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Safety Term Definitions

Safety, System Safety, System Safety Analysis, System Safety
Assessment, System Safety Engineering, System Safety
Management, and System Safety Precedence Definitions
Within the context of aviation, safety is ―the state in which the possibility of harm
to persons or of property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an
acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and safety risk
management. (ICAO, 2013)
Safety. The state in which risks associated with aviation activities, related to, or in
direct support of the operation of aircraft, are reduced and controlled to an
acceptable level. (ICAO, 2016)
Safety: A measure of the degree of freedom from risk or conditions that can cause
death, physical harm, or equipment/property damage (Vincolli, 2014)
Safety is a perceived quality that determines to what extent the management,
engineering and operation of a system is free of danger to life, property and the
environment (Kuo, 1990). (Kritzinger, 2006)
Safety is the state in which risk is lower than the boundary risk. The boundary risk is
the upper limit of acceptable risk. It is specific for a technical purpose or state (SAE
ARP4754 p 80). (Kritzinger, 2006)
Safety Freedom from chance of injury or loss of personnel, equipment, or property.
(NASA, 1999)
Safety. Freedom from conditions that can cause death, injury, occupational illness,
damage to or loss of equipment or property, or damage to the environment.
(Department of Defence, 2012)
SAFETY: The state in which risk is lower than the boundary risk. The boundary risk is
the upper limit of the acceptable risk. It is specific for a technical process or state.
(SAE International, 1996)
System Safety
System Safety: A subdiscipline of systems engineering that applies scientific,
engineering, and management principles to ensure adequate safety, the timely
identification of hazard risk, and initiation of actions to prevent or control those
hazards throughout the life cycle and within the constraints of operational
effectiveness, time, and cost (Stephenson 1991). The use of system engineering
principles to provide a specified level of safety given the trade-offs involving cost,
time, and the operations involved. (Vincolli, 2014)
System safety is the formal name for a comprehensive and systematic examination
of an engineering design or mature operation and control of any particular hazards
that could injure people or damage equipment. (Bahr, 2015)
System safety is the assurance and management that the system is safe for all
people, environment, and equipment. (Bahr, 2015)
System safety. The systematic process involving: the justification of functional
integrity, and the identification and resolution of any hazards that can be expected
during the system’s life-cycle (Kritzinger, 2006)
System safety. The optimum degree of risk management within the constraints of
operational effectiveness, time, and cost attained through the application of
management and engineering principles throughout all phases of a program. (NASA,
System safety. The application of engineering and management principles, criteria,
and techniques to achieve acceptable risk within the constraints of operational
effectiveness and suitability, time, and cost throughout all phases of the system lifecycle. (Department of Defence, 2012)
System Safety Analysis
System Safety Analysis: A detailed, systematic method of evaluating the risk of
hazard associated with a given system, product, or program. It utilizes a variety of
techniques and approaches to accurately identify, resolve, or control exposure to
those hazards. (Vincolli, 2014)
Safety analysis is a generic term for study of the system, identification of dangerous aspects
of the system, and correction of them. (Bahr, 2015)
System Safety Assessment (SSA):
System Safety Assessment (SSA): A systematic, comprehensive evaluation of the
implemented system to show that the relevant requirements are met. (SAE
International, 1996)
System Safety Assessment: A systematic, comprehensive evaluation of the
implemented system to show that the relevant safety requirements are met. (SAE
International, 1996)
System safety engineering
System Safety Engineering: An engineering discipline requiring specialized
professional knowledge and skills in applying scientific and engineering principles,
criteria, and techniques to identify and eliminate hazards, or reduce the risk
associated with hazards (MIL-STD-882). (Vincolli, 2014)
System safety engineering is a compilation of engineering analyses and
management practices that control dangerous situations, specifically (Bahr, 2015)
. Identify the hazards in a system
. Determine the underlying causes of those hazards
. Develop engineering or management controls to either eliminate the hazards
or mitigate their consequences
. Verify that the controls are adequate and in place
. Monitor the system after it has been changed and modify further as needed
System safety engineering. An engineering discipline that employs specialized
