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CambridgeEng,part-2-phonology-phonemic-symbols

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TKT: KAL Part 2 Phonology: phonemic symbols – trainer’s notes
Description
This activity introduces the phonemic symbols of English. Participants have a chance to review existing
knowledge before practising reading phonetic transcriptions of words, and then correcting and writing their
own. They discuss the usefulness of the phonemic symbols to the teacher. There is also a TKT:KAL sample
task.
Time required:
45 minutes
Materials
required:

Participant’s Worksheet 1 (one copy per participant)

Participant’s Worksheet 2 (one copy per participant)

Sample Task (one copy per participant)

Dictionaries (optional), one per pair of participants

to introduce and practise phonemic symbols

to introduce the phonemic chart and its layout

to develop participants’ ability to read and and transcribe words
phonetically
Aims:
Procedure
1. Ask everyone to come to the board and each write one phonemic symbol they know and a word
containing the sound. If any participants don’t know any phonemic symbols or aren’t sure, they don’t have
to write anything on the board.
2. Elicit from the group:
• the differences between sounds, letters of alphabet and morphemes (see Key below)
• what terms they know for describing sounds.
N.B. This stage is just to ascertain participants’ knowledge. Accept all answers at this stage. These points
will be dealt with during the session.
3. Point out that this session is about the phonemic script, which is tested in KAL through teaching-related
tasks. Candidates are not tested directly on their knowledge of phonemic script.
4. Give out Participant’s Worksheet 1. In pairs or small groups, participants should match the symbols on
the chart with the words in the box. The sound they should think about in each word is in bold. The first
one is done as an example. If participants are finding it difficult to do this, you could say the sound
represented by the symbols they don’t know, for them to match with the correct word.
5.
Write 3 or 4 words in phonemic script on the board, e.g. /iːzɪ/; /njuːz/; /klevə/ and ask participants to
read the words. Give out Participant’s Worksheet 2, on which some words have been transcribed
phonetically. Some of the transcriptions are wrong. Participants work in 2s or small groups to identify
© UCLES 2009. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom
use provided no charge is made. For further information see our Terms and Conditions
whether the phonetic transcriptions are right or wrong, and to correct any mistakes. Feed back with the
whole group (see Key below).
6. Participants now write, individually, any three words in handwriting. They swap their words with a partner,
who has to write their partner’s words using the phonemic chart. Monitor or provide dictionaries for
participants to check their answers.
7. Refer participants to Participant’s Worksheet 2 Exercise 2: Participants work individually to complete
the words, then compare their answers with a partner. Feed back as necessary (see Key below).
Optionally, extend the activity by asking participants to write similar clues to pass on to one another.
8. Round up with the following game:
• Each participant chooses one or two phonemic symbols
• Participants mingle and write one phonemic symbol on another’s back. The second participant must
say three words containing that sound
• Participants continue to mingle writing and saying the sounds.
If this game is not suitable for your group, it can be done in pairs with one participant writing the symbol
with their finger on the desk.
9. With the whole group, give out the Sample Task and discuss the following questions:

How might knowledge of phonemic symbols help the teacher in the classroom? (They provide
help in
•
using the phonemic chart
•
using a dictionary and helping students use them
•
highlighting problem sounds for students
•
becoming more aware of the sounds of English
•
designing worksheets on pronunciation.)
 Would it be useful or not to teach your learners these symbols? (Participants may have differing
views on this. Invite a range of opinions and arguments. TKT: KAL does not imply that these symbols
must be taught to students. Teachers should decide what is appropriate for their own students.)
10. Participants can complete the Sample Task in their own time (see Key below).
Additional information
•
Phonemic symbols might be tested in KAL in any of the teaching contexts outlined in Step 9; i.e. they
are tested in contexts that relate to teaching.
•
See the TKT: KAL Sample Paper questions 21–28 for an example task in which phonemic symbols
are used. http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/teaching-english/teaching-qualifications/tkt/testmodules/
© UCLES 2009. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom
use provided no charge is made. For further information see our Terms and Conditions
TKT: KAL Part 2 Phonology: phonemic symbols – answer keys
Key to Procedure steps
Step 2:
•
•
•
•
•
Sounds are made up of single units and each phonemic symbol represents one sound.
Letters of the alphabet are the written means of representing sounds. They may represent more
than one sound, or may be combined to represent a sound.
Morphemes contain several sounds, and are the smallest meaningful units of language. (For
more on morphemes, see the activity ‘TKT: KAL Part 1 Lexis: Word formation’.)
Sounds can be described in different ways, e.g. plosive, bilabial, consonant, vowel, etc
Let participants know that TKT:KAL uses the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet), and covers
US and UK pronunciations, as used in widely used course books. It does not expect candidates
to know the differences between US and UK pronunciations, however.
Key to Participant’s Worksheet 1
iː
ɪ
ʊ
uː
ɪə
eɪ
see
pit
put
too
near
day
e
ə
ɜː
ɔː
ʊə
ɔɪ
əʊ
wet
ago
her
saw
pure
boy
low
æ
ʌ
ɑː
ɒ
eə
aɪ
aʊ
cat
run
arm
hot
hair
my
how
p
b
t
d
tʃ
dʒ
k
g
pen
bee
ten
do
chin
general
key
go
f
v
Θ
ð
s
z
ʃ
ʒ
fat
vat
thin
that
sun
zip
ship
measure
m
n
ŋ
h
l
r
w
j
map
nose
hang
hat
led
red
wet
yet
The vowels are in the top left, diphthongs in the top right. Consonants are in the bottom three rows. The
two top rows of consonants are arranged with unvoiced and voiced pairs alongside one another.
© UCLES 2009. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom
use provided no charge is made. For further information see our Terms and Conditions
Key to Participant’s Worksheet 2
Exercise 1
1. table /teɪbl/ 
2. handbag /hæmbæg/ 
4. fortunately /fɔtʃənətlɪ/
5. jumping /dʒʌmpɪŋ/
3. dangerous
/deɪndʒərəs/
6. thanks /θæŋks/
7. university /junɪvɜsɪtɪ/ 
8. mother /mʌðə/
9. matched /mætʃt/
10. muddled /mʌdld/
11. careful /keəfl/ (UK)
12. shampoo /ʃæmpuː/ 
/kerfəl/ (US) 
13. pleasure /pleʒə/
14. because /bɪkɒz/ 
15. women /wɪmɪn/ 
16. harmful /hɑːmfl/ (UK)
17. mysterious
18. housewife /haʊswaɪf/
/hɑːrmfəl/ (US) 
/mɪstɪəriəs/ (UK)
/mɪstɪrɪəs/ (US) 
Exercise 2
1. /sætɪsfaɪ/ satisfy
2. / sʌmhaʊ/ somehow
3. / leɪjə/ layer
4. /bʌkɪt/ bucket
5. /naɪtaɪm/ nightime
6. / mægnɪfɪsənt/ magnificent
7. /klaɪmɪt/ climate
8. / fɪʃəmən/ fisherman
9. / mədʒɒrɪti/ majority
10. / bju:tɪfəl/ beautiful
Key to Sample Task
1C
2B
3C
4A
5B
6A
7C
8C
© UCLES 2009. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom
use provided no charge is made. For further information see our Terms and Conditions
TKT: KAL Part 2 Phonology: phonemic symbols – Participant’s Worksheet 1
Put the words below into the correct box in the phonemic chart, according to the sound they exemplify. The
first one is done for you.
iː
ɪ
ʊ
uː
ɪə
eɪ
e
ə
ɜː
ɔː
ʊə
ɔɪ
əʊ
æ
ʌ
ɑː
ɒ
eə
aɪ
aʊ
p
b
t
d
tʃ
dʒ
k
g
f
v
θ
ð
s
z
ʃ
ʒ
m
n
ŋ
h
l
r
w
j
see
pit
wet
cat
run
hot
put
ago
see
arm
saw
too
her
day
my
boy
low
how
near
hair
pure
bee
do
fat
go
hat
yet
key
led
map
nose
pen
red
sun
ten
vat
wet
zip
general
hang
that
thin
ship
measure
chin
What, if any, categories of sounds do the six rows of the chart correspond to?
© UCLES 2009. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom
use provided no charge is made. For further information see our Terms and Conditions
TKT: KAL Part 2 Phonology: phonemic symbols – Participant’s Worksheet 2
Exercise 1
Look at the transcriptions of these words. Tick the correct ones and correct the ones which are wrong.
1. table /teɪbl/
2. handbag /hæmbæg/
3. dangerous /deɪndʒərus/
4. fortunately /fɔtʊnətli/
5. jumping /dʒʌmpɪng/
6. thanks /θæŋs/
7. university /junɪvɜsɪtɪ/
8. mother /mɔðə/
9. matched /mættʃt/
10. muddled /mʌdlt/
11. careful /keəfl/ (UK)
12. shampoo /ʃæmpuː/
/kerfəl/ (US)
13. pleasure /pləzə/
16. harmful /hɑːmfl/ (UK)
/hɑːrmfəl/ (US)
14. because /bɪkɒz/
15. women /wɪmɪn/
17. mysterious
18. housewife /həʊsewaɪf/
/mɪstɪəriəs/ (UK)
/mɪstɪrɪəs/ (US)
Exercise 2
Look at these transcriptions. What word do they transcribe? Write in the missing symbol. Only one sound is
missing in each case.
1.
/sætɪsf -/
2. /s-mhaʊ/
3. /l-jə/
4. /bʌk-t/
5. /n-taɪm/
6. /m-gnɪfɪsənt/
7. /klaɪmɪ-/
8. /fɪ-əmən/
9. /mə-ɒrɪti/
10. /bju:tɪf-l/
© UCLES 2009. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom
use provided no charge is made. For further information see our Terms and Conditions
TKT: KAL Part 2 Phonology: phonemic symbols – Sample Task
A teacher is selecting words that would give her students practice of particular sounds they have difficulty
pronouncing.
For questions 1-8, choose the word listed A, B or C that would practise the sound(s) given.
1. /ɒ/
A. foot
B. thought
C. stopped
2. / i:/
A. pillar
B. feeling
C. fighter
3. /ð/
A. danger
B. mouth
C. breathing
4. /ʃ/
A. machine
B. surprised
C. revise
5. /j/
A. jungle
B. youthful
C. untidy
6. /sk/
A. excuse
B. secure
C. misguided
7. /ʒ/
A. ambitious
B. reasonable
C. confusion
8. / w/
A. outline
B. handwriting
C. whenever
© UCLES 2009. This material may be photocopied (without alteration) and distributed for classroom
use provided no charge is made. For further information see our Terms and Conditions
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