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COGNITIVE MODELING EFFECT: ENHANCING STUDENT SELF DISCIPLINE THROUGH SELF INSTRUCTIONAL TRAINING

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 818–827, Article ID: IJMET_10_03_085
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
COGNITIVE MODELING EFFECT:
ENHANCING STUDENT SELF DISCIPLINE
THROUGH SELF INSTRUCTIONAL TRAINING
Agung Kesna Mahatmaharti
STKIP PGRI Jombang
Diah Puji Nali Brata
STKIP PGRI Jombang
Muh. Barid Nizarudin Wajdi
STAI Miftahul Ula Nganjuk
ABSTRACT
Self-discipline as one of the non-academic factors that contribute to determining
academic’s achievement. One of efforts to establish the student's self-discipline is
through group counselling. Counselling groups that are used Cognitive Modelling
Self-Instructional Training towards self-discipline students. This research used quasiexperiment design with Nonrandomized Pre-Test Post-Test Control Group Design
Experiment. The subjects of this study were 16 students of Grade VIII of State Junior
High School Ploso Jombang with low self-discipline then divided into two groups of
experimental group and control group. The experimental group was given Cognitive
Modelling with Self-Instructional Training, whereas for the control group was given
conventional method. The collected data used the Self Discipline Scale which has been
tested using the construct validity as well as the reliability test. Data were analyzed
through the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The results of study that there was an
effect of cognitive Modelling Self-Instructional Training towards student’s selfdiscipline at the experimental group was higher than in the control group. It was
indicated by an increase of self-discipline scale score before and after treatment. So
that the giving of the treatment used Cognitive Modelling Self-Instructional Training
effects on the increasing student’s self-discipline at junior high school.
Key words: Cognitive Modeling, Self Instructional Training, Self-Discipline.
Cite this Article: Agung Kesna Mahatmaharti, Diah Puji Nali Brata, Muh. Barid
Nizarudin Wajdi, Cognitive Modeling Effect: Enhancing Student Self Discipline
Through Self Instructional Training, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering
and Technology 10(3), 2019, pp. 818–827.
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Agung Kesna Mahatmaharti, Diah Puji Nali Brata, Muh. Barid Nizarudin Wajdi
1. INTRODUCTION
Mental revolution era brought many consequences for the people of Indonesia. Building a
qualified person requires effort, one of which is self-discipline. Self-discipline is one aspect of
personality that is seen as a positive and constructive force within the individual from an
attitude of obedience to the prevailing rules and devises a determination in order to realize the
desired and important thing for one's self [1]–[5]. Self-discipline is very substantial on the
achievement of academic achievement through the rejection of the delay and is a self-control
that forms the spiritual, emotional, and outward discipline [4], [6], [7]. Self-discipline is
formed by acknowledgement, willpower, hard work, perseverance, and tenacity and possesses
the characteristics of realistic traits, can design goals and be motivated and have more detailed
goals [4], [8], [9].
The dimension of self-discipline through the ability to delay gratification, self-control and
self-regulation shows the parts that can be used to measure self-discipline. Delaying
gratification is one's ability to delay temporary satisfaction that leads to goal attainment and
never surrenders shown to predict desired outcomes in the future through a process of selfcontrol and self-regulation[10], [11]. To function effectively, individuals must voluntarily
delay satisfaction and keep the direction of goal behaviour in order to obtain results later..
Self-regulating ability is needed in improving self-discipline. [12]. Self-regulation ability
is shown in the process of generating thought and active involvement in goal setting, selfmonitoring, self-governance and self-oriented self-assessment or positive motivation and selfconsistency through dynamic interaction.[13]–[15].
Efforts to help learners to develop optimally carried potential through guidance and
counselling services in schools through its programs. One component of guidance and
counselling program is responsive service. In accordance Permendikbud No. 111 of 2014, the
school counselor on duty and the duty to enforce the service that leads to basic services;
individualizing services and planning, responsive services, and system support services that
stimulate learners to actively discover information and change complex or elusive information
becomes understandable for later self-improvement through the guidance of task groups and
psychoeducation groups [16][17], [18] .
The provision of appropriate and popular counselling and counselling services in schools
is a group. Counsellors can provide such assistance with a counselling group or more
familiarly called group counselling is a special form of counselling service that is counselling
interviews between professional counsellors with multiple counsellors at once in a small
group[19]. Group counselling is especially appropriate for teenagers because in the
counselling process it can provide space for the counselee to express his feelings, as well as
solve the problem and share it with fellow group members[20]. The advantages of group
counselling lie in the dynamics of social interaction that can develop intensively in a group
atmosphere [21].
