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BUREAUCRATIC ETHICS IN PUBLIC SERVICES CASE STUDY: OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL LAND AGENCY OF NORTH LUWU REGENCY

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 876-881. Article ID: IJMET_10_03_090
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
BUREAUCRATIC ETHICS IN PUBLIC
SERVICES CASE STUDY: OFFICE OF THE
NATIONAL LAND AGENCY OF NORTH LUWU
REGENCY
Delly Mustafa
UPRI Makassar Indonesia
ABSTRACT
This study aims to examine and analyze how the ethics of bureaucrats in public
service in the field of land, and detect factors that affect the ethics of public service
bureaucrats in the field of land, as well as find effective solutions for the apparatus in
enforcing the ethics of public services in accordance with the established moral
standards and standard rules. The type of research used is a qualitative approach, in
order to know and understand the ethics of bureaucrats by using indicators of equality,
equality, loyalty, and responsibility in public services at the Office of the Ministry of
Agrarian Affairs and the National Land Agency of North Luwu Regency. Research
results show that based on equality, equality, and loyalty and responsibility aspects as
an indicator in assessing bureaucrat ethics, the fact that ethics / morale of bureaucrats
in the public service in the land sector is still low. Facts on the ground prove that there
are still practices that are not commendable in providing services to citizens who need
land services. One of the causes of the low ethics of bureaucrats in the function of land
service is the moral quality of each personnel of the apparatus itself, in addition to the
welfare factor that has not been too supportive to meet the needs and welfare of
employees.
Keyword head: Ethics, Bureaucracy, Public Services, Land.
Cite this Article Delly Mustafa, Bureaucratic Ethics in Public Services Case Study:
Office of the National Land Agency of North Luwu Regency, International Journal of
Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 10(3), 2019, pp. 876-881.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
1. INTRODUCTION
In general, the level of public services in Indonesia is still low while the public service is not
new. There are several things that indicate the existence of important problems in the ethics of
the implementation of public services, first, the increasing indications of discrimination in
service delivery. This happened because of the strong political affiliation, ethnic and religious
networks, which greatly influenced the balance of service relations. Second, there is no certainty
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Delly Mustafa
of service costs and time. This uncertainty is often the cause of the emergence of corruption,
collusion and nepotism (KKN), because the service users tend to choose to pay the high fees to
the service providers to get certainty and quality of service. Third, the low level of community
satisfaction with public services. This is a logical consequence of service discrimination and
uncertainty[1], [2].
The bureaucracy is basically a servant, not a master. The problem is that this perception is
not embedded in the bureaucratic environment. As a result, there arises bureaucratic arrogance,
such as feeling as the party most needed by many people, or acting arbitrarily to the community.
The attitude shown by most of the bureaucratic apparatus made many people feel that they did
not get the services as expected, even the people often felt underestimated by the bureaucracy.
The ethical issues of bureaucrats in public services are quite complex, the variables are very
broad, the efforts to improve the bureaucracy as a public service, including the effort to instill
the ethics as the main value in public services, require a long time and are followed by the
willingness of the apparatus to change their attitudes and behavior towards more emphasis on
improving service to the community. The solution offered by Lewis and Catron (1996)., that
there are four things that must be used as the guidelines of a bureaucrat's ethical standard,
namely: First, equality, it is the same treatment for services provided. This is based on the type
of rational bureaucratic behavior that consistently provides quality services to all parties
regardless of political affiliation, social status, ethnicity, religion and so on. Second, equity, that
is, the equal treatment to the community is not enough, but it is also fair treatment. Third,
loyalty, is a loyalty given to the constitution, law, leadership, subordinates and co-workers.
Fourth, responsibility, that is, every government official must accept the responsibility for
everything he does and must avoid being told by the syndicate "I just carry out the orders from
superiors"
Especially in North Luwu District, the ethical issues of bureaucrats in land services are quite
alarming and require the remedial efforts, so as to minimize various complaints from the land
users. One example of a case that occurred in North Luwu District, where there was an
apparatus seemed to deliberately hamper the processing of a land certificate, and every time it
was confirmed about the status of the certificate management, the authorities tried to avoid and
even contact the owner of the certificate and openly said, how much to pay if the officer can
complete the certificate processing quickly. Of course in terms of the ethics of public services,
it is a "ulcer" in the practice of public service ethics. Although it must be admitted, in general
there have been many cases related to the ethics of bureaucrats in land services. This study aims
to examine and analyze how the ethics of bureaucrats in public service in the field of land, and
detect the various factors that affect to the ethics of public service bureaucrats, and also find the
effective solutions for the apparatus in enforcing the ethics of public services according to
established moral standards and standard rules.