knowledge and skills in applying scientific and engineering principles, criteria, and
techniques to identify hazards and then to eliminate the hazards or reduce the
associated risks when the hazards cannot be eliminated. (Department of Defence,
Safety Engineering: Discipline concerned with the planning, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the safety aspects of equipment, the
environment, procedures, operations, and systems to achieve effective protection of
people and property. (Vincolli, 2014)
System Safety Engineer: An engineer who is quali ed by training, certi cation, and/or
experience to perform system safety engineering tasks (MIL-STD-882). (Vincolli, 2014)
System Safety Management
System Safety Management: An element of management that defines the system
safety program requirements and ensures the planning, implementation, and
accomplishment of system safety tasks and activities consistent with the overall
organizational requirements (MIL-STD-882). (Vincolli, 2014)
System safety management. All plans and actions taken to identify hazards; assess
and mitigate associated risks; and track, control, accept, and document risks
encountered in the design, development, test, acquisition, use, and disposal of
systems, subsystems, equipment, and infrastructure. (Department of Defence, 2012)
System Safety Precedence: An ordered listing of preferred methods of eliminating or
controlling hazards. Typically, it is listed as: (Vincolli, 2014)
1. Design for minimum risk,
2. Incorporate safety devices,
3. Provide warning devices,
4. Develop procedures and training,
5. Acceptance of residual/remaining risk.
System: A combination of people, procedures, facility, and/or equipment all func- tioning
within a given or speci ed working environment to accomplish a speci c task or set of tasks
(Stephenson 1991). (Vincolli, 2014)
Systems engineering
Systems engineering. The overarching process that a program team applies to
transition from a stated capability to an operationally effective and suitable system.
Systems Engineering involves the application of SE processes across the acquisition
life-cycle (adapted to every phase) and is intended to be the integrating mechanism
for balanced solutions addressing capability needs, design considerations, and
constraints. SE also addresses limitations imposed by technology, budget, and
schedule. SE processes are applied early in material solution analysis and
continuously throughout the total life-cycle. (Department of Defence, 2012)
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the
realization of successful sys- tems. It focuses on defining customer needs and
required functionality early in the development cycle, document- ing requirements,
and then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering
the complete problem: operations, cost and schedule, performance, training and
support, test, manufacturing, and disposal. Systems engineering integrates all the
dis- ciplines and specialty groups into a team effort forming a structured
development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation.
Systems engineering considers both the business and the technical needs of all
customers with the goal of providing a quality product that meets the user needs.
(INCOSE, International Council on System Engineering, 2015)
Analysis: An evaluation based on decomposition into simple elements. (SAE
International, 1996)
Assessment: An evaluation based upon engineering judgment. (SAE
International, 1996)
Assessment: An evaluation or examination of a specific area of concern, such as a
program, policy, or procedural assessment. (Vincolli, 2014)
Bahr, N. J. (2015). System Safety Engineering and Risk Assessment, A Practicl Approach (2nd
Edition ed.). Florida, USA: CRC Press.
Department of Defence. (2012). System Safety - MIL-STD-882E. USA: Department of Defense
Standard Practice.
ICAO. (2013). Safety Mangement Manual (SMM) - DOC 9859 - AN/474 (3rd Edition ed.).
ICAO. (2016). Doc 10004 - Global Aviation Safety Plan - 2017 - 2019 (2nd Edition ed.).
Montreal, Quebec, Canada: International Civil Aviation Organization.
INCOSE, International Council on System Engineering. (2015). System Engineering Handbook
(4th Edition ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Kritzinger, D. (2006). Aircraft System Safety, Military and Civil Aeronautical Applications.
Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publising Limited and CRC Press.
NASA. (1999). System Safety Handbook - DHB-S-001 (Baseline ed.). Edwards, California, USA:
Dryden Flight Research Center.
SAE International. (1996). Certification COnsiderations for Highly-integrated Or Complex
Aircraft System.
SAE International. (1996). Guidelines and Methods for conducting the safety assessment
process on civil airborne systems and equipment. SAE International.
Vincolli, J. W. (2014). Basic Guide to System Safety (3rd Edition ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey,
Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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