[22] defines cognitive modelling as a procedure in which a counsellor shows his client
what to do to himself when performing a task/job. Cognitive modelling is followed by Self
Instructional Training, which gives commands or advice to yourself that there are cognitive
strategies that can be used, such as self-verbalization or self-talk that has the purpose to
provide assistance so that learners are able to overcome the problems being faced. Learners
will get used to solve problems, find something useful for themselves and wrestle with ideas,
by constructing their own knowledge in their minds [16]. This is the basic view of
Constructivism. The view of constructivism suggests that reality is in one's mind. Man
constructs and interprets based on his experience. [23] explains that constructivism is an
approach that emphasizes that individuals will learn well if they actively construct knowledge
and understanding.
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Meichenbaum & Goodman [24] , states that one of the purposes of use of cognitive
modelling is to develop self-control in adolescent children, especially impulsive children.
With cognitive modelling exercises, children can see a set model of speech and behaviour that
can assist them in performing a task. In other words, cognitive modelling is very effective for
developing self-control and assertive ability in children or adolescents or it is said that this
strategy will be effectively done on children/adolescents
2. METHOD
The research is a quantitative research using quasi experimental design. The research design
used was Nonrandomized Pre-test Post-test Control and Experimental Group Design [25].
This study basically wanted to test the effect of treatment on the research subjects by
comparing the pre-test post-test results between groups. The tests were carried out in one
experimental group treated and compared with the control group, where both groups were in
the same condition. The following is an experimental design study drawing with the Pre-test
Pos-test Control and Experimental Group Design, as shown in table 1.
Figure 1 Research Design
Experimental
Control
Y1
Y3
X
Y2
Y4
Source : (Ary & Jacobs, n.d. )
Information:
Experiment : Group with Cognitive Modeling Self-Instructional Training
Controls
: Groups with conventional methods
Y1
: Pre test in the experimental group and control group
Y2
: Post test in the experimental group and control group
X
: Cognitive Modeling Treatment Self Instructional Training
Note
: To address other aspects of the ethical aspect, the control group is given an
effective group discussion outside of treatment.
The subjects of this study were students with low self-discipline. For that done through
The subjects of this study were students with low self-discipline. For that done through filling
the Self Discipline Scale (SDS) learners. Based on these results obtained the subject of
research with low self-discipline as the study population. Furthermore, to determine the
experimental group and the control group is done randomly through the lottery. The next
activity is the provision of treatment Cognitive Modeling Self Instructional Training in the
experimental group. The last activity of the treatment was post-test measurement using SelfDiscipline Scale (SDS) for both groups, both experimental and control groups.
The main characteristics of this research are: (1) research subjects include experimental
group and control group; (2) Research subjects were given Pre-test and Post-test, (3) subjects
were chosen based on the results of Self-Discipline Scale (SDD) score, which was low, then
each group determined by draw (4) Research subjects in the experimental group were given
treatment with Cognitive Self-Instructional Training Modeling, while the control group is not
given the same treatment but using conventional method that is effective group discussion
which usually done by counseling teacher/counselor in school. By filling the Self Discipline
Scale (SDS), there were 16 students with low self-discipline of 303 students, as shown in
Table 1.
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Tabel 1 Results of Self-Discipline Scale Filling (SDS)
No
1
2
Score
73 – 120
24 – 72
Total
Self Discipline Category
High
Low
Total Learners
287
16
303
Table 1 shows the results of Pre-test scores of learners belonging to the category of low
self-discipline who became the subject of the study. The selected subjects were then divided
into two groups randomly into the experimental group and the control group by lot (Creswell,
2010: 238).
2.1. Self-Discipline Scale (SDS)
The instrument of data collection in this research is Self Discipline Scale, where this
instrument developed to know the level of self-discipline learners, either experiment group or
control group. SDS is given before and after the intervention. SDS was developed by [4], [6]–
[9], [27] and the theory of each indicator, self regulation [13], self-control[28], and delay of
gratification[29]. All the theories are developed into a grid and are further interpreted in the
Self-Discipline Scale (SDS).
2.2. Research Procedures
This research procedure is a series of activities as a reference in completing a study. The
research procedure is like in the following figure. In accordance with Figure 2, the research
process is carried out in three stages: (1) the research subject selection stage, (2) the
intervention stage, and (3) the final stage ie post-test to the data analysis. Here is a detailed
description of the research stages.
Figure 2 Implementation Procedure
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1. Research Subject Selection Stage Activities undertaken at this stage is to measure the level
of self-discipline learners who then learners with low self-discipline set as research subjects.
Furthermore, the process of division of learners into the experimental group and the control
group by means of a lottery, each group of eight people.
2. Intervention Stage
This stage is the stage of implementation of the intervention. For the experimental group, the
Cognitive Modeling Self Instructional Training has conducted six meetings per 60 minutes
and in one week two meetings were held. Self Cognitive Cognitive Modeling Training
includes 7 core stages: (1) Treatment Rational); (2) Model of task and Self Guidance; (3)
Overt External Guidance; (4) Overt Self Guidance; (5) Fade Overt Self Guidance; (6) Covert
Self Guidance; (7) Homework and Follow up.
