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FACING A NEW CHAPTER: FACTORS AFFECTING THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
CAREER PREFERENCE OF GRADE 11 STUDENTS OF
HIPONA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
A Research Paper
Submitted to
Mr. Nashrudin C. Roxas
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in
Practical Research 2
Ace Artisano
Hilary Dolfo
Andresito Besante Jr.
Joel Diestro
Jun Ralph Solis
November 2017
Abstract
Senior High School is a new phase of a student’s life where they will be given a chance
to select careers or tracks, strands and specializations to hone their skills in preparation for
college. Thus, it is important that students wisely choose a career that can be of great benefit for
them. However, during this process, their decisions are influenced by several factors, which
could in the form of peer pressure or financial support.
This study was conducted at Hipona National High School, Hipona, Pontevedra, Capiz.
Using descriptive method, the researchers aimed to determine the factors that affect the Senior
High School career preference of Grade 11 students in the said school. Specifically, it focused on
three affecting factors: economic, social or environmental, and personal.
The data were gathered using survey questionnaires administered to 48 samples. The
researchers came up with this sample size using quota sampling. Meanwhile, data were analyzed
using IBM SPSS 20. Mean, frequency count, and percentage were included in the analyses of
data as well as Kruskall Wallis H test and Mann Whitney U test for test of difference among
variables.
The results showed that among the three factors, economic factors such as availability of
jobs and level of salary were factors that greatly affect the Senior High School career preference
of Grade 11 students with an overall weighted mean of 3.98, followed by personal factors such
as students’ capabilities and ideal or dream jobs with an overall weighted mean of 3.86.
Meanwhile, social or environmental factors like influence of friends and families yield the lowest
level of influence with an overall weighted mean of 2.96.
Furthermore, tests revealed that there was significant difference on the Senior High
School career preference of Grade 11 students when they are grouped according to their profile
variables. Apparently, s significant difference resulted from their average grade in the previous
school year and the career they want to pursue in college.
1
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Unemployment is one of the main economic problems in the country, which is usually
associated with applicants' lack of qualifications and students’ wrong career choice in college.
With this, students should be well-informed about the careers they want to take in college to
ensure that it will benefit them in the future. Good thing that this problem is one of the reasons
why the government introduced and implemented a new educational system, the K to 12
Program, which aims to lessen the graduates’ misfit qualifications (Pascual, 2014)
Through the K to 12 program, students will be given a chance to choose from different
Tracks and Strands together with its specializations for Senior High School. It is a new transition
period where their decisions could affect their future, in terms of college career to pursue and
jobs available for them after they graduate from college. For example, pursuing the right career
for Senior High School could help the students be productive and satisfied with their jobs in the
future, since they will be given a chance to sharpen and develop their skills in preparation for
their college careers.
Since most graduating students from high school may not have solid career decisions,
they are often influenced by different factors (Aguado, Laguador & Deligero, 2015). One of the
factors that could influence a student's career choice is financial problem knowing that the
Philippines is considered as a Third-world country (Malubay, Mercado, and Macasaet, 2015).
Thus, it would be beneficial to determine these factors to lessen its restricting affect to students.
Hipona National High School is considered to be one of the "Large" schools in the
Division of Capiz, where approximately 1,900 students have enrolled in school year 2017-2018.
Therefore, it will be a suitable setting to conduct the study as Grade 11 student of the said school
were given the opportunity to choose from various Senior High School Tracks and Strands
offered. With this, they are believed to have the most recent experience on selecting a Track and
Strand for Senior high school.
With the abovementioned scenario and situations, it is the main goal of the researchers to
determine the factors that affect the Senior High School Track and Strand preference of the
Grade 11 students of Hipona National High School in school year 2017-2018. Therefore, the
2
research findings on that objective could serve as a basis for proper career assessment and
counseling programs.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the factors that affect the Senior High School career
preference of Grade 11 students of Hipona National High School.
Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What profile can be drawn from the respondents in terms of age, sex, monthly family
income, parents’ occupation and highest educational attainment, and the careers they
want to pursue in college?
2. What is the academic performance of the respondents in School Year 2017-2018?
3. What is the Senior High School Career Preference of Grade 11 Students?
4. What are the factors that affect the Senior High School career preference of the
respondents in terms of economic factors, social or environmental factors, personal
factors and other factors?
5. Is there a significant difference on the Senior High School career preference of the
Grade 11 students when grouped according to profile variables?
Null Hypothesis
The following null hypothesis (Hₒ) is formulated to guide the study:
1. There is no significant difference on the Senior High School career preference of the
Grade 11 students when grouped according to profile variables.
3
Significance of the Study
The results of this study may provide deeper insights on how different factors actually
affect the Senior High School career preference of the Grade 11 students of Hipona National
High School. Furthermore, it will be of great benefit to the following:
To the Students, the results may serve as a basis for them on how various factors greatly
affect their decision-making, especially on their Senior High School career preference
preferences.
To the Administrators, the results may serve as a guide in planning appropriate
interventions, such as counseling and career assessment programs, which could give the students
more knowledge on selecting the right Track and Strand/specialization for Senior High School.
To the Teachers, the results may help them encourage their students to select the most
suitable Track and Strand/specialization for Senior High School.
