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AP Things to Memorize at the Beginning

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AP Chemistry Things to Memorize at the Beginning
Element
Aluminum
Antimony
Argon
Arsenic
Barium
Beryllium
Bismuth
Boron
Bromine
Cadmium
Calcium
Carbon
Cesium
Chlorine
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Fluorine
Gold
Helium
Hydrogen
Iodine
Iron
Lead
Lithium
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Rubidium
Silicon
Silver
Sodium
Strontium
Sulfur
Tin
Zinc
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Symbol
Al
Sb
Ar
As
Ba
Be
Bi
B
Br
Cd
Ca
C
Cs
Cl
Cr
Co
Cu
F
Au
He
H
I
Fe
Pb
Li
Mg
Mn
Hg
Ni
N
O
P
K
Rb
Si
Ag
Na
Sr
S
Sn
Zn
Valence(s)
+3
+3, +5
0
-3, +3, +5
+2
+2
+3, +5
+3
-1, +1, +5
+2
+2
-4, +2, +4
+1
-1, +1, +3, +5, +7
+2, +3, +6
+2, +3
+1, +2
-1
+1, +3
0
-1, +1
-1, +1, +5, +7
+2, +3
+2, +4
+1
+2
+2, +3, +4, +7
+1, +2
+2, +3
-3, +3, +5
-2
-3, +3, +5
+1
+1
+4
+1
+1
+2
-2, +4, +6
+2, +4
+2
Polyatomic Ion (Radical)
Ammonium
Acetate
Arsenate
Arsenite
Bicarbonate
Borate
Carbonate
Hypochlorite
Chlorite
Chlorate
Perchlorate
Chromate
Cyanate
Cyanide
Dichromate
Phosphate
Phosphite
Hydrogen Phosphate
Hydrogen Phosphite
Dihydrogen Phosphate
Dihydrogen Phosphite
Ferricyanide
Ferrocyanide
Hydroxide
Nitrate
Nitrite
Oxalate
Peroxide
Permanganate
Silicate
Sulfate
Sulfite
Thiocyanate
Thiosulfate
Formula
Valence
NH4
+1
C2H3O2 (CH3COO)-1
AsO4
-3
AsO3
-3
HCO3
-1
BO3
-3
CO3
-2
ClO
-1
ClO2
-1
ClO3
-1
ClO4
-1
CrO4
-2
CNO
-1
CN
-1
Cr2O7
-2
PO4
-3
PO3
-3
HPO4
-2
HPO3
-2
H2PO4
-1
H2PO3
-1
Fe(CN)6
-3
Fe(CN)6
-4
OH
-1
NO3
-1
NO2
-1
C2O4
-2
O2
-2
MnO4
-1
SiO3
-2
SO4
-2
SO3
-2
CNS
-1
S2O3
-2
Solubility Summary
Compounds containing alkali metal cations and the ammonium ion are soluble.
Compounds containing Nitrate, Chlorate, Chlorite, and Acetate anions are soluble.
Chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble except those containing Ag+, Pb2+, or Hg2+.
Sulfates are soluble except those containing Pb2+, Hg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, or Ba2+.
Hydroxides are insoluble except compounds of the alkali metals and Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+.
All compounds containing PO43-, S2-, CO32-, CrO42-, and SO32- ions are insoluble except those that also
contain alkali metal cations or ammonium ion.
Common Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4, HClO3
Common Strong Bases: Group IA and Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+ hydroxides
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