Control group according to figure 2 to meet ethical aspect, then given the conventional
method with effective group discussion because the method has been used by teachers of
counselling guidance/counsellor in school. The meeting was held six times, each meeting was
60 minutes and held 2 meetings in one week. The execution phase of each meeting includes
the opening, the core stage discussing the topic, and the cover. Topics, timing and discussion
material ineffective group discussions are conditioned to have similarities with the
experimental group.
3. Final Stage
Both the treatment group and the control group were evaluated by post-test, followed by data
analysis.
2.3. Testing Statistics
This study used a covariance analysis used as an analytical tool to test the effect of Cognitive
Self Instructional Training Modeling on low self-discipline of junior high school students.
Covariance analysis is an analysis that combines between comparative test (anava) and
correlation test (regression)[30]. This study compared and predicted simultaneously changes
in self-discipline scores on pre-test and post-test between experimental groups with Cognitive
Modeling Self-Instructional Training and control group interventions with conventional
methods. The covariance analysis in this study was done by fulfilling the prerequisite of
covariance analysis, ie no interaction between group with pre-test value or in other words pretest score of both equal groups.[26].
3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Test Result of Covariance Analysis
The results of hypothesis testing presented is the result of testing the effect of Cognitive Self
Instructional Training Modeling of self-discipline learners. In accordance with the research
design, the hypothesis is that there is a cognitive modelling effect of self-instructional training
on self-discipline learners. Hypothesis testing was performed using covariant statistical
analysis (Ankova). Prior to hypothesis testing, a correlation test between covariance (pre-test)
with the dependent variable (post-test) and interaction test between covariance (pre-test) and
independent variable (treatment group)
Covariance Correlation Test (Pre-Test) with Post-Test Variable
The following results show the correlation test between covariance (pre-test) with the
dependent variable (post-test). The basis of the test using the value of significance, ie if the
value of correlation significance is less than alpha 0.050 means there is a significant
correlation between pre-test and post-test, then the covariance analysis can proceed.
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Tabel 2 Correlation test
Pre-test
Post-test
N
8
8
Pearson Correlation
Sig (2-tailed)
0.509
0.044
Result of correlation test between covariance (pre-test) with dependent variable (post-test)
got correlation value 0,509 with significance value equal to 0,044 less than alpha 0,050 so
condition there is correlation between covariance (pre-test) with dependent variable (posttest). This means that the correlation shows that there is a causal relationship which is a strong
reason to use a pre-test score as a covariate (control variable)
Interaction Test between Covariance (Pre-Test) with Free Variable (Treatment Group)
The following test results of interaction between covariance (pre-test) with independent
variables (treatment group) Basic test using significance value, that is if the value of
correlation significance more than alpha 0.050 means there is a significant interaction
between pre-test and post-test, then Covariance analysis can proceed.
Table 3 Interaction Test
Group
Group
Pretest
Group*Pre-test
Dependent variable: post-test
Df
1
1
1
Mean
0.183
158.438
2.084
F
0.007
6.354
0.084
Sig
0.933
0.027
0.777
The result of interaction test between covariance (pre-test) with independent variable
(treatment group) obtained F value equal to 0,084 with significance value equal to 0,777
bigger than alpha 0,050 so there is no interaction between covariance (pre-test) with
independent variable (treatment group) . It shows that there is no correlation between the pretest score and the type of treatment to be administered.
3.2. Hypothesis testing
Here is presented the results of hypothesis testing using covariance analysis. The acceptance
or rejection of the hypothesis is based on the p-value or significance value (sig.) Compared
with the 5% alpha value (0.050). If p-value is greater than alpha, then null hypothesis (H0) is
accepted, and if p-value is less than alpha, then the research hypothesis (H1) is accepted. So
the results of the hypothesis can be described as follows.
H0
: There is no Cognitive Modeling effect of Self Instructional Training against selfdiscipline learners
H1
: There is a Cognitive Modeling effect of Self Instructional Training against selfdiscipline learners
Tabel 4 Anakova Test
Group
df
Group
1
Pretest
1
Dependent variable: post-test
Mean
569.155
236.576
F
24.557
10.207
Sig
0,000
0,007
%
65,4%
44,0%
Table 4 shows the results of Anakova testing that there are different post-test scores
between group A ie the experimental group who received the Cognitive Modeling Self
Instructional Training model and group B as a significant control group. The result obtained a
value of F count 24,557 and value of significance 0.000 less than alpha 0,050 so there is a
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significant difference. Thus there is the effect of Cognitive Self Instructional Training
Modeling on self-discipline learners. The ability of self-instructional model of Self
Instructional Training Cognitive method of self-discipline improvement in this research is
65.4 percent. So it can be concluded that the hypothesis of research (H1) that there is effect
Cognitive Self Instructional Training Modeling of self-discipline learners accepted. The
results of the calculation of covariance analysis are presented in the attachment.