To Higher Education Institutions, the results could give them ideas on what courses to
offer based on preferences of students and to serve quality education which will suit the students’
needs and expectations.
Scope and Delimitation
This study will focus on the factors that affect the Senior High School career preference
of Grade 11 Students of Hipona National High School in school year 2017-2018.
In this study, students' career preference refers to their pursued Senior High School
strand/specialization. The Grade 11 students of school year 2017-2018 will be the respondents
for the study as they have the most recent experience on choosing the track and strands for
Senior High School. Thus, their responses are perceived to be the most suitable for the study.
Hipona National High School will be the locale of the study as it is one of the schools
where students are given the opportunity to choose various track and strands for Senior High
School.
Specifically, the research will focus on economic, social or environmental, and personal
factors. Economic factors pertain to the availability of jobs or job demands in the future. Social
or Environmental factors pertain to the influence of people that are around and the actual
4
environment on students' decision-making, which could include the amount of counseling they
receive from school guidance counselors as well as their residence or the place they live in.
Personal factors pertain to the personal reasons of the students which could include financial
problems and academic capabilities. Furthermore, other factors that may arise during the conduct
of the study will be given due attention by the researchers.
Definition of Terms
Career traditionally refers to a “professional work of life” and has been associated with
the terms vocation, occupation, work and job (Patton and McMahon, as cited by Ghuangpeng,
2011). In this study, it refers to what the students will take and focus on in Senior High School
and in college.
Career Preference refers to the choice of an individual in which he/she chooses a course
to acquire a job in the future (Braza and Guillo, 2015). In this study, it is refers to students’
chosen Senior High School track and strand/specialization.
Decision-making refers to the process of identifying and selecting a solution to solve a
problem (Al-Tarawneh, 2011). In this study, it refers to how students weigh their options in
making a career preference or choice.
Employability refers to an individual’s capacity to function effectively in a role and be
able to move between occupations (The University of Edinburgh, 2016). In this study, it refers to
one of the factors which could influence the Senior High School track and strand preference of
students.
5
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This section contains literature and studies on students’ career preference, counseling and
decision-making, K to 12 Program, and affecting factors. These materials were gathered from
online journals, theses and dissertations, and other online sources which provided the researchers
with an exhaustive review of the topic and essential background knowledge to pursue the study.
Conceptual Literature
Career Preference
Ghuangpeng (2011) defines career preference as a process which occurs when an
individual, especially students, chooses a particular career for college. However, choosing a
career is not an easy decision for students as it determines their future in the field of work
(Edwards & Quinter, 2011). Usually, their choices are anchored on how they perceive a
profession, and most of them will select one which they think is the most suitable (Super,
Savicks and Super, as cited by Gavo, 2014). Career preferences of individuals also vary since
people are different from each other in terms of personality, behavior, age, environment and etc.
(Hewitt, 2010). Thus, a profession which interests one person may not be similar to another
person’s interest (Gavo, 2014).
Counseling and Decision-making
According to Pafili and Mylonakis (2011), when students are able to select the right
career, they can effectively use their knowledge and skills which could help on the development
and welfare of the society. Yet, some students may not have sufficient knowledge and
understanding about the right career to pursue (Aguado, Laguador & Deligero, 2015).
With this, proper counseling is necessary. Helping individuals explore their various
options is one of the main purpose or role of guidance and counseling. In addition, vocational
guidance counseling is a guidance and counseling service which allows guidance counselors to
help individuals acquire needed competencies to help in planning for the right career (Pascual,
2014). However, aside from career planning, extensive career research before choosing a career
should also be considered by an individual to adapt with socio-economic changes nowadays
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(Wattles, 2009). Therefore, sufficient knowledge and effective strategies on making choices is
the foundation of good decision-making (Kroll, as cited by Borchert, 2002).
On the other hand, according Parsons (as cited by Ghuangpeng, 2011), vocational or
career choices should be based on three main factors:
1. “A clear understanding of yourself, your aptitudes, interests, ambition, resources,
limitations, knowledge of their causes;
2. Knowledge of the requirements, conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages,
compensation, opportunities, and prospects in different lines of work;
3. True reasoning on the relations of these two groups of facts.”
These three main factors gave simple guidelines for individuals who are in the process of
choosing a career, and stressed that individuals should have enough understanding of themselves,
the career they want to pursue, their career alternatives, and how they use this knowledge in
making sound decisions (Jones, as cited by Ghuangpeng, 2011). Braza and Guillo (2015)
conform with this statement, according to them; students should select a career which suits with
their skills and abilities. If they are knowledgeable enough, they will have a better future and
equipped with everything they need to face their work.
K to 12 Program
The Philippine government firmly believes that the strength of a nation relies upon the
strength of its education system (Sergio, 2011). Thus, in accordance with this belief, the
government implemented the K to 12 Program which is considered as one of the significant
reforms in the Philippine Educational System (Abarro, 2016)
According to the Department of Education (2012), the program covers kindergarten and
12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School,
and two years of Senior High School) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and
skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills
development, employment, and entrepreneurship. In addition, before entering to college, high
school students are already given the opportunity to select from tracks and strands offered by
schools (Official Gazette of the Philippines).
