Safety, System Safety, System Safety Analysis, System Safety Assessment, System Safety Engineering, System Safety Management, and System Safety Precedence Definitions Safety Within the context of aviation, safety is ―the state in which the possibility of harm to persons or of property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and safety risk management. (ICAO, 2013) Safety. The state in which risks associated with aviation activities, related to, or in direct support of the operation of aircraft, are reduced and controlled to an acceptable level. (ICAO, 2016) Safety: A measure of the degree of freedom from risk or conditions that can cause death, physical harm, or equipment/property damage (Vincolli, 2014) Safety is a perceived quality that determines to what extent the management, engineering and operation of a system is free of danger to life, property and the environment (Kuo, 1990). (Kritzinger, 2006) Safety is the state in which risk is lower than the boundary risk. The boundary risk is the upper limit of acceptable risk. It is specific for a technical purpose or state (SAE ARP4754 p 80). (Kritzinger, 2006) Safety Freedom from chance of injury or loss of personnel, equipment, or property. (NASA, 1999) Safety. Freedom from conditions that can cause death, injury, occupational illness, damage to or loss of equipment or property, or damage to the environment. (Department of Defence, 2012) SAFETY: The state in which risk is lower than the boundary risk. The boundary risk is the upper limit of the acceptable risk. It is specific for a technical process or state. (SAE International, 1996) System Safety System Safety: A subdiscipline of systems engineering that applies scientific, engineering, and management principles to ensure adequate safety, the timely identification of hazard risk, and initiation of actions to prevent or control those hazards throughout the life cycle and within the constraints of operational effectiveness, time, and cost (Stephenson 1991). The use of system engineering principles to provide a specified level of safety given the trade-offs involving cost, time, and the operations involved. (Vincolli, 2014) System safety is the formal name for a comprehensive and systematic examination of an engineering design or mature operation and control of any particular hazards that could injure people or damage equipment. (Bahr, 2015) System safety is the assurance and management that the system is safe for all people, environment, and equipment. (Bahr, 2015) System safety. The systematic process involving: the justification of functional integrity, and the identification and resolution of any hazards that can be expected during the system’s life-cycle (Kritzinger, 2006) System safety. The optimum degree of risk management within the constraints of operational effectiveness, time, and cost attained through the application of management and engineering principles throughout all phases of a program. (NASA, 1999) System safety. The application of engineering and management principles, criteria, and techniques to achieve acceptable risk within the constraints of operational effectiveness and suitability, time, and cost throughout all phases of the system lifecycle. (Department of Defence, 2012) System Safety Analysis System Safety Analysis: A detailed, systematic method of evaluating the risk of hazard associated with a given system, product, or program. It utilizes a variety of techniques and approaches to accurately identify, resolve, or control exposure to those hazards. (Vincolli, 2014) Safety analysis is a generic term for study of the system, identification of dangerous aspects of the system, and correction of them. (Bahr, 2015) System Safety Assessment (SSA): System Safety Assessment (SSA): A systematic, comprehensive evaluation of the implemented system to show that the relevant requirements are met. (SAE International, 1996) System Safety Assessment: A systematic, comprehensive evaluation of the implemented system to show that the relevant safety requirements are met. (SAE International, 1996) System safety engineering System Safety Engineering: An engineering discipline requiring specialized professional knowledge and skills in applying scientific and engineering principles, criteria, and techniques to identify and eliminate hazards, or reduce the risk associated with hazards (MIL-STD-882). (Vincolli, 2014) System safety engineering is a compilation of engineering analyses and management practices that control dangerous situations, specifically (Bahr, 2015) . Identify the hazards in a system . Determine the underlying causes of those hazards . Develop engineering or management controls to either eliminate the hazards or mitigate their consequences . Verify that the controls are adequate and in place . Monitor the system after it has been changed and modify further as needed System safety