2. METHOD
The type of research used is a qualitative approach that is to find out and describe the reality of
the events under study so as to facilitate the writer to obtain objective data in order to know and
understand the ethics of bureaucrats in public services at the Office of the Ministry of Agrarian
Affairs and National Land Agency of North Luwu Regency.
The location of this research is the Office of the Ministry of Agrarian Affairs and the
National Land Agency of North Luwu Regency
There are two sources of data collection, namely primary data, and secondary data. Data
analysis techniques that are widely used by researchers are interactive model of analysis with
the following steps: Data reduction, data presentation, and stage of drawing conclusions and
verification of data.
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Bureaucratic Ethics in Public Services Case Study: Office of the National Land Agency of North
Luwu Regency
3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Bureaucrat Ethics in Land Services
In this study the ethics of bureaucrats in the implementation of land services in North Mamuju
Regency are measured based on several aspects of equality, equity (fairness), loyalty and
responsibility[3].
3.2. Equality
Equality or balance is the same treatment for services provided. This is based on the type of
rational bureaucratic behavior that consistently provides quality services to all parties regardless
of political affiliation, social status, ethnicity, religion and so on.
Based on the results of interviews with several informants, it can be concluded that, judging
from the aspect of equality, the ethics of bureaucrats in land services in North Luwu Regency
in general are still not maximized, showing bureaucrat behavior that is equal or balanced in
treating service users. This is evidenced by the existence of discrimination which occurs in the
management of land services.
One of the residents, Mrs. HT, who is the researcher interviewed at the BPN Kab. North
Mamuju stated that, "there are also employees in this office who are picky in serving citizens
who come to take care of land documents, but there are also employees who are not like that,
about the balance in serving me, feeling back to the mentality of the employees. To be honest,
there are still many employees in this office who are not balanced in serving the people who
come, usually if rich people, or their acquaintances who come, must be served first. To protest,
it's also useless, so we just stay quiet ”(Interview, 20th December 2017)
3.3. Equity
Equity, that is equal treatment to the community is not enough, besides that is also fair
treatment. For a pluralistic society sometimes it requires fair treatment and equal treatment and
sometimes also requires fair treatment but not the same for certain people.
Based on the results of an interview with one of the residents in Mapadeceng Sub-district,
North Luwu Regency, Mr. DW stated that, "I have been waiting for almost two months to
complete my land deed, all the requirements are ready, but it hasn't been finished until today,
even though there are my neighbors who have only taken care of for 10 days, there is already
an exit, apparently the cousin who is the head of the office there, this is the way, meaning there
is an injustice for ordinary people like me . (Interview Results, December 20, 2017) "
3.4. Loyalty
Loyalty is given to the constitution, law, leadership, subordinates and co-workers. These types
of loyalty are related to one another, and there is no absolute loyalty given to a certain type of
loyalty that ignores the others.
From the results of the interviews, the researchers obtained quite positive results on the
level of loyalty of officials in the North Luwu Regency BPN office against the applicable laws
and regulations. Head of the Agrarian Ministry and North Luwu Regency BPN Office Ahmad
Ridha, said that: "In carrying out their duties, all apparatus are required to always uphold the
honor and dignity of the State apparatus in carrying out their functions as public servants. We
recognize that there are still apparatus that show a lack of loyalty to the law and constitution
", and even dare to take actions outside the rule of law, for that we clearly will impose sanctions
on officials who prove to be disloyal and violate bureaucratic ethics". (Interview December 20,
2017)
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3.5. Responsibility
Responsibility is a principle and the main thing in carrying out the duties as government
officials. Sometimes there are still employees or officers who seem to run away from
responsibility by stating that "I just carry out the orders from superiors".
In relation to the ethics of land service bureaucrats, such facts are still often found. Based
on the results of an interview with one of the residents who took care of the land certificate at
the North Luwu District BPN Office, the initials of the mother AH, stated that: “Initially I took
care of it through a notary, and it was almost two years since it was finished and the notary
was released so that now I myself took care of it, several times back and forth to the office until
now it was not finished yet, when it was confirmed at the employee the reason was still on the
leader's desk, just wait, ma'am, only that's the answer he gave. Disappointing and impressed
by throwing responsibility, he said, managing three months to four months but the fact is not
so. Try to think that my file entered on 19 September 2016 until now it's not finished yet ”.