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Affecting Factors
Various factors can affect a student’s career preference for Senior High School as well as
in college. According to Hewitt (as cited by Edwards and Quinter, 2011), factors which affect the
career preference of an individual “can either be intrinsic or intrinsic or both.” He added that
most individuals choose a career based on what their parents prefer, others follow the
opportunities that have opened for them, others choose a career based on what they actually want
without considering how much they would ear, while others select a career that would give them
high income.
The influence of a student’s social environment or the people who are around them,
especially their parents, is one of the main factors that affect their career preference. Students
often rely on their parent’s advice in coming up with a decision because they want to do well for
the sake of their families (Pascual, 2014). This is how some students show respect and
appreciation to their parents since they provide them financial support to enter college (Aguado,
Laguador & Deligero, 2015). Aside from social environment, the actual environment where a
student lives can also influence his/her career preference. For instance, a student who lives near
an island may engage in a career related with water (Borchert, 2002).
Likewise, economic factors such as employability and availability of jobs can influence
the decision of students in selecting a career. Students ensure that jobs are available for them
after they graduate from the career they chose (Pascual, 2014). This is because economic can
influence the growth of industry positively or negatively and it can also increase or decrease the
job demands (Ghuangpeng, 2011)
Another factor is on the opportunities of students, especially on the quality and level of
education they receive (Hoonley, 2012). Those who have experienced quality education are more
likely to choose a career early. However, not all students are given the opportunity to have access
to best quality of education (Sear and Gordon, as cited by Gavo, 2014).
Meanwhile, personality is also a crucial element for choosing a career. Hewitt (2010)
defines personality as “collection of qualities or traits that are somewhat stable across situations.”
It is important for individuals to know their personalities as it could increase self-awareness and
may be beneficial to knowing the course they want to pursue (Sear and Gordon, as cited by
Gavo, 2014).
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Aside from the factors previously mentioned, other factors such as age, gender, area of
residence and parental occupation can also influence career preferences (Huern, Khairuddin,
Ismail, and De, 2014).
Related Studies
As this study focuses on the factors that affect the Senior High School career preference
of students, a study conducted by Abarro (2016) is related. The main objective of the study was
to craft a program for Senior High School in the University of Rizal System. Specifically it
sought to determine the (1) selected career tracks and strands of the Grade 9 students in public
high school in the Division of Antipolo City and Rizal, (2) variables associated with the career
tracks and strands selected by students.
The researcher utilized a descriptive research method and used a survey checklist to
gather the needed data. A total of 761 students from Public High Schools in the Division of
Antipolo and Rizal served as respondents for the study. Furthermore, the gathered data were
treated using frequency and percentage distribution and Chi-Square test. The researcher found
out the following:
1. There is a significant relationship between the career track choices and profile of
students in terms of sex, average monthly family income, occupation of the head of
the family, school preference, and previous academic performance.
2. There is no significant relationship between the career track choices, highest
educational attainment of the head of the family and person influential in the choice
of career track.
Braza and Guillo (2015) determined the career choice of high school students in different
private institutions in San Jose Batangas as a basis for developing a career program guide to
assist students in choosing their career. The researcher also used a descriptive research method
together with a questionnaire and standardized test to gather the needed data. 189 grade 9
students were randomly selected from the total population of 358 students of private institutions
in San Jose, Batangas during the school year 2014-2015. Frequencies, percentage, ranking and
mean were the statistical tools used in the study. The researchers arrived with the following
results:
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1. Majority of the respondents are interested to enroll on Academic Track as they want
to continue to college.
2. Availability of work after finishing college is primarily considered by the respondents
on choosing a career or course in college.
3. The respondents agree that their parents serve as role models in choosing a career.
Most students’ career choices are influenced by many factors like outcome expectancies,
individual variants such as sex, personal interests, learning experiences, environmental factors,
etc. In addition, individuals are likely to have a successful career if they choose a career based on
their strengths and capabilities.
A pilot study on career preference was conducted by Huern et al. (2014) which aimed to
determine the influences of various factors such as age, gender, location, paternal and maternal
occupation and their education levels on the career preference of Year 10 students in Malaysia.
The study was carried out using a questionnaire. The A total of 47 students from the Year 10
class of Melaka, Malaysia were the respondents of the study. The career preferences of the
respondents were then compared with different factors and the researchers performed was
performed a correlation and regression analysis. The data were analyzed using Chi-Square test
and independent T-test using Epi Info Version 7.0.The following are some significant findings of
the study;
1. There is a significant relationship between maternal education and career preference
of Year 10 students.
2. Age is significantly correlated with the career preference of the Year 10 students.
Edwards and Quinter (2011) determined the factors that influence career choice among
four secondary schools in Kisumu municipality, Kenya. The study used a descriptive survey
research with 332 respondents out of 2,464 students from four secondary schools. The
researchers used stratified random sampling technique to determine the respondents of the study.
Then, data were collected using interview schedules, unstructured and open-ended
questionnaires. Quantitative data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 0.05
level of significance and descriptive statistics such as graphs, charts, frequency counts and
percentages. Meanwhile, Qualitative data were transcribed and organized through thematic
analysis. The researchers arrived with the following results:
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1. Availability of advancement opportunities and learning experiences are the most
influential factors that affect career choices of the students.
2. The career choices of most students are not influenced by gender and environmental
factors.
Synthesis
Choosing a career such as choosing a career for Senior High School is one of the
complex decisions that students have to go through before they achieve their goals in life.