The results of hypothesis testing showed that there is a Cognitive Modeling Self
Instructional Training to the discipline of the counselee has been proven empirically.
Appropriate it is evident that the counselee who received treatment Cognitive Modeling Self
Instructional Training proved to increase. These findings are in line with theories of cognitive
psychology, constructive theory, and social cognitive theory as well as prior supportive
research. Kendall & Braswell [31] in his research stated that Cognitive Modeling Self
Instructional Training effect effective on cognitive behaviour change in the form of selfcontrol in children aged 8-12 years. In the same year, opinion is reinforced by research
Kazdin & Mascitelli (1982), which reveals that using Cognitive Modeling Self Instructional
Training openly about social skills counselees change significantly after receiving treatment.
The effect of such treatment leads the client to feel skilled in social situations.
The results of the Meichenbaum & Goodman [24]study tested the reliability of Cognitive
Modeling Self Instructional Training method against a significant reduction in impulsive
behaviour. The study amounted to 15 subjects who each group as many as 7-8 people. The
reliability of Cognitive Modeling Self Instructional Training is supported by the opinion of
Bryant & Budd (1982) which states that the procedures in Cognitive Modeling Self
Instructional Training are designed to enhance individual self-control through verbal
statements that encourage, guide and defend non-verbal actions. Self Instructional Training as
a technique to change the behaviour of the use and utilize self-talk and self-verbalization to
explore the ability of self-built potential leads to grow and develop the discipline itself.
Counselee by way of writing negative thoughts with negative words that exist on him with
poured in a self-guidance sheet. Then the counselee is asked to turn those negative thoughts
into positive thought thoughts in positive sentences that begin with asking themselves. Then
answer the questions with the plan to be done, guide yourself, focus on positive plans and
expectations, evaluate and strengthen yourself. It is poured from the thought mind into writing
(in self-guidance). Next with a composed power delivered through talking to yourself. This is
the strength of the counselling process is the ability of counselees to govern themselves with
self-talk and self-verbalization.
The end result of the formation of self-discipline that the counselee can complete the task.
In the context of this research is the formation of self-discipline counselees in directing
themselves to change themselves in order to obtain the effective consequences of the
environment. So, in the end, the counselee can change his mind to be positive and at the same
time can direct his behaviour more effectively. The counselee is in the Formal Operation
period (age 11 years to adulthood). According to [33] on cognitive psychology, this stage is
characterized by abstract thinking ability, logical reasoning and drawing conclusions from
existing information. That period, a counselee has been able to think abstractly, make logical
reasoning and draw conclusions from various information available on the environment. So
that the connection with self-discipline, then the counselee can direct, organize and control
himself and make decisions regarding his attitude and behaviour based on information he
received[34].
In accordance with Slavin [16]on constructivist theory, counsellors who have attended
group counselling with Cognitive Modeling Self Instructional Training, individually
consciously discover and freely find and transform complex information, check new
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information on existing rules. Similarly, Santrock [23] explains that constructivism is an
approach that emphasizes study counselees well if they actively construct knowledge and
understanding. It is proved by being able to construct the knowledge and understanding that
poured in Homework in the form of self-reflection task at each end of core meeting in
Cognitive Modeling Self Instructional Training activities[35].
Based on the description of the effectiveness of Cognitive Modeling Self Instructional
Training on self-discipline mentioned above, it can be concluded that the method of Cognitive
Modeling Self Instructional Training is proven to effectively improve self-discipline
counselee through a cognitive approach that can construct the minds of learners through
aspects of the aspect of the delay of gratification, self-control, and self-regulation. Aspects of
self-discipline aspect is a potential counselee who will accompany the development of his
character. It is certainly done continuously as an internalization effort. Counselee with a
character who has high self-discipline appears in the manifestation of his behaviour. So that
behaviour will indirectly affect the achievement of academic achievement that will lead the
counselee to achieve success
4. CONCLUSIONS
The conclusion of this research is the effect of Cognitive Modeling Self Instructional Training
on the self-discipline of students in Junior High School. The effect is seen from the
improvement of Self-Discipline Scale score (SDS) learners before and after getting treatment
of Cognitive Modeling Self-Instructional Training. This is because the Cognitive Modeling
Self Instructional Training aims steps to increase students' personal awareness by turning
negative thoughts into positive thoughts. In addition, the Cognitive Modeling SelfInstructional Training is accompanied by the freedom to conduct self-guidance outside the
session and the learners are able to make self-reflection as expected. Based on the above
description, it is stated that Cognitive Modeling Self-Instructional Training is effective in
improving self-discipline of learners that will impact on the increase of academic achievement
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http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp
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