193
65,
thinking
66–7
remediation
rhetoric
187
66
Jonathan
themes
Thomas
repetition
70–2
Billy
156–7
147,
to
197,
28
institutions
Melville,
Swift,
technolog y
91
Response
religion
Dead
115–16
technique
157
Remains
63–4
meaning
88–9
30
90
reification
187
Are
28
syntagms
71
register
of
Rosencrantz
Huckleberry
162
11,
words
press
Realism
Making
134–5
166–7,
rationale
in
5–6
Claude
The
post-modernism
Reader
text
Karl
193,
71
Death
118
Lev
17,
symbols
176,
Dixon
191
40
91–3
Pynchon,
The
Rules
post-colonialism
purpose
stories
syntax
song
pundits
The
158
Tom
synonyms
Allen
proportion
103–4
82
80–1
75–7
Guildenstern
Travels
post-structuralism
42
of
Gertrude
surrounds
campaigns
Know
of
culture
effects
186
synecdoche
Somebody
27
53–4
145–7
78–9
Trek
style
77
House
view
polysemic
Abraham
58–9
158
of
189
153
devices
speeches
structure
110–11
political
literar y
solipsism
196–7
94–5
post-structuralism
12
54–5
meter
39,
104–6
Bells
52
to
realities
structuralism
10–11
Plutarch
36
Theory
media
short
65
91
Jodi
planning
118
176,
195–6
Sanders
identity
Teeth
175
Katie
36–7
media
66
185
battle:
100
White
critique
Stoppard,
121,
in
bond
203
stereotypes
117–18
light
Address
deadly
Zadie
social
&
Men
brotherly
social
Stein,
163–5
66,
lexis
Sailor
Hangover,
Paul,
lexical
a
social
Star
71
persuasion
93
181–2
Buccra
Johannes
92,
190
Michael
McKay,
31–2
novels
Perr y,
190–2
Tormes
Lewis,
mass
grammar
Hardy,
etc)
de
leifmotif
Marx,
196
183
Graeme
Smith,
sound
163,
66
performative
pidgin
Venice
The
196
40,
The
rhetorical
Charles
with
Manovich,
Mail,
Bullies
Peirce,
(Girl
Mann,
11–12
Bowl,
Brand
Taking
Series
Prince
91
and
Logo:
Picoult,
Machiavelli,
66
Die
196
167–8
pastiche
155
No
Millennium
logos
1984
128,
Poor
Write
paradigms
the
178,
207
D’Urbervilles
208
I
Steig
literature
Polonsky
Gerard
188–9,
Open
Farm
Larsson,
value
The
69
The
Animal
paratexts
16–17,
relevance
164–5
Guttenberg,
Stephen
George
199–200
89
Marina
linguistics
107
Charles
189,
graphic
62
Or well,
the
166
95–7
206
Frankenstein
Americans
Y
oung
the
Sur face
67–8
Bashir
Franzen
187
70–1
Heart
consonance
contrast
at
147
thought
presentation
198,
82
187,
49–50
Linear
147–8,
government
connotations
a
Lazarsfield,
thesis
11–12
116–18,
Golden
55
184
18
Portrait
Rudyard
Lazarillo
192–3
187,
Gotye
Patient
146
193
155
turns
English
37
160–1
Lucrece
Mar y
When
8
27,
Nothing
193
slogans
The
about
Andronicus
Simpsons,
Person
50
55–6
12–14
How
195
of
Titus
The
50
49,
William
Ado
note
Michael
49,
Tempest
shapes
173–4
65
193
Eve
144–5,
Rape
The
71–2
91
47–8
Much
Shelley,
perspective
line
Globe
75–7
analysis
190
149–51
irony
Naomi
Lambrou,
31
Glee
66–7
24–5
comparative
as
Elihu
Mack,
bias
49,
182–3,
166
64
and
166,
167
knowledge
56
the
and
187
21
Live
65–6
116,
oral
73–4
186
41
the
40,
140–1,
175–6,
Flanner y
Long
106–7
176–7
Ott,
Tattoo
and
120–1,
Day
29–31
Shakespeare,
196
ontological
73–4
17
Aim
writing
Folman
50–1,
commentar y
Moor’s
56
John
sexuality
136
Herald
onomatopeia
James
Klein,
162
paragraphs
With
institutions
objectivity
oral
Martin
Katz,
sculpture
setting
99
Displaced
The
Ferdinand
fiction
semantics
64
Ondaatje,
107
139–40,
All
Night
non-fiction
O’Connor,
57
121–3
132,
Kipling,
writing
Mart
67–8
communication
Boat
156
167
function
setting
media
print
Land
149–51
Fishman,
68–9
sound
images
65
Artist
159–62
films
64
media
and
noise
Fighters
Waste