Furthermore, during the process of making a choice or decision, various factors emerge which
could help or make it more difficult for an individual, specifically students. For instance, when a
student undergoes counseling, he/she could gain enough information regarding the career he/she
wants to pursue in college. Thus, it could help the student identify if his/her abilities and skills
match with what the career demands. The student could then decide to continue to pursue the
career or choose from his/her other career options.
Meanwhile, the opportunity that students receive, especially in the level of education, is
one of the factors that could help or prevent a student from choosing his/her ideal career.
Students who receive the best quality of education could easily choose a career, while students
who receive poor quality of education can experience difficulty in selecting a career since
various factors influence their decision. To maximize the benefits and lessen the unwanted
effects of these factors, the government implemented the K to 12 program, which adds two
additional years in high school. The program aims to hone the skills and competencies of
students to help them prepare for college and acquire a better job in the future.
Furthermore, Even though some studies have already been conducted regarding the
career preference or choice of high school students, these studies didn’t involve Senior High
School students in the Philippines and their chosen track and strand. This may be because the
Senior High School program was just recently implemented. With this, the researchers aim to
determine the factors that influence the Senior High School Track and Strand preference of
Grade 11 students in Hipona National High School.
11
Theoretical Framework
The researchers used the Model of Career Decision-Making of Trey L. Mitchell.
According to Mitchell (1975) as cited by Malubay, Mercado, and Macasaet (2015), an individual
who will make a career choice will make a “set of preferences or priorities” as they consider
other possible options available for them.
Behavior
(Thoughts and actions)
Personal Factors




Age
Sex
Family income
Parental
occupation
Environmental
Factors
The diagram above shows that an individual’s personal factors are influenced by his/her
thoughts and actions, while the relationship between an individual and the environment involves
his/her beliefs and perceptions developed and change by social influences. Meanwhile, the
relationship between the environment and behavior depends on how an individual perceives
his/her environment which produces an effect to his/her behavior. These preferences will assist
an individual in weighing his/her options based on the values assigned to his/her possible
alternatives (Malubay, Mercado, and Macasaet, 2015)
12
Conceptual Framework
Factors



Economic
Social
Personal
Senior High School
Career Preference
Profile Variables
The diagram above shows the focus of the study, which are the factors that affect the
Senior High School track and strand preference of the respondents. Specifically, this study will
focus on three influencing factors; economic, social or environmental and personal. After
identifying the factors that greatly affect the Senior High School career preference of students,
the researchers will then determine if the career preference of the respondents will differ when
they are grouped according to their profile variables.
13
CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
Research Design
This study utilized a quantitative type of research which subjects the gathered
quantitative or numerical data through statistical methods. Furthermore, in accordance with the
studies of Abarro (2016) as well as Braza and Guillo (2015), the study used a descriptive
research design to describe and determine the factors that affect the Senior High School career
preference of the respondents.
Time and Place of the Study
The study was conducted on September 18, 2017 at Hipona National High School,
Hipona, Pontevedra, Capiz.
Respondents of the Study
The Grade 11 students of Hipona National High School in School year 2017 – 2018 were
the respondents of the study as they recently experienced choosing a Track and Strand for Senior
High School. Thus, they were believed to be the most suitable source of data for the study.
Sampling Procedure
The study used a non-probability type of sampling called Quota sampling. First, the
Grade 11 students were grouped according to their selected strands and specializations: GAS,
HUMSS, ABM, TVL Home Economics Cookery, TVL Home Economics Caregiving, and
TVL Agri-Fishery Crop Production. Then, the researchers set a quota of 8 samples for each
group to ensure that groups were equally represented, thus, this study has a total of 48 samples.
Finally, samples were selected from each group until the desired number was reached.
14
Research Instrument
This study utilized a self- structured survey questionnaire. The first part gathered the
needed profile variables of the respondents, while the second part was composed of statements
which gathered other necessary data for the study. The second part was composed of two
different items. In the first item, the respondents were given the opportunity to indicate how
much they agree or disagree with the given statements using a Five-Point Likert Scale (1 means
strongly disagree and 5 means strongly disagree). Meanwhile, the second item was an openended question to see if there were other factors that affect the Senior High School career
preference of the respondents aside from those that were already given.
Validity
The instrument was subjected to face and content validity. The researchers asked the help
of some experts to see if the instrument will be able to elicit and gather the needed data for the
study. Likewise, the formatting of the instrument was checked.
Data Collection Procedure
The researchers wrote a letter addressed to the assistant principal of Hipona National
High School to ask permission to conduct the study involving the Grade 11 students of the said
school. After the approval of the request, the researchers looked for the Grade 11 students and
asked them if they could be the respondents of the study. Afterwards, the questionnaires were
administered. Lastly, the researchers gathered the questionnaires and moved on to tabulation of
the results.
Data Analysis Procedure
The gathered data was tabulated and analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Mean,
frequency count, and percentage were utilized in the analyses of data. Additionally, since this
study utilized a non-random sampling, non-parametric tests were used such as Kruskal Wallis H
and Mann Whitney U to test significant differences among variables.
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CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSES AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter consists of presentation, analyses, and interpretation of data on the factors
that affect the Senior High School Career Preference of Grade 11 students in Hipona National
High School.