(Interview results, December 20, 2017)
Based on the four aspects that are used as a good measure of whether or not the ethics of
bureaucrats in the public service in the field of land in North Luwu regency, the fact that the
ethics of land services is still far from the expectations of society. Although in terms of the
loyalty of the apparatus is considered to be good, but there are still apparatus that tend to deviate
from the bureaucrat's ideal ethics and expected by society. Of course this is inseparable from
the willingness and motivation of the apparatus to work responsibly and prioritize
professionalism.
3.2. Discussion
Collaboration is usually carried out between government organizations and non-government
organizations. Collaboration occurs because there is a dependency between one organization
and another organization to achieve a goal that is difficult to achieve independently [4].
Collaboration is articulated as a method of achieving short-term and long-term strategies, which
cannot be done by one entity, but must be done together [5]. The government cannot rely on its
own internal capacity. The lack of ability, lack of resources and networks, requires the
government to cooperate with various parties including the private sector, civil society, and
NGO's so that collaboration can be established in achieving program or policy goals. [6].
Related to the case of disaster management collaboration, Pangandaran District in fact does
not yet have an effective disaster management system at the local level as a form of protection
for citizens. Ideally, any scale of disaster requires the government's response to overcome it
immediately by using a collaborative approach, involving multi stakeholders which is believed
to be the best solution [7]. Studies related to the importance of collaboration in disaster
management have been carried out by researchers in various countries [5], [7]–[11].
In this study, researchers explored the causes of the ineffectiveness of collaboration in
disaster management in Pangandaran District. Although Law No. 24 of 2007 has been
implemented for 12 years, the fact is that RDMA at local level have not yet been formed.
Whereas this institution is considered to have a strong power to coordinate all stakeholders and
coordinate various operational activities in disaster management because it has hierarchical
relationships with similar bodies namely NDMA at the central level.
Unfortunately, to date disaster management in Pangandaran District depends on FDMA
which is a small part of the local government. the weak authority possessed by FDMA causes
distrust from stakeholders involved. Collaboration is complicated and difficult. Especially
when talking about the budget, FDMA only gets a budget that comes from the Regional Income
and Expenditure Budget of Pangandaran District, whose amount is not in accordance with the
needs of the program.
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Bureaucratic Ethics in Public Services Case Study: Office of the National Land Agency of North
Luwu Regency
Since there is no powerful institution at the district level, there is no commitment between
stakeholders involved in disaster management in Pangandaran District. Each stakeholder still
works by promoting the institution's ego. Stakeholders involved do not seem to respond to
collaboration goals well. This will inevitably lead to the ineffectiveness of the collaborative
process in disaster management in Pangandaran District.
In line with the opinion expressed by [6] that collaboration must be accompanied by strong
power because sometimes these stakeholders feel like small players in a large arena compared
to other collaborative partners. With strong power, trust and commitment in collaboration will
be built by itself.
To overcome this problem, political will from the central government and local
governments is needed to strengthen the institutional system by forming RDMA in
Pangandaran District. Political will is believed to be an important factor in establishing a
collaborative, integrated and sustainable disaster management system by developing strategies
and setting clear targets [12]. Political will is a finding in this study, which can be used as a
focus for more in-depth studies for further research.
4. CONCLUSION
Based on the results of the discussion, it can be concluded that From the aspect of equality,
equity, loyalty, and responsibility, the fact is that the ethics / morale of bureaucrats in the public
service in the land sector is still relatively low. The facts on the ground prove that there are still
many practices that are not commendable in providing services to citizens who need land
services. One of the causes of the low ethics of bureaucrats in the function of land service is the
moral quality of each personnel of the apparatus itself, in addition to the welfare factor that has
not been too supportive to meet the needs / welfare of employees, which affects the performance
of the apparatus itself. In carrying out the tasks of government, most of the apparatus at the
North Luwu District BPN Office have understood, lived up to and even practiced the principles
of the land service bureaucratic ethics, even so, there are still some who still do not understand
and do not apply the bureaucratic ethics.
By referring to the conclusions in this study, the researchers put forward the following
suggestions: first, Based on the fact that the morale of the government apparatus in the North
Luwu Regency BPN Office is lower, it is very important to carry out moral revitalization, which
must be started from the individual side of the government apparatus itself. This can be done
by strengthening character education to improve the moral quality of the apparatus ethics.
Secondly, need attention to improving employee welfare in order to increase the responsibilities
and performance of the apparatus, so that aspects of equality, equity, loyalty, and responsibility,
can be the foundation of the moral attitude of the apparatus and work professionalism in the
duties and functions of public services, especially land services.
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Delly Mustafa
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