engineering. An engineering discipline that employs specialized knowledge and skills in applying scientific and engineering principles, criteria, and techniques to identify hazards and then to eliminate the hazards or reduce the associated risks when the hazards cannot be eliminated. (Department of Defence, 2012) Safety Engineering: Discipline concerned with the planning, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the safety aspects of equipment, the environment, procedures, operations, and systems to achieve effective protection of people and property. (Vincolli, 2014) System Safety Engineer: An engineer who is quali ed by training, certi cation, and/or experience to perform system safety engineering tasks (MIL-STD-882). (Vincolli, 2014) System Safety Management System Safety Management: An element of management that defines the system safety program requirements and ensures the planning, implementation, and accomplishment of system safety tasks and activities consistent with the overall organizational requirements (MIL-STD-882). (Vincolli, 2014) System safety management. All plans and actions taken to identify hazards; assess and mitigate associated risks; and track, control, accept, and document risks encountered in the design, development, test, acquisition, use, and disposal of systems, subsystems, equipment, and infrastructure. (Department of Defence, 2012) System Safety Precedence: An ordered listing of preferred methods of eliminating or controlling hazards. Typically, it is listed as: (Vincolli, 2014) 1. Design for minimum risk, 2. Incorporate safety devices, 3. Provide warning devices, 4. Develop procedures and training, 5. Acceptance of residual/remaining risk. System: A combination of people, procedures, facility, and/or equipment all func- tioning within a given or speci ed working environment to accomplish a speci c task or set of tasks (Stephenson 1991). (Vincolli, 2014) Systems engineering Systems engineering. The overarching process that a program team applies to transition from a stated capability to an operationally effective and suitable system. Systems Engineering involves the application of SE processes across the acquisition life-cycle (adapted to every phase) and is intended to be the integrating mechanism for balanced solutions addressing capability needs, design considerations, and constraints. SE also addresses limitations imposed by technology, budget, and schedule. SE processes are applied early in material solution analysis and continuously throughout the total life-cycle. (Department of Defence, 2012) Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful sys- tems. It focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, document- ing requirements, and then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem: operations, cost and schedule, performance, training and support, test, manufacturing, and disposal. Systems engineering integrates all the dis- ciplines and specialty groups into a team effort forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation. Systems engineering considers both the business and the technical needs of all customers with the goal of providing a quality product that meets the user needs. (INCOSE, International Council on System Engineering, 2015) Analysis: An evaluation based on decomposition into simple elements. (SAE International, 1996) Assessment: An evaluation based upon engineering judgment. (SAE International, 1996) Assessment: An evaluation or examination of a specific area of concern, such as a program, policy, or procedural assessment. (Vincolli, 2014) Bibliography Bahr, N. J. (2015). System Safety Engineering and Risk Assessment, A Practicl Approach (2nd Edition ed.). Florida, USA: CRC Press. Department of Defence. (2012). System Safety - MIL-STD-882E. USA: Department of Defense Standard Practice. ICAO. (2013). Safety Mangement Manual (SMM) - DOC 9859 - AN/474 (3rd Edition ed.). ICAO. (2016). Doc 10004 - Global Aviation Safety Plan - 2017 - 2019 (2nd Edition ed.). Montreal, Quebec, Canada: International Civil Aviation Organization. INCOSE, International Council on System Engineering. (2015). System Engineering Handbook (4th Edition ed.). John Wiley & Sons. Kritzinger, D. (2006). Aircraft System Safety, Military and Civil Aeronautical Applications. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publising Limited and CRC Press. NASA. (1999). System Safety Handbook - DHB-S-001 (Baseline ed.). Edwards, California, USA: Dryden Flight Research Center. SAE International. (1996). Certification COnsiderations for Highly-integrated Or Complex Aircraft System. SAE International. (1996). Guidelines and Methods for conducting the safety assessment process on civil airborne systems and equipment. SAE International. Vincolli, J. W. (2014). Basic Guide to System Safety (3rd Edition ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.