Profile
Profile of Grade 11 Students
The profile variables of Grade 11 students which were considered in the study included
the following: age, sex, monthly family income, parents’ occupation and highest educational
attainment, careers they want to pursue in college, academic performance, and selected Senior
High School Track and Strand/Specialization. The distribution of Grade 11 students according to
their profile variables are shown in table 1.1.
Age. More than half (56.25 percent) of Grade 11 students were at least 17 years old,
while 43.75 percent were 16 years old. With a mean age of 16.56 years, it can be implied that
Grade 11 students in Hipona National High School are between 16 to 17 years old.
Sex. Majority of Grade 11 students were females (64 percent), while 35.4 percent were
males. This means that male Grade 11 students are outnumbered by females.
Monthly Family Income. The data show that most students (41.7 percent) have a
monthly family income that ranges from P5, 000 to P9, 999, followed by those who earn P4, 000
& below and P20, 000 per month (16.7 percent), 12.5 percent earn P10, 000 to P14, 999, and
another 12.5 percent for those who earn P15, 000 to 19, 999. It connotes that many students have
family income lower than P10, 000 per month.
Father’s Occupation. Based on the data, 37.5 percent of fathers work in the field of
Aquaculture/Agriculture (farmers and fishermen), followed by those who work in Transportation
and Travel Industries (Drivers) (16.7 percent), 12.5 percent work in Construction Services
(Carpenters, Electricians and Mechanics), 10.4 percent were unemployed, 10.4 percent work
overseas, 4.2 percent work in the field of Business and Finance/Commerce, while 2.1 percent
work in the fields of Education, Tourism and Hospitality (Tourist Guide), Community Services
and Spiritual Vocation. It implies that majority of fathers have blue-collar jobs.
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Mother’s Occupation. More than half of mothers (60.4 percent) were unemployed,
followed by those who work in Business and Finance/Commerce (8.3 percent), 6.3 percent work
in the fields of Aquaculture/Agriculture and Education, another 6.3 percent work overseas, 4.2
percent work as housekeepers and work in the field of Health Science/ Medicine, while 2.1
percent work in the fields of Computers and Technology, and work as a Government Employee.
It means that most mothers are housewives.
Father’s Highest Educational Attainment. The data show that most fathers (33.3
percent) were High school Graduates, while 27.1 percent were Elementary Graduates, 20.8
percent were college graduates, 12.5 percent were High School Undergraduates, and 6.3 percent
were College Undergraduates. It connotes that most fathers were unable to finish their tertiary
education.
Mother’s Highest Educational Attainment. Thirty-One point three percent of mothers
were High School Graduates, and another 31.3 percent were College Graduates, 18.8 percent
were Elementary Graduates, 14.6 percent were High School Undergraduates, and 4.2 percent
were College Undergraduates. It indicates that most mothers were also unable to finish their
tertiary education.
Career to be Pursued in College. The data reveal that many students (29.2 percent) chose
Education as their first college career choice, followed by Business and Finance/Commerce (14.6
percent), Transportation and Travel (8.3 percent), Tourism and Hospitality (6.3 percent), and 4.2
percent chose to pursue careers in the fields of Engineering, Health Science/Medicine,
Computers and Technology, and Law Enforcement. However, 25 percent of students were still
unable to choose a career in college. It can be noted that many students want to be future
Teachers, but some students are still undecided.
Average Grade in Previous School Year. The data show that many Grade 11 students
(54.2 percent) got an average grade in the previous school year that range from 85 to 89,
followed by 90 to 94 (33.3 percent), 80 to 84 (10.5 percent), and 2.1 percent got an average
grade that range from 95 and above. With an overall mean of 88.56, it implies that Grade 11
students are doing well academically.
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Senior High School Track. 50 percent of Grade 11 student chose Technical-Vocational
Track, while 50 percent also chose Academic Track. It means that students equally chose
Technical-Vocational Track and Academic Track.
Senior High School Strand/Specialization. Equal number of students (16.7 percent)
chose General Academic Strand, Accountancy, Business and Management Strand, Humanities
and Social Sciences Strand, TVL Home Economics Cookery, TVL Home Economics Caregiving,
TVL Agri-Fishery Crop Production. Since students were equally selected from each group, it can
be noted that equal number of students chose each strand or specialization.