Patient,
extended
196
organizations
Why
Joos,
science
80,
taking
Carl
Sedg wick,
134–5
drama
116,
Saussure,
Smith,
with
introductions
irony
44–5
fiction
broadcasting
media
197–206
23
C
Fish
60
123–6
jargon
M
The
204
de
slang
infotainment
93
William
epistemic
essays
plays
Historicism
noise
texture
166
I
167,
181–2
novels
intertextuality
The
feminism
communication
and
perspective
infomercials
Friedrich
fantasy
196
mass
imager y
Joyce,
Elizabeth
factive
The
48
commentar y
film
at
191
staging
expression
54–5
digital
Out
Lincoln,
Suzanne
comedy
Went
84–6
S
Become
Searle,
paragraphs
T
to
159,
Marianne
Zealand
news
54–5
60–1
variety
136
reading
Games
Crane,
of
Girls
Politically
Bedtime
Classicism
Collins,
140,
69–70
introduction
the
New
Noh
form
individual
conclusion
Top
cinematography
39,
Kinds
168
and
Correct
colour
Canterbury
205
Cinderella
colour
and
unity
147
building
Car yl
and
space
indices
David
Escher,
23
Paradoxes
196,
111
Geoffrey
Chesterton,
close
Days
epistemological
Churchill,
Oliver
181
68
English
Raymond
167
Tales
152,
106,
Criticism
New
53–4
shape,
26
Engels,
90
characterization
class
the
Alan
Empson,
categorization
light
and
61–2
105
200
Chaucer,
41
Saturday
How
58–60
works
editorials
Eliot,
Chandler,
193
Salman
A
141
109
166
187
repetition
working
eclecticism
effect
103–4
Car ver,
Noise
New
81
proportion
194–6
Eggars,
Albert
51–3,
40
151–2
150–1
191
152–4,
Neoclassicism
force
136,
View,
Louise
Sigh
Sandburg,
nationalism
contrast,
line
Emily
media
editing
Vampire
Judith
Camus,
White
19
a
68
122
31
image
Last
206
semiotics
dramatic
Barrett
Writer
narrator
101–2
155–6
and
48,
Rushdie,
124,
187,
41
Lorrie
Moore,
40,
38–9
have
180
Durant,
191–2
The
121,
149,
65
illocutionar y
202
Elizabeth
149,
the
Butler,
set
Wuthering
140,
Browning,
Buff y
64
Emily
works
113,
With
Rosenblatt,
39–40
Moore,
a
55–6
dissonance
drama
Heights
L.
Afghanistan:
Charles
dogmatic
Letters
Room
61–2
Vincent
works
morality
identity
idiom
leaders
Butter f lies
diction
39
Anne
Book
Two
Birthday
Games,
idiolect
30
are
Noon
199
Bronte,
135
33
Daniel
and
The
111
These
141–2
Pierre
Bradstreet,
Her
Webbe
169–70
Bogan,
to
Hunger
Gruff
function
Dickinson,
86–8
mood
Ted
St
146,
Modernism
55
humanity
8–9
Twist
155
David
mise-en-scene
modality
172–3
10–11
down
Dickens,
23
mimetic
186
107
Kin
125–6,
motif
Donald
Don
176
30
expectations
End
Edna
Recuerdo
Kampf
76–7
George
lies
86
Mein
192
military
us
DeLillo,
Roland
Bradley,
49–50
creole
of
Hughes,
185–7
Col.
Truth,
50
72–4
blogs
162–3
184–5
Davidson,
90
Rises
Adolf
Hubbard,
icons
39
bilingualism
Millay,
homonyms
expression
works
Dasent,
179–80
Beowulf
The
Howard’s
denotations
belief
production
Billy-Goats
background
Ernest
horizon
stories
177–8
79,
Heming way,
Sun
Romanticism
156–7
Michelangelo
Also
8–9
metonymy
181–2
dialect
reception
147
L
Barthes,
8
Y
oung
Brown
189–90
pidgin
function
68
authors
in
Nathaniel
Goodman
Hitler,
performativity
27–8
atmosphere
J
context
Marxist
78
assonance
audience
language
30
archetypes
Aristotle
in
103–4
11–12
146
antonyms
7,
32–4
gesture
147
ambiguous
analysis
auteurs
belief
40,
Hawthorne,
context
assessments
156–7
ambiguity
10–11
cultural
cultural
allegor y
Austin
88
191
Open
writing
allusion
81–4
155
works
aleator y
Allison,
77,
advertising
Andre
116,
creole
74–5,
138–9
155
Oprah
190
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