Table 1.1. Distribution of Grade 11 students according to their profile variables.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS
FREQUENCY (F)
PERCENTAGE (%)
At least 17 years old
27
56.25
16 years old
21
44.85
Total
48
100.0
Male
17
35.4
Female
31
64.6
Total
48
100.0
P4, 000 & below
8
16.7
P5, 000 - P9, 999
20
41.7
P10, 000 - P14, 999
6
12.5
P15, 000 - P19, 999
6
12.5
P20, 000 & above
8
16.7
Total
48
100.0
Aquaculture/Agriculture
18
37.5
Business and Finance/Commerce
2
4.2
Education
1
2.1
Transportation and Travel
8
16.7
Tourism and Hospitality
1
2.1
Age
Mean: 16.56
Sex
Monthly Family Income
Father’s Occupation
18
Cont’d
Community Services
1
2.1
Construction Services
6
12.5
Spiritual Vocation
OFW
None/Unemployed
1
5
5
2.1
10.4
10.4
Total
48
100.0
Health Science/Medicine
2
4.2
Aquaculture/Agriculture
3
6.3
Business Finance/Commerce
4
8.3
Education
3
6.3
Computers and Technology
1
2.1
Government Employee
1
2.1
OFW
3
6.3
Housekeeping
2
4.2
None/Unemployed
Total
29
48
60.4
100.0
Elementary Graduate
13
27.1
High School Undergraduate
6
12.5
High School Graduate
16
33.3
College Undergraduate
3
6.3
College Graduate
Total
10
48
20.8
100.0
Elementary Graduate
9
18.8
High School Undergraduate
7
14.6
High School Graduate
15
31.3
College Undergraduate
2
4.2
College Graduate
15
31.3
Total
48
100.0
Mother’s Occupation
Father’s Highest Educational Attainment
Mother’s Highest Educational Attainment
19
Cont’d
Career to be Pursued in College
Health Science/Medicine
2
4.2
Engineering
2
4.2
Business Finance/Commerce
7
14.6
Education
14
29.2
Transportation and Travel
4
8.3
Tourism and Hospitality
3
6.3
Computers and Technology
2
4.2
Law Enforcement
2
4.2
Undecided
12
25.0
Total
48
100.0
80 – 84
5
10.5
85 – 89
26
54.2
90 – 94
16
33.3
95 and above
1
2.1
Total
48
100.0
Academic Track
24
50.0
Technical - Vocational Track
24
50.0
Total
48
100.0
General Academic Strand
Accountancy, Business, and Management
Strand
Humanities and Social Sciences Strand
8
16.7
8
16.7
8
16.7
TVL Home Economics Cookery
8
16.7
TVL Home Economics Caregiving
8
16.7
TVL Agri-Fishery Crop Production
8
16.7
Total
48
100.0
Average Grade in Previous School Year
Mean: 88.56
Senior High School Track
Senior High School Track/Specialization
20
Factors Affecting the Senior High School Career Preference of Grade 11 Students in
Hipona National High School
In this study, factors that affect the Senior High career preference of Grade 11 students
were classified into three namely: economic factors, social or environmental factors, and
personal factors. Based on the results, career preferences of the respondents were mainly
influenced by these three factors.
Economic Factors
Table 2.1 shows the level of influence of economic factors on the Senior High School
Career Preference of the respondents. As reflected by the data, the respondents agreed that their
career preferences were influenced by economic factors with a weighted mean of 3.98. It also
shows that the respondents consider in-demand jobs, job availability, and level of salary in
choosing a career for Senior High School with a mean of 4.04, 4.04 and 3.96 respectively. This
implies that economic factors do affect the Senior High School career preference of the Grade 11
students.
ECONOMIC FACTORS
MEAN
Statements
The SHS career that I chose is associated with college careers
which are considered to be in-demand.
4.04
The availability of jobs in the future influences my SHS career
preference or choice.
4.04
I chose my SHS career because it could already provide me a
job after I graduate in High school.
3.88
The SHS career that I chose is associated with high-paying
jobs/profession.
3.96
Grand Mean
3.98
Table 2.1. Distribution showing the effect of Economic Factors on Grade 11 students’ career
preference.
21
Social or Environmental Factors
The table shows that the respondents neither agreed nor disagreed (neutral) on the level
of influence of social or environmental factors with a weighted mean of 2.96. However, among
the Social or Environmental Factors, Grade 11 students agreed that Counselors and career
guidance programs (3.67) have influenced their Senior High School career preference or choice.
It can be noted that the Senior High School career preference of the Grade 11 students are least
influenced by social or environmental factors.
SOCIAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
MEAN
Statements
The SHS career of my friend/s influences my SHS career
preference.
2.56
The SHS career I chose is based on what my parents want me to
take or pursue.
2.71
My teachers have influenced my SHS career preference.
3.25
The profession of my parents is the basis of my SHS career
preference.
2.83
Counselors and career guidance programs have been a great
influence in my SHS career preference.
3.67
The distance between our home/residence and High Schools
affects my SHS career preference.
2.63
My SHS career preference is limited by the SHS tracks and
strands offered by schools in our area.
3.04
Grand Mean
2.96
Table 2.2. Distribution showing the effect of Social or Environmental Factors on Grade 11
students’ career preference.
22
Personal Factors
Table 2.3 reflects that the respondents agreed that personal factors affect their decision in
choosing a Senior High School career with a weighted mean of 3.86. The data also show that the
respondents strongly agreed that they choose their Senior High School career on their own freewill (4.29) and it will prepare them for college (4.25). They also agreed that they consider their
capabilities (4.17), their ideal job (4.13) and academic performance (3.50) in choosing a Senior
High School Career. However, they neither agreed nor disagreed on the influence of financial
support on their career preference (2.79). It means that Grade 11 students are also influenced by
personal factors in while choosing a Senior High School career.
PERSONAL FACTORS
MEAN
Statements
My SHS career preference is my personal choice.
4.29
I consider my strengths and weaknesses in choosing a SHS track
and strand/specialization.
4.17
My ideal job is the basis of my SHS career preference.
4.13
My academic performance greatly affects my SHS career
preference.
3.50
I believe that my SHS career preference will develop my skills
in preparation for college.
4.25
Lack of financial support affects my SHS career preference.
2.79
Grand Mean
3.86
Table 2.3. Distribution showing the effect of Personal Factors on Grade 11 students’ career
preference.
Comparison of Means among Factors
Among the three factors focused in this study, data revealed that economic factors (3.98)
such as availability of jobs and level of salary are the factors that greatly affect the Senior High
School career preference of Grade 11 students, followed by personal factors (3.86) such as
students’ capabilities and ideal or dream jobs. Meanwhile, social or environmental factors (2.96)
like influence of friends and families yield the lowest level of influence.
23
5
4
3.98
3.86
2.96
3
Economic Factors
Social or Environmental
Factors
2
Personal Factors
1
0
Affecting Factors
Figure 3.1. Graph showing the level of influence or effect of each affecting factor on the Senior
High School career preference of the respondents
Mean Difference on the Senior High School Career Preference of Grade 11
Students when Grouped According to Profile Variables
Table 4.1 shows the differences on the Senior High School career preference of Grade 11
students when they are grouped according to the following profile variables:
Age
There was no significant difference on the Senior High School career preference of Grade
11 students when grouped according to their age bracket. Regardless of age, the Senior High
School career preference of Grade 11 students remains the same.
Sex
No significant difference was observed on the Senior High School career preference of
Grade 11 students when they were grouped according to their sex type. This implies that sex type
of Grade 11 students will not change their career choice.
24
Monthly Family Income
There was no significant difference on the Senior High School career preference of Grade
11 students when grouped according monthly family income. It means that Grade 11 students’
career preference will remain the same regardless of their monthly family income. This is in
accordance with their response on the influence of financial support on their Senior High School
career preference which produced the lowest mean (2.79) among personal factors.
Fathers’ Occupation
The Senior High School career preference of Grade 11 students when grouped according
to their fathers’ occupation did not vary significantly. Regardless of their father’s occupation, the
Senior High School career preference of Grade 11 students remains the same.
Mothers’ Occupation
The Senior High School career preferences of Grade 11 students did not also vary
significantly when they are grouped according to their mothers’ occupation. It implies that their
mother’s occupation will not change their Senior High School career choice.
Fathers’ Highest Educational Attainment
There was no significant difference on the Senior High School career preference of Grade
11 students when grouped according to the highest educational attainment of their fathers. This
shows that the Senior High School career preference of Grade 11 students will remain the same
regardless of their father’s highest educational attainment.
Mothers’ Highest Educational Attainment
No significant difference was observed on the Senior High School career preference of
Grade 11 students when they were grouped according to their mothers’ highest educational
attainment. Despite of their mother’s highest educational attainment, the Senior High School
career preference of the Grade 11 students will remain the same.
25
Career to be pursued in College
There was a significant difference on the Senior High School career preference of Grade
11 students when grouped according to the careers they want to pursue in college. This shows
that Grade 11 students from different strands and specializations have different choice of career
for college.
Average Grade in Previous School Year
Significant difference was also observed on the Senior High School career preference of
Grade 11 students when grouped according to their average grade in previous school year. This
implies that the Senior High School career preference of Grade 11 students is dependent on their
average grade.
Table 4.1. Differences on Senior High School Career Preference when Grade 11 students are
grouped according to their profile variables.
PROFILE VARIABLES OF GRADE 11 STUDENTS
CAREER PREFERENCE
Mean
t-value
Sig. (2-tailed)
Age
At least 17 years old
22.28
16 years old
27.36
Male
27.56
Female
22.82
-1.264ns
0.206
-1.137ns
0.256
6.670ns
0.154
Sex
Monthly Family Income
ns
P4, 000 & below
31.50
P5, 000 - P9, 999
27.30
P10, 000 - P14, 999
16.50
P15, 000 - P19, 999
17.83
P20, 000 & above
21.50
– not significant
*– significant
**- highly significant
26
Cont’d
PROFILE VARIABLES OF GRADE 11 STUDENTS
Fathers’ Occupation
Aquaculture/Agriculture
CAREER PREFERENCE
Mean
t-value
Sig. (2-tailed)
31.61
Business and Finance/Commerce
Education
16.50
20.50
Transportation and Travel
14.50
Tourism and Hospitality
4.50
Community Services
20.50
Construction Services
28.50
Spiritual Vocation
OFW
20.50
22.10
None/Unemployed
22.10
Mothers’ Occupation
Health Science/Medicine
4.50
Aquaculture/Agriculture
33.83
Business Finance/Commerce
14.50
Education
Computers and Technology
23.17
44.50
Government Employee
12.50
OFW
28.50
Housekeeping
12.50
None/Unemployed
26.57
Fathers’ Highest Educational Attainment
Elementary Graduate
High School Undergraduate
29.73
31.17
High School Graduate
23.00
College Undergraduate
17.83
College Graduate
18.10
Mothers’ Highest Educational Attainment
Elementary Graduate
ns
32.94
High School Undergraduate
High School Graduate
28.50
23.70
College Undergraduate
32.50
College Graduate
17.30
– not significant
*– significant
12.798ns
0.172
12.961ns
0.113
6.301ns
0.178
8.755ns
0.068
**- highly significant
27
Cont’d
PROFILE VARIABLES OF GRADE 11
STUDENTS
CAREER PREFERENCE
Mean
t-value
Sig. (2-tailed)
Health Science/Medicine
4.50
27.101**
0.001
Engineering
16.50
Business Finance/Commerce
13.64
Education
24.50
Transportation and Travel
24.50
Tourism and Hospitality
20.50
Computers and Technology
8.50
Law Enforcement
20.50
Undecided
39.83
12.573**
0.006
Career to be Pursued in College
Average Grade in Previous School Year
ns
80 – 84
34.90
85 – 89
28.50
90 – 94
15.50
95 and above
12.50
– not significant
*– significant
**- highly significant
\
28
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary of the study, the significant findings and implications,
conclusions drawn from these findings, and the recommendations derived from the formulated
conclusions.
Summary
This study is a descriptive research using one-shot survey, which aimed to determine the
factors that affect the Senior High School career preference of Grade 11 students in Hipona
National High School, Hipona, Pontevedra, Capiz. Specifically, it sought to answer the following
questions: (1) What profile can be drawn from the respondents in terms of age, sex, monthly
family income, parents’ occupation and highest educational attainment, and the careers they want
to pursue in college?; (2) What is the academic performance of the respondents in School Year
2017-2018?; (3) What is the Senior High School Career Preference of Grade 11 Students?; (4)
What are the factors that affect the Senior High School career preference of the respondents in
terms of economic factors, social or environmental factors, personal factors and other factors?;
(5) Is there a significant difference on the Senior High School career preference of the Grade 11
students when grouped according to profile variables?
A validated self-constructed questionnaire was administered to the respondents to
determine the factors that affect their Senior High School career preference. The respondents of
the study were 48 Grade 11 students of Hipona National High School coming from different
track and strands/specializations.
Findings of the Study
The following are the significant findings of the study:
1.1. Most of the Grade 11 students were at least 17 years old, females, had a monthly
family income that ranges from P5, 999 to P9, 999, fathers that work in the field of
Aquaculture/Agriculture, unemployed mothers, parents that were high school Graduates.
29
Majority of students also chose to pursue the field of education in college and had an average
grade that ranges from 85 to 89.
2.1. On Economic Factors, Grade 11 students agreed that it did influence their Senior
High School career preference with a weighted mean of 3.98. They also agreed that in demand
jobs (4.04), job availability (4.04), and level of salary (3.96) were some of the economic factors
that influenced their Senior High School career preference.
2.2. For Social or Environmental Factors, Grade 11 students agreed that counselors and
guidance programs (3.67) have influenced their Senior High School career preference. However,
social and environmental factors yield an overall mean of 2.69, which means that Grade 11
student neither agreed nor disagreed on its influence on their Senior High School career
preference.
2.3. On Personal Factors, Grade 11 students also agreed that it did influence their Senior
High School career preference with an overall weighted mean of 3.86. This indicates that Grade
11 students chose their Senior High School career independently (4.29) and they think that it will
prepare them for college (4.25). They also agreed that their strengths and weaknesses (4.17),
ideal job (4.13), academic performance (3.50) were some of the personal factors they considered
in choosing a Senior High School career. However, they neither agreed nor disagreed on the
influence of financial support on their career decision (2.79).
3.1. Data revealed that among three factors focused in this study, economic factors such
as availability of jobs and level of salary yield the highest weighted mean (3.98), followed by
Personal Factors which yield (3.86). On the other hand, the factors that had the lowest weighted
mean were Social or Environmental factors (2.96).
4.1. When the Grade 11 students were grouped according to their profile variables, the
results revealed that there were significant differences on their Senior High School preference in
terms of the careers they want to pursue in college and their average grade in the previous school
year. Meanwhile, no significant differences were observed on other profile variables such as age,
sex, monthly family income, occupation and highest educational attainment of their parents.
5. In view of these findings, the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant
difference on the Senior High School career preference of Grade 11 when grouped according to
their profile variables is rejected.
30
Conclusions
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn:
1. The Senior High School career preference of Grade 11 students were primarily
affected by Economic and Personal Factors, while it is least affected by Social or Environmental
Factors.
2. However, even though it belongs to the least influential factor, Counseling and career
guidance programs should be continued or improved since it helps students choose a career that
suits with their capabilities and skills.
3. The Senior High School career preference of grade 11 students highly depends on the
availability of jobs in the future.
4. Grade 11 students choose a Senior High School career that they want and can prepare
them for college.
5. Counseling and Career guidance programs should include topics about in demand jobs
as it's one of the factors considered by students in choosing a Senior High School career.
Recommendations
Based on the derived conclusions of the study, the researchers arrived at the following
recommendations:
1. Students should be given enough time to choose a career as their future highly depends
on it.
2. Career guidance programs must be given attention as it gives students relevant
information on the right and appropriate careers to take.
3. Grade 11 students should be open to learn new things as it could provide them with
better opportunities when they go to college.
4. Parents and teachers should exert a bit more influence on the decisions of their
children/students as they have already experienced this period of a student's life.
31
Areas for Further Research
The following are the areas considered by the researchers for further study:
1. A similar study may be conducted involving larger sample size, using random
sampling procedures and parametric tests to solicit much better data.
2. Consider other factors that could affect the Senior High School career preference of
students.
3. A study may be conducted in other schools to gather data from students in different
contexts.
4. A pilot study may be done to ensure reliability of